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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (5): 915-928.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03033


Characteristics of post-anthesis carbon and nitrogen accumulation and translocation in maize cultivars with different low nitrogen tolerance

WU Ya-Wei(), PU Wei, ZHAO Bo, WEI Gui, KONG Fan-Lei, YUAN Ji-Chao*()   

  1. College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University / Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest China, Ministry of Agriculture / Crop Ecophysiology and Cultivation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan, China
  • Received:2020-05-28 Accepted:2020-11-13 Online:2021-05-12 Published:2020-12-23
  • Contact: YUAN Ji-Chao E-mail:wyw6140@163.com;yuanjichao5@163.com
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program of China(2018YFD0301206);National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFD0301704);National Key Research and Development Program of China(2016YFD0300307);National Key Research and Development Program of China(2016YFD0300209)


To understand the suitable amount of nitrogen (N) application and the potential of increasing yield and improve efficiency for the maize cultivars with different low N tolerance. The experiment was setting from 2017 to 2019, the low-N tolerant cultivar ‘Zhenghong 311 (ZH311)’ and the low-N sensitive cultivar ‘Xianyu 508 (XY508)’ were selected and four N application rates (0 kg hm-2, 150 kg hm-2, 300 kg hm-2, and 450 kg hm-2) were set to investigate the effects of N level on carbon (C) and N accumulation and translocation in the later growth stage of different maize cultivars. The results showed that in low N environment, maize increased the C and N translocations of pre-silking to the grain to ensure the yield. Increasing the N fertilizer applications could improve the contribution rates of dry matter and carbohydrate to grain yield. Compared with XY508, ZH311 had higher accumulations of plant dry matter, N and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) of pre- and post-silking, and higher contribution rates of dry matter, N and accumulations to grain yield of post-silking, so it had higher grain yield. There was no significant difference between cultivars in the rate of dry matter, N and NSC translocation of pre-silking. In the face of low N stress, ZH 311 not only ensured the sufficient C and N translocations of pre-silking to the grain, but also maintained a higher capacity of assimilate accumulation to affect the yield formation.

Key words: low nitrogen tolerance, maize, dry matter, nitrogen, non-structural carbohydrate

Fig. 1

Meteorological information of whole growth stages (from March to July) in maize from 2017 to 2019"

Table 1

Foundation soil capacity of 0-20 cm soil layer before maize sowing date from 2017 to 2019"

Total N
(g kg-1)
Organic matter
(g kg-1)
Alkali-hydrolysable N
(mg kg-1)
Available P
(mg kg-1)
Available K
(mg kg-1)
2017 1.55 10.32 110.60 11.16 131.91 5.78
2018 1.51 11.13 108.53 15.43 105.27 5.90
2019 1.23 10.66 48.22 12.84 122.07 5.46

Table 2

Variance analysis of year, cultivar, and nitrogen application on grain yield, nitrogen and carbon translocation, and accumulation amount in maize"

Source of variation
年份 Year (Y) 630.15** 9.61** 14.86** 1913.22** 46.96** 18.99** 40.73**
品种 Cultivar (C) 111.32** 0.37 124.41** 502.68** 18.95** 127.54** 89.09**
氮肥 Nitrogen (N) 165.15** 107.02** 180.00** 27.18** 152.56** 174.83** 154.60**
Y×C 14.72** 57.38** 5.01* 908.82** 75.69** 0.44 25.00**
Y×N 17.30** 8.16** 13.82** 86.57** 46.11** 2.97* 11.42**
C×N 13.23** 10.82** 2.41* 5.97** 4.18* 20.81** 3.28*
Y×C×N 1.05 12.17** 4.14** 12.90** 19.08** 8.21** 2.14

Fig. 2

Effects of N level on grain yield and its components of maize with different low N tolerance ZH311: Zhenghong 311; XY508: Xianyu 508. (A): kernel per ear; (B): efficient ear numbers; (C): 100-kernel weight; (D): grain yield. Values followed by different lowercase letters in the same year and two cultivars indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 by LSD test."

