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    10 February 2010, Volume 36 Issue 2
      Establishment of Segregation Analysis of Mixed Inheritance Model with Four Major Genes plus Polygenes in Recombinant Inbred Lines Population
      WANG Jin-She,LI Hai-Wang,ZHAO Tuan-Jie,GAI Jun-Yi
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(2):  191-201.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00191
      Abstract ( 2236 )   PDF (369KB) ( 1209 )   Save
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      The segregation analysis of major genes plus polygenes is a statistical method for genetic analysis of quantitative traits. This method is particularly valuable for breeders to use their data accumulated from segregation populations to estimate the genetic system of target traits which is necessary for designing breeding strategies and also useful for validating the results of QTL mapping. The recombinant inbred line (RIL) population is a permanent population, which is suitable for genetic analyses of complex traits and can be used in replicated experiments. For RIL, the analytical procedures of three major genes plus polygenes mixed inheritance models have been established and widely used in crops. There is an increasing demand on the genetic model expanding from three major genes plus polygenes to four or more major genes plus polygenes. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to establish the analytical procedures of segregation analyses for four major genes plus polygenes mixed inheritance model in RIL population. Fifteen genetic models with four additive and/or epistatic major genes including those without and with polygenes were established. The genetic models and their distribution parameters were solved and estimated with maximum likelihood method and IECM algorithm. The best model was chosen based on Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) and a set of goodness of fit tests. The genetic parameters of the best model were estimated with the least square method. The established procedure was validated with a set of Monte Carlo simulation experiments. The results showed a relatively high accuracy and consistency for first order parameters between the simulated population and scheduled population. For demonstration of the usefulness of the established procedure, the data of palmitic acid content obtained from a RIL population NJRIKY (derived from Kefeng 1 × Nannong 1138-2) along with their P1 and P2 were analyzed. The results showed that the data fitted to Model I-1, i.e. four additive and epistasis major genes plus additive and epistatic polygenes mixed inheritance model.
      Establishment of DNA Fingerprint ID in Sugarcane Cultivars in Yunnan, China
      LIU Xin-Long,MA Li,CHEN Xue-Kuan,YING Xiong-Mei,CAI Qing,LIU Jia-Yong,WU Cai-Wen
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(2):  202-210.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00202
      Abstract ( 2518 )   PDF (618KB) ( 1901 )   Save
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      To well evaluate and use the cultivars, we should identify them scientifically and accurately by DNA molecular markers. In this paper, 27 cultivars developed by two breeding institutes in Yunnan province were analyzed with SSR marker. Eight pairs of core SSR primers selected from about 120 pairs of SSR primers offered by the International Sugarcane Microsatellite Consortium made up the core primers for DNA fingerprint. A total of 129 bands were acquired by PAGE with the core primers, 123 of which were polymorphic bands, accounting for percentage of polymorphic band (PPB) was 95.35%, and the mean value of polymorphism information content(PIC) reached 0.9445; the genetic similarity coefficient of the cultivars was 0.269–0.767. SMC1047HA and MSSCIR21 with high PIC value could be used to distinguish all cultivars, which were the most efficient single primers. The result of evaluating different primer combinations from eight core primers indicated that MSSCIR36/MSSCIR21, MSSCIR16/MSSCIR36, and MSSCIR36/SMC336BS were very efficient in identifying these Yunnan cultivars, and their similar coefficients were lower than those of other primer combinations. At the same time, three primer combinations were validated with ten main released cultivars. The result showed MSSCIR16/MSSCIR36 was the optimum primer combination, which can be used in constructing DNA fingerprint ID of cultivars. The DNA fingerprint ID was set up, including serial number of National Nursery of Sugarcane Germplasm Resources (NNSGR), country& region code, breeding institute, core primer name and SSR marker data, which not only consists of the important information of cultivars, but also helps researchers to identify cultivars efficiently. At the same time, it can provide reliable scientific evidence for the protection of intellectual property right for these cultivars.

      Identification and Molecular Mapping of Stripe Leaf Mutant st(t) in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
      SANG Xian-Chun,XU Fang-Fang,LING Ying-Hua,ZHAO Fang-Ming,YANG Zheng-Lin,
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(2):  211-216.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00211
      Abstract ( 2486 )   PDF (538KB) ( 1550 )   Save
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      A stripe leaf mutant temporarily designated as st(t) was discovered in the progeny of an excellent indica restorer line Jinhui10 seed by treatment of EMS (ethyl methane sulfonate) in Rice Research Institute of Southwest University. The st(t) mutant displayed the variegated leaves at three-leaf stage, the variegation developed the white irregular line stripe from elongating stage to the maturation. Compared with the wild type, the mutant decreased the chlorophyll content and increased the carotenoid content significantly. Cells structure was detected by Transmission Electron Microscopic (TEM), and the results indicated that there was no difference between the wild type and the green parts of the st(t), both of them could develop normal chloroplast; in the white parts of the st(t), cells developed abnormally contained irregular stromal lamellae, aberrant thylakoids and more osmiophilic granules. Genetic analysis suggested that the mutational characters were controlled by one nuclear recessive gene. Xinong1A was crossed with the st(t) and 1 500 mutants from the F2 population were used for gene mapping. Finally, St(t) gene was mapped between SSR marker RM19745 and RM19762 on the chromosome 6, the genetic distances were 0.07 cM and 0.27 cM respectively and the physical distance was 345 kb according to indica rice 9311. This result provides a foundation of map-based cloning of St(t) gene as well as its molecular marker-assisted breeding.

      Chlorophyll Content and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Kinetics Parameters of Flag Leaf and Their Gray Relational Grade with Yield in Wheat
      WANG Zheng-Hang1,WU Xian-Shan2,CHANG Xiao-Ping2,LI Run-Zhi1,JING Rui-Lian
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(2):  217-227.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00217
      Abstract ( 2716 )   PDF (296KB) ( 1769 )   Save
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      Drought stress impacts photosynthetic characteristics and results in a diminished output in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In the variety screening and breeding of wheat for high photosynthetic efficiency and drought resistance, indices for the assessment are of great importance. Although a few investigators have studied the physiological mechanism of photosynthesis on the basis of the chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics parameters with several wheat varieties, the relationships between these parameters and grain yield were not completely clear. The inheritance of chlorophyll related traits under different water conditions has not been reported, especially using genetic populations.To dissect the dynamics of photosynthetic characteristics and the heritabilities of chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics parameters in wheat, the authors have constructed a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) through crossing a highly drought-resistant variety, Hanxuan 10, and a high-yielding variety Lumai 14 grown in irrigated areas. In this study, 305 RILs of F8 generation were evaluated in well-watered and rainfed (drought stress) environments, and traits of chlorophyll content and 7 chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics parameters in flag leaves were measured at flowering and filling stages. Most of the mean values of traits showed substantial transgressive segregation in the RILs, and the variation coefficients ranged from 1.12% to 67.05% under both water regimes. All traits measurements except for Fo and Fo/Fm in the RILs and their parents were lower under rainfed condition than under the well-watered condition.The chlorophyll content andthe chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics parameters were more stable in Hanxuan 10 than in Lumai 14. Significantly positive correlations were observed in chlorophyll content between either water conditions or growth stages, and the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.499 (P < 0.01) to 0.717 (P < 0.01). However, correlations among the chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics parameters were complex, of which the largest correlation coefficients (more than 0.994) were observed between Fm and Fv and between Fo/Fm and Fv/Fm. Among all the traits tested, chlorophyll content had the highest heritability that was no less than 0.81 in both treatments. According to the primary estimates, most traits under rainfed condition were controlled by more genes than under well-watered condition. For instance, the maximum genes, totally 34, were detected for Fv/Fo at filling stage under rainfed condition; 33 genes were detected for Fv at filling stage under rainfed condition and for Fv/Fm and Fo/Fm at flowering stage under rainfed condition; 32 genes were found for Fm at filling stage under rainfed condition. The gray relational grade analysis indicated that Fv, Fm, and the area between curves of Fo and Fm at filling stage made important impacts on the grain yield. Therefore, they are considered as important indices for in the selection of drought tolerance and high photosynthetic efficiency in wheat.

      Transgenic Brassica napus Growing with Phytate as a Sole Phosphorus Source
      FANG Xiao-Ping,WANG Zhuan,CHEN Ru-Mei,LI Jun,FAN Yun-Liu,LUO Li-Xia,CHEN Kun-Ron
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(2):  228-232.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00228
      Abstract ( 2139 )   PDF (369KB) ( 1098 )   Save
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      Phosphorus (P) deficiency in soil is a major constraint in agricultural production worldwide. Most soils contain significant amounts of total soil P that occurs in insoluble inorganic and organic fractions, but lack available phosphorus. Phytic acid is the major storage form of organic phosphorus in soil. In this experiment, the phytase gene with the signal peptide sequence of extracellular secretion was introduced into Brassica napus cv. Zhongshuang 4 via Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404. Fifty six plants of transgenic Brassica napus were obtained and checked by PCR and phytase activity, most of them gave the positive results. The transformation efficiency was 0.16–9.2%. When grown in MS medium with phytic acid as a sole phosphorus source under sterile conditions, transgenic Brassica napus plants were able to obtain inorganic phosphate from phytic acid and grew normally, but the wild-type plants not. These results show that extracellular phytase secreted from plant roots is a significant factor in the utilization of phosphorus from phytate and indicate that there exists a prospect for using gene technology to improve the ability of plants to utilize accumulated forms of soil organic phosphorus.