Fig. 3

Effects of N level on dry matter accumulation of maize with different low N tolerance ZH311: Zhenghong 311; XY508: Xianyu 508. Values followed by lowercase letters in the same year and two cultivars indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 by LSD test."

Table 3

Effects of N level on dry matter translocation of maize with different low N tolerance after silking stage"

N treatment
(kg hm-2)
(×106 kg hm-2)
(×106 kg hm-2)
2017 ZH311 0 0.93 a 17.12 a 5.47 e 14.54 a 0.52 ab
150 0.94 a 14.61 ab 6.69 c 12.34 ab 0.52 ab
300 0.53 cd 6.92 c 8.53 a 5.86 c 0.50 bc
450 0.46 d 5.77 c 8.37 a 5.19 c 0.49 c
XY508 0 0.69 bc 17.09 a 4.39 f 13.69 a 0.52 ab
150 0.76 ab 14.19 ab 5.40 e 12.31 ab 0.51 ab
300 0.74 b 12.36 b 6.20 d 10.67 b 0.53 a
450 0.47 d 7.46 c 7.07 b 6.25 c 0.49 c
2018 ZH311 0 1.35 a 15.43 ab 6.97 c 16.23 a 0.47 ab
150 1.33 a 14.44 b 7.21 c 15.59 a 0.46 b
300 0.99 b 9.96 c 7.87 b 11.14 b 0.45 b
450 0.00 e 0.00 e 9.21 a 0.00 e 0.46 b
XY508 0 0.95 b 18.32 a 5.04 e 15.23 a 0.51 ab
150 0.52 c 9.76 c 6.11 d 7.87 bc 0.46 b
300 0.31 cd 5.62 d 6.95 c 4.25 cd 0.48 ab
450 0.25 d 4.06 d 7.43 bc 3.15 de 0.53 a
2019 ZH311 0 1.03 a 22.07 b 3.59 e 22.39 a 0.49 c
150 0.41 c 7.09 d 6.36 c 6.00 b 0.49 c
300 0.00 d 0.00 e 9.23 a 0.00 c 0.46 d
450 0.00 d 0.00 e 8.00 b 0.00 c 0.46 d
XY508 0 0.92 ab 28.26 a 3.66 e 21.64 a 0.56 b
150 1.03 a 22.69 b 7.38 b 16.76 a 0.58 ab
300 0.74 b 13.14 c 8.12 b 9.39 b 0.56 b
450 0.35 c 6.42 d 7.25 b 4.17 bc 0.58 a

Fig. 4

Effects of N level on non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) accumulation of maize with different low N tolerance ZH311: Zhenghong 311; XY508: Xianyu 508. Values followed in the same year and two cultivars are not significantly different at P < 0.05 by the LSD test."

Table 4

Effects of N level on non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) translocation of maize with different low N tolerance after silking stage"

N treatment
(kg hm-2)
(t hm-2)
(t hm-2)
2018 ZH311 0 0.24 a 75.70 b 4.55 d 5.01 b 0.97 b
150 0.11 cd 50.32 c 5.25 c 2.07 c 0.96 c
300 0.01 e 10.50 d 5.90 b 0.33 d 0.94 e
450 0.00 e 0.00 e 6.49 a 0.00 d 0.92 f
XY508 0 0.21 a 94.19 a 2.83 f 7.10 a 0.98 a
150 0.16 b 75.32 b 4.11 e 3.78 b 0.97 b
300 0.15 bc 70.64 b 4.42 d 4.22 b 0.97 b
450 0.10 d 46.94 c 5.24 c 1.81 c 0.95 d
2019 ZH311 0 0.17 a 44.03 c 2.55 d 6.40 b 0.89 b
150 0.08 c 18.34 e 4.00 c 2.04 cd 0.88 b
300 0.00 d 0.00 f 5.79 a 0.00 d 0.85 c
450 0.00 d 0.00 f 5.44 a 0.00 d 0.85 c
XY508 0 0.20 a 66.25 a 2.13 d 9.44 a 0.91 a
150 0.19 a 53.97 b 3.48 c 5.23 b 0.92 a
300 0.05 c 32.73 d 4.70 b 4.18 bc 0.91 a
450 0.01 d 3.94 f 5.78 a 0.25 d 0.91 a