      Analysis of Introgressed Segments in Near-Isogenic Lines Carrying Soybean Maturity Genes
      WEI Jin-Peng,E Wen-Di,LIU Zhang-Xiong,GUAN Rong-Xia,CHANG Ru-Zhen,QIU Li-Juan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(2):  233-241.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00233
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      It is very important to exploit the soybean maturity genes for developing varieties with high-yield and wide adaptability in both theory and practice. The objective of the study was to identify the size and position of introgressed segments associating with maturity genes, which provides information of fine mapping and cloning maturity genes. Twenty-three introgression lines (near isogenic lines, NILs) carrying four soybean maturity genes and their recurrent parent, were analyzed with 243 SSR markers, and 266 introgression segments were found, so each NIL containing 11.6 introgressed segments on average. The majority of 150 introgressed segments with E1, were located on chromosome 6, while 55, 49; 73 introgressed segments with E2, e3, E5on chromosomes 20, 12 and 20 respectively. The NILs with the same maturity gene trended to cluster together. The results showed that E1 was related to the interval of satt643–sat_312 on chromosome 6 and sat_095 on chromosome 11; both E2 and E5 loci associated with the interval of satt587–satt496 on chromosome 20; e3 was related to the interval of satt317–satt181 on chromosome 12. Therefore, E1 locus was validated with NILs, anda new markerrelated to E1 was detected, and E2, e3, E5 gene-related markers were identified.
      QTL Analysis for Dynamic Expression of Chlorophyll Content in Soybean (Glycine max L. Merri.)
      LI Guang-Jun,LI He-Nan,CHENG Li-Guo,ZHANG Yuan-Ming
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(2):  242-248.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00242
      Abstract ( 2627 )   PDF (345KB) ( 1359 )   Save
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      Chlorophyll is the most important photosynthetic pigment and closely related to soybean seed yield. However, there are still very few studies at different developmental stages under multiple environments. A genetic linkage map using 244 F2 plants derived from a soybean cross between Lishuizhongzihuang and Nannong 493-1 was constructed. F2:3 and F2:4 families were used to dissect the developmental behavior for chlorophyll content across different environments by quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping approach. Chlorophyll contentsfor the function leaf (in vivo) in the 244 F2:3 and F2:4 families from seedling to blooming stages at Jiangpu and/or Linyi experimental stations in 2007 and/or 2008 were measured by SPAD-502 chlorophyll instrument. Composite interval mapping (CIM) of Windows QTL Cartographer V2.5 was used for the QTL analysis. A total of 20 QTLs were detected at various developmental stages under two environments, but there were few common QTLs identified across different developmental stages, across years and across experimental stations, although there were 3 to 4 QTLs detected on each of the N, D1a, F and K linkage groups. In the two years above, one common QTL, qchl-D1a-1, located between markers sat_160 and satt147 on the linkage group D1a, was identified at Jiangpu experimental station. At the two experimental stations above, three common QTLs on the K, M and N linkage groups were mapped. These results provide a theoretical basis for genetic analysis of chlorophyll traits and marker-assisted breeding.
       Identification and Analysis of TaWRKY34 Gene Induced by Wheat Powdery Mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici)
      QIN Wei,ZHAO Guang-Yao,QU Zhi-Cai,ZHANG Li-Chao,DUAN Jia-Lei, LI Ai-LI,
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(2):  249-255.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00249
      Abstract ( 2485 )   PDF (1778KB) ( 1555 )   Save
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      WRKY transcription factors play important roles in plant defense signaling network. However, little is known about the biological roles of WRKY proteins in wheat(Triticum aestivum L.). The objectives of this study were to screen WRKY transcription factor genes conferring resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt) and disclose their function in wheat defense reaction. A WRKY transcription factor gene, TaWRKY34, was identified in response to Bgt by cDNA macroarray and semiquantitative RT-PCR from the wheat full-length cDNA libraries that were constructed in the authors’ earlier studies. This gene encodes 464 amino acid residues. TaWRKY34 was mapped onto short arms of chromosome 1B and 1D through blast search GrainGenes database and homemade full length cDNA library database of Aegilops tauschii. Further experiment indicated that TaWRKY34 also exists on chromosome 1AS through amplifying in Langdon D-genome disomic substitution lines and ChineseSpring nulli-tetrasomic lines with gene specific primers. Examining the subcellular localization of TaWARKY34, its coding region was fused to the 3’ end of green fluorescent protein (GFP). The GFP signal was detected only in the nucleus of onion epidermal cells to transiently express TaWRKY34-GFP, and the control-GFP protein distributed ubiquitously in both nuclei and cytoplasm. This suggests that TaWRKY34 is a nucleus-localized protein. Multiple sequence alignments of 57 WRKY domains from various species indicated that TaWRKY34 is closely related to WRKY transcription factors in response to pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtWRKY3, AtWRKY4 and AtWRKY33), Hordeum vulgare (HvWRKY42 and HvWRKY46), and Vitis vinifera (VvWRKY2) with identities ranging from 81.8% to 94.5%. Furthermore, TaWRKY34 has similar expression pattern with three sequences from A. thaliana, which was up-regulated at first and then down-regulated when inoculated with pathogens. The expression profiles of TaWRKY34 induced by powdery mildew fungus, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid were different between Pm16/Beijing 8377 near-isogenic lines (resistant to Bgt) and Beijing 837 (susceptible to Bgt). The results imply that TaWRKY34 is probably related to the resistance to powdery mildew in wheat.
      QTL Identification for Plant Height in a New Dwarf Germplasm of Maize
      SHI Yun-Su,YU Yong-Tao,SONG Yan-Chun,LIU Zhi-Zhai, LI Yu,WANG Tian-Yu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(2):  256-260.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00256
      Abstract ( 2422 )   PDF (320KB) ( 1368 )   Save
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      Dwarf germplasm is important for both breeding programs and basic researches in maize (Zea mays L.). Previously we found a naturally occurred dwarf mutant from the inbred “K36” and developed a new dwarf germplasm, “Ai 2003”, with good agronomical performance. Classical genetic analysis showed that this dwarfing character was controlled by a major single recessive nuclear gene. However, the character of plant height in the germplasm is also likely associated with other genetic loci. Therefore, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted to elucidate the genetic basis of plant height of this dwarf germplasm by using a segregating population consisting of 255 F2:3 lines derived from a cross between Ai 2003 and a normal inbred, Ji 257. A genetic linkage map was constructed by 114 polymorphism simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers covering the entire maize genome. The total map length was 2 852.1 cM, with an average distance of 27.4 cM between markers. Composite interval mapping (CIM) was used to identify the genes/QTLs controlled plant height based on the phenotypic characterization of 255 F2:3 families in Beijing and Hainan in 2006. The same three QTLs located on chromosomes 1 and 2 were identified under both environments, explaining 4.8% to 50.5% of the phenotypic variances, among which, one major QTL located in the region of bin 1.10–1.11 explained 50.5% and 37.5% of the phenotypic variation in Beijing and Hainan, respectively. A further sequences analysis revealed that the QTL is located in the 20–30 cM interval downstream of dwarf plant8 (d8), a well-known maize dwarf gene, implying that the locus is a gene newly discovered for controlling plant height in maize.
      Wheat Flour, Pan Bread, and Steamed Bread Qualities of Common Wheat Near-Isogenic Lines Differing in Puroindoline b Alleles
      MA Dong-Yun,ZHANG Yan,XIA Xian-Chun,Craig F. MORRIS,HE Zhong-Hu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(2):  261-266.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00261
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      The alleles at puroindoline b (Pinb) locus affect processing quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour. The effects of Pinb alleles have been studies using varieties with different genetic backgrounds, which may interfere in the results. In this study, seven near-isogenic lines (NILs) derived from Alpowa/Pinb allele donor parent//7* Alpowa were used to compare their qualities of flour, pan bread, and steamed bread. The NILs were grown in two environments in Xinjiang, China in 2008. The Pina-D1b/Pinb-D1a genotype possessed significantly higher values in grain hardness, protein content and starch damage than other genotypes, whereas the Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1d genotype had a better milling quality. For mixograph parameters, the Pina-D1b/Pinb-D1a genotype showed the highest peak value, peak width, and 8 min curve height, and the lowest values went to the Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1d genotype. The Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1d genotype had the lowest right of peak slope. For steamed bread quality, higher texture score was observed in the genotype Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1g. Genotypes Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1c and Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1d appeared in the best stress relaxation score and total score, followed by Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1e and Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1g. Genotype Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1f  had slightly superior total loaf score in comparison with other genotypes.
      Analysis of QTLs Associated with Photosynthesis Characteristics in Wheat Seedlings
      LIANG Yan,ZHANG Kun-Pu,ZHAO Liang,LIANG Xue,ZHANG Wen-Ting,SUN Xiao-Lin
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(2):  267-275.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00267
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      For the purpose of detecting QTLs associated with photosynthetic related traits, a set of 168 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from the cross between Huapei 3 and Yumai 57 was tested with 324 SSR markers covering the whole genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The net photosynthetic rate, gas changes, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence in leaves were investigated in both DH population and the parents at seedling stage. QTL analysis was carried out using QTLNetwork version 2.0 based on the mixed linear model. A total of 17 additive QTLs and 20 pairs of epistatic QTLs were detected for the photosynthetic related traits. All additive QTLs and 16 pairs of epistatic QTLs had interactions with environments. In agreement with the high correlations of phenotypes, several traits shared common QTL regions, and showed tight linkages of these QTLs or pleiotropisms. In the interval between Xwmc215 and Xgdw63 on chromosome 5D, three major additive QTLs for chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotinoid contents explained the phenotypic variations by 18.23%, 10.40%, and 27.25%, respectively, whose positive alleles were all originated from Huapei 3. These QTLs are favorable for marker-assisted selection. In addition, this region was near the QTLs for net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), and the ratio of Cito gas conductance (Cr). The QTL for Ci on chromosome 5B was a minor locus but explained relatively great phenotypic variation in the interactions between QTLs and environments.