Fig. 5

Effect of N level on N accumulation with different low N tolerance in maize ZH311: Zhenghong 311; XY508: Xianyu 508. Values followed by different lowercase letters in the same year and two cultivars indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 by LSD test."

Table 5

Effects of N level on N translocation of maize with different low N tolerance after silking"

N treatment
(kg hm-2)
(kg hm-2)
(kg hm-2)
CNRA (%)
2018 ZH311 0 80.14 a 67.63 a 33.01 c 70.85 a 0.70 a
150 74.92 b 63.92 b 37.91 c 66.42 a 0.69 ab
300 84.54 a 61.20 b 40.06 c 67.93 a 0.65 bc
450 52.60 c 44.81 d 70.23 a 43.09 c 0.60 de
XY508 0 42.06 d 54.03 c 32.75 c 56.92 b 0.64 c
150 34.18 e 45.43 d 55.73 b 38.10 cd 0.65 c
300 33.70 e 42.61 d 59.89 ab 36.24 d 0.63 cd
450 22.80 f 29.34 e 62.98 ab 27.86 e 0.57 e
2019 ZH311 0 19.23 bc 48.01 b 22.99 e 45.75 b 0.61 bc
150 17.39 c 35.49 c 63.40 c 21.65 d 0.63 abc
300 9.63 d 12.76 e 119.36 a 7.51 e 0.59 c
450 21.82 b 27.86 d 83.40 b 20.51 d 0.58 c
XY508 0 22.49 b 61.79 a 17.35 e 56.44 a 0.62 abc
150 20.73 bc 50.87 b 44.90 d 31.51 c 0.67 ab
300 20.09 bc 38.47 c 68.60 c 22.71 d 0.70 a
450 28.19 a 47.94 b 67.70 c 29.77 c 0.65 abc

Table 6

Relationship between grain yield and pre-silking translocation and post-silking accumulation of dry matter, nitrogen, and non-structural carbohydrates"

ZH 311 有效穗数ENN 0.89**

穗粒数 SPE 0.80** 0.64
百粒重100-KW 0.72* 0.64 0.18
花前干物质转运量 DRA -0.30 -0.41 0.21 -0.72*
花后干物质积累量 DAA 0.87** 0.89** 0.66 0.64 -0.55
花前氮素转运量 NRA 0.62 0.39 0.88** 0.04 0.44 0.31
花后氮素积累量 NAA 0.31 0.28 -0.22 0.82** -0.72* 0.36 -0.44
花前NSC转运量 NSCRA -0.49 -0.68* 0.01 -0.72* 0.83** -0.62 0.16 -0.49
花后NSC积累量 NSCAA 0.88** 0.92** 0.72* 0.54 -0.43 0.96** 0.45 0.14 -0.63
XY 508 有效穗数 ENN 0.63

穗粒数 SPE 0.51 -0.33
百粒重 100-KW 0.82** 0.85** 0.01
花前干物质转运量 DRA -0.78* -0.28 -0.68* -0.39
花后干物质积累量 DAA 0.97** 0.67 0.43 0.85** -0.79*
花前氮素转运量 NRA 0.25 0.68* -0.53 0.73* 0.30 0.26
花后氮素积累量 NAA 0.53 0.92** -0.42 0.90** -0.04 0.58 0.88**
花前NSC转运量 NSCRA -0.74* -0.78* -0.01 -0.80** 0.65 -0.81** -0.43 -0.69*
花后NSC积累量 NSCAA 0.91** 0.68* 0.34 0.83** -0.81** 0.98** 0.24 0.58 -0.86**
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