      Difference of Amylopectin Structure among Various Rice Genotypes Differing in Grain Qualities and Its Relation to Starch Physicochemical Properties
      HE Xiao-Peng,ZHU Chang-Lan,LIU Ling-Long,WANG Fang,FU Jun-Ru,JIANG Ling
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(2):  276-284.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00276
      Abstract ( 2417 )   PDF (355KB) ( 2734 )   Save
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      As the main constituents of rice starch, rice amylopectin and its structure is one of major determinants for the development of starch granule structures and starch physicochemical properties. Understanding amylopectin chain length distribution properties in different rice varieties, and clarifying the correlations between the amylopectin structure and rice starch physicochemical properties, may provide theoretical basis for revealing the mechanism of rice quality development and guide rice quality improvement. In this study, the amylopectin structure of some rice varieties in China and some introduced rice varieties with different qualities were characterized by improved fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) method based on DNA sequencer. On the basis of eliminating the impact of amylose content (AC), the correlations between amylopectin structure and rice starch physical chemistry properties were analyzed. The results indicated that rice amylopectin structure in 50 varieties could be classified into I-type and II-type, according to the amylopectin chain ratio of åDP£11/åDP£24. The amylopectin chain ratio of the I-type amylopectin is less than 0.22, whereas the II-type is higher than 0.26. All the 15 japonica varieties’ amylopectin belonged to II-type. Among the 35 indica varieties, for amylopectin structure, 15 belonged to I-type and 20 belonged to II-type. The SDP6-11 and amylopectin chain ratio had very significantly negative correlations (P<0.01) with pasting temperature (PT) and relative crystallinity (RC). The åDP28-34 had very significantly negative correlations with PT, but did not have significantly correlations with RC. The åDP13-24 and åDP39-49 had very significantly positive correlations with PT and significantly positive correlations (P<0.05) with RC. In glutinous rice, low AC and high AC varieties, the correlations of SDP6-11, åDP28-34, amylopectin chain ratio with PT and RC were essentially consistent with these in all varieties. The correlations between åDP28-34 and PT in low AC, between åDP39-49 and PT in glutinous rice and high AC varieties, between åDP39-49 and RC in high AC varieties were consistent with these in all varieties. The proportion of chain amounts in amylopectin with different chain length ranges was not significantly correlated with GC and RVA profile properties. Therefore, the proportion of chain amounts in amylopectin with different chain length ranges has relation to rice starch PT and RC, but not close relation to GC and RVA profile characteristics in most cases. The short chain amounts of DP6-11 have a function of decreasing rice starch PT and RC, the medium chain amounts of DP13-24 have a function of increasing rice starch PT and RC, the relatively long chain amounts of DP 28-34 have a function of decreasing rice starch PT and the long chain amounts of DP 39-49 have a function of increasing rice starch PT and RC.

      Effects of Non-flooded Mulching Cultivation on the Yield and Quality of Rice
      ZHANG Zi-Chang,SUN Xiao-Lin,CHEN Ting-Ting,LIU Li-Jun,YANG Jian-Chang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(2):  285-295.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00276
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      Plastic film or straw mulching cultivation under non-flooded condition has been considered as a new water-saving technique in rice production. This study aimed to investigate the yield performance in terms of quality and quantity under such practices. Two super rice cultivars, Wujing 15 (a japonica cultivar) and Liangyoupeijiu (an indica hybrid cultivar) were used with four cultivation treatments from transplanting to maturity: traditional flooding as control (TF), no-flooded plastic film mulching (PM), non-flooded wheat straw mulching (SM), and no flooding and no mulching (NM). Compared with that under TF, grain yield showed some reduction under all the non-flooded cultivations but differed largely among the treatments. The reduction in yield was 38.7–46.5% under NM, 9.8–17.4% under PM, and 1.7–7.0% under SM. The difference in grain yield was significant between NM and TF or between PM and TF, and was not significant between SM and TF. SM significantly improved milling, appearance, and cooking qualities, whereas PM or NM decreased these qualities. SM also significantly increased the peak viscosity and breakdown value, and reduced setback value, and PM or NM had the opposite effect. The two cultivars showed similar trends in quality and quantity of rice yield. SM significantly increased root oxidation activity, leaf photosynthetic rate, and activities of key enzymes in sucrose-to-starch conversion in grains during the grain filling period, whereas PM and NM significantly reduced these parameters. The results indicate that SM could not only maintain a high grain yield, but also improve quality of rice. Increases in leaf photosynthetic rate, root activity, and activities of the key enzymes involved in the sucrose-starch metabolic pathway in grains under SM contributed to a higher grain yield and better quality of rice.

      Ecological Adaptability of Zhengdan 958 Hybrid in Northeast of China
      BAI Cai-Yun,LI Shao-Kun,ZHANG Hou-Bao,BAI Jun-Hua,XIE Rui-Zhi,MENG Lei
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(2):  296-302.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00296
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      Zhengdan 958 has been the leading maize (Zea mays L.) hybrid in resent years. In order to study its ecological adaptability and fully exert its potential productivity, we conducted a group of field experiments at 22 sites with the latitude ranged from N 40°07′ to N 48°08' and annul ACT from 2 916 to 4 380℃ in Northeast of China where spring maize were largely grown. The result showed that there were significantly negative correlation between ACT, precipitation and latitude in the post-silking stage (P<0.01).The hybrid grain yield showed a difference with growth process due to the variable thermal conditions. The grain yield, 1000-kernal weight, entire growth days obeyed a quadratic relationship (P<0.05), with the latitude ascending, the days of emergence were increased and the days from silking to physiological maturity or harvest were decreased. In addition, there was no any significant correlation between latitude and kernel number. The highest potential yield of Zhengdan 958 occurred in some areas where ACT was from 3 450–3 700℃. Zhengdan 958 may not be safely physiological matured where ACT was less than 3 200℃ and its kernel weight also decreased fast. The study also showed that meteor-ecological environment has a more significant effect on 1000-kernal weight than on kernel number of Zhengdan 958 under the varied northeastern weather conditions. Therefore, different 1000-kernel weight might result in different grain yields in this region. The thermal deficiency in post-silking stage is the leading limit factor in those regions with high latitude and lower temperature where maize yield is lower than that in other areas. A map of the north line for safetly planting the Zhengdan 958 in Northeast was made based on ACT.
      Response of Morphological, Physiological and Yield Characteristics of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) to Different Oxygen-Increasing Patterns in Rhizosphere
      ZHAO Feng,WANG Dan-Ying,XU Chun-Mei,ZHAGN Wei-Jian,LI Feng-Bo,MAO Hai-Jun
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(2):  303-312.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00303
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      A major constraint resulting from excess water on the surface of the ground for rice is anoxic stress to root system. Characteristics of roots allowing internal aeration may conflict with those for water or nutrient acquisition, thereby, morphological and physiological adjustments are inevitable, and possibly affect plant growth and the rhizosphere conditions. So far, alternate dry/wet irrigation, which can keep sufficient commutative space of gas between air and soil during rice growth period duration, is the main method to alleviate anoxic stress in rice rhizosphere for field cultivation. Besides, other oxygen-increasing patterns, such as aeration by peroxide application, are still at experimental stage. In order to monitor morphological and physiological responses, as well as yield characteristics of rice to the three oxygen-increasing patterns in rhizosphere, two-year field trials (2007-2008) were performed. Three oxygen-increasing patterns were adopted: application of urea peroxide (T1), application of calcium peroxide (T2), and alternate dry/wet irrigation (T3). Continuous submerging condition (no oxygen increased in rhizosphere) was taken as control (CK). The results showed that compared with the control (CK), the yield of Guodao 1 (indica) and Xiushui 09 (Japonica) under the treatments of T1, T2, and T3 were increased by 3.1% and 11.5%, 10.2% and 14.9%, and 18.9% and 16.4% in 2007, respectively; and by 11.56% and 6.57%, 8.48% and 9.20%, and 13.56% and 9.39% in 2008, respectively. In addition, the main effects of oxygen-increasing patterns on rice growth were as follows: (1) Porosity of root system was decreased, but the root volume and the activity of root system were increased. (2) Panicle number was increased due to the rapid development of tillers during tillering stage. (3) Chlorophyll content of leaves decreased more slowly after heading stage, but SOD and POD activities were higher, and MDA concentration was lower in leaves at harvest, so dry matter in panicle after heading that derived from leaf photosynthesis was much more than that accumulated in stem and sheath before heading. The three oxygen-increasing patterns had different effects on rice growth, but under hypoxic stress caused by the inadequate supply of oxygen under the submerged soil, oxygen-increasing patterns all could effectively alleviate the stress for root system and above-ground part of plant.
      Effects of RNA Interference of SBE3 Gene Expression on Starch Accumulation and Key Enzymes Activities Involved in Starch Synthesis in Transgenic Rice Grain
      WANG Jie-Ming,ZHANG Jian,JIANG Hai-Yang,ZHU Su-Wen,FAN Jun,CHENG Bei-Jiu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(2):  313-320.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00313
      Abstract ( 2202 )   PDF (448KB) ( 1497 )   Save
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      Rice cultivar “Zhonghua 11” (control) and its transgenic line were used as the experimental materials. The expression level of SBE3 gene, some related key enzymes activities, and the contents of amylose and amylopectin in different developmental stages of rice grain were measured. Results showed that the SBE3 gene expression level and the SBE activity were distinctly reduced by RNA interference (RNAi), but a little difference was observed between the two transgenic lines. The peak values of SBE activity reached three days earlier in transgenic rice than in non-transgenic control. RNAi of the SBE3 gene expression level also obviously reduced the enzyme activities of ADPG-PPase, SSS and DBE during different grain developmental stages, especially, the peak values of activities ofADPG-PPaseandSSS decreased to the largest extent. In addition, the content of amylose was significantly higher in different developmental stages in transgenic rice grain than that in the control, while thousand-grain weight was significantly reduced in mature grain, the general trend was that the higher the amylose content, the smaller the grain weight.
      Absorption, Distribution, and Translocation of Nitrogen at Growth Stages in Oilseed Rape
      ZHANG Zhen-Hua,SONG Hai-Xing,LIU Qiang,RONG Xiang-Min,XIE Gui-Xian,
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(2):  321-326.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00321
      Abstract ( 1892 )   PDF (215KB) ( 1526 )   Save
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      The differences of concentration and distribution of nitrogen in crop depend on organs and growth stages, and nitrogen redistribution in different organs will be occurred at different stages; these differences are related to the transfer of growth center. Consequently, the high crop yield depends not only on the high amount of nitrogen absorption, but also on the high efficiency of nitrogen redistribution. The objective of this study was to reveal the law of nitrogen absorption, distribution, and translocation in oilseed rape at different growth stages using two winter oilseed rape cultivars with the 15N labeling method in sand culture under Hoagland complete nutrient solution conditions. The results (average value from the two cultivars) indicated that 83.5% of nitrogen absorbed at the seedling stage, and 67.3% of nitrogen absorbed at the stem elongation stage, were distributed to leaves; 79.1% of the nitrogen absorbed at flowering stage was contained in leaves and stems, with 42.8% of it in the leaves. However, 42% of the nitrogen absorbed at siliquing stage was distributed to siliquae which is just the organ directly distributed the highest proportion of nitrogen absorbed at this stage. The nitrogen absorbed at four growth stages [seedling, stem elongation, flowering, and siliquing] translocated from the vegetative to the reproductive organs at 34.4%, 44.3%, 41.2%, and 31.7%, i.e. 203.2, 325.8, 218.0, and 82.0 mg plant-1, respectively. The translocated nitrogen from vegetative organs to the total nitrogen in seed accounted for 65.1%; among with 25.8% absorbed at the stem elongation stage, 16.9% absorbed at flowering stage, 15.9% absorbed at seedling stage, and 6.4% absorbed at siliquing stage, respectively. The proportion of nitrogen lost, after being absorbed at the four growth stages, was 24.0%, 10.5%, 11.7%, and 7.3 %, i.e. 141.6, 79.2, 43.2, and 16.2 mg plant-1, respectively. To sum up, nitrogen absorbed by roots at the earlier growth stages in oilseed rape was mainly translocated to leaves first, and then to the reproductive organ at the later growth stages.

      Effect of Inorganic Nitrogen Forms on Growth and Kinetics of Ammonium and Nitrate Uptake in Camellia sinensis L.
      DU Xu-Hua,PENG Fang-Ren
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(2):  327-334.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00327
      Abstract ( 1836 )   PDF (341KB) ( 1413 )   Save
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      The ammonium and nitrate nitrogen are the main inorganic nitrogen in crop cultivation, the rational application of chemical N fertilizer and improvement of N use efficiency in tea plant are important for tea cultivation. There was little research on the relationship between inorganic nitrogen form and root absorption properties of perennial woody plants. In this study, four tea plant cultivars (Wuniuzao, Longjing 43, Yingshuang, and Zhenong 139) were selected for a pot experiment, and the influences of different N fertilizers with different ratio of NO3--N : NH4+-N on height growth and girth growth of tea were studied. In order to explore the absorption mechanism of different inorganic N forms, Michaelis-Menten equations of different N forms were established and compared. The results showed that the chemical nitrogen form of the fertilizer had a very significant effect on the height growth of the tea, but no significant effect on girth growth. The tea height significantly increased, and the increment amount reached 15.45 cm per year at 5:5 of NO3--N : NH4+-N ratio, while at the pure NH4+-N treatment, the increment amount was only 7.03. Compared with other tea cultivars, the increasing amount in height of Wuniuzao was the most, and in girth of Longjing 43 was the least. The maximum uptake rate (Vmax) for nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) absorption decreased when the proportion of ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) increased. The affinity to NO3--N was enhanced gradually, but weakened when the proportion of NH4+-N was over 50%. The Vmax for NH4+-N absorption increased quickly until the proportion of NH4+-N was over 50%, and then decreased slowly. The affinity to NH4+-N weakened slowly until the NH4+-N proportion was over 50%, and quickly when the ammonium proportion was too high. When the NO3-: NH4+ was 5:5, the Vmax values for NO3-Nand NH4+-N were 0.24–0.35 and 0.19–0.30 mmol FW g-1 d-1, respectively, and the Km values were 0.65–0.74 and 0.63–0.80 mmol L-1, respectively, indicating that the nitrogen absorbing status was better than that of other treatments. In the pot experiment, nitrogen forms had a great effect on the nitrogen absorption kinetics, indicating the tea tree had an adaptation mechanism to the change of N fertilizer.
      Effects of Different Preceding Crops on Growth, Yield and Quality of Flue- Cured Tobacco Plant
      PENG Yun,ZHAO Zheng-Xiong,LI Zhong-Huan,DONG Yan,CHEN Rong-Ping,WANG Guang-Lin
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(2):  335-340.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00327
      Abstract ( 1662 )   PDF (236KB) ( 1184 )   Save
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      Preceding crops, depending on its type, has been commonly thought having positive or negative effect on subsequent plant growth, yield and even quality, but which type is favorable for next crops is worthy of investigating in tobacco production. Two field experiments were conducted with preceding crops of rape, wheat, barley, green manure and fallow in two different climatic sites, Shilin and Xundian in Yunnan province, respectively. The results showed that tobacco plants’ growth, maturity, yield, economic value and smoking quality were significantly affected by the preceding crops. In both sites, tobacco with preceding crop of wheat grew rapidly at the early growth stage and matured earlier at the later stage, but it grew slowly at the early stage, vigorously at the late stage, and delayed in maturity in the field with preceding crop of green manure. The yield for leaf was the highest at two sites where the preceding crops were green manure and fallow. The economic value was the highest when the preceding crops were barley, green manure or rape in Shilin, and barley, green manure or wheat in Xundian. For smoking quality, it was better to plant tobacco following rape or wheat in Shilin, while following wheat or green manure in Xundian. In general, rape is the optimal preceding crop for tobacco in Shilin where the climate during tobacco growth is relatively hot, while wheat or green manure is the better one in Xundian with relatively low temperature during the field growth stage.

      Molecular Cloning of Peanut Resveratrol Synthetic Enzyme 1(PNRS1) and its Expression in Prokaryote
      HAN Jing-Jing,LIU Wei,BI Yu-Ping
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(2):  341-346.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00341
      Abstract ( 1908 )   PDF (529KB) ( 1201 )   Save
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      Resveratrol synthetic enzyme (RS) is a key and necessary enzyme that plays important role in resveratrol synthesis pathway. To uncover and characterize the function of the RS in plant development process, we isolated a RS gene PNRS1 (FM955393) by RT-PCR using total RNA of peanut seed as template, and the gene PNRS1 was expressed in E. coli prokaryote for further analysis. The results showed that the PNRS1 had a 1 170 bp open reading frame encoding 389 amino acid polypeptide, and exhibiting high similarities with other members of RS genes family. Expression pattern analysis indicated that the PNRS1 was specially expressed in peanut root, and could be induced by UV-B treatment. The recombinant PNRS1 protein product with the molecular weight about 46 kD could also be detected in E. coli protein expression system. These results suggested that the PNRS1 was a mumber of RS family with peculiar expression patterns compared with other ones. As protein is the functional executor of a gene, the protein product of PNRS1 finally will take effect in the later processes of plant development, and shed light on the stress-resistant breeding and cultivation.
      Leaf Senescence and Reactive Oxygen Metabolism in Different Adzuki Bean Cultivars (Lines)
      SONG Hui,FENG Bai-Li*,GAO Xiao-Li,GAO Jin-Feng,WANG Peng-Ke,CHAI Yan,ZHANG Pan-P
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(2):  347-353.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00347
      Abstract ( 1835 )   PDF (223KB) ( 1065 )   Save
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      To examine the relation of leaf senescence and its reactive oxygen metabolites from different nodes of various adzuki bean cultivars, to explore the aging mechanisms of adzuki bean leaf, to find out the intrinsic yield-forming mechanisms and to provide a theoretical basis for high-yield breeding and production of adzuki beans. We conducted a field experiment, two high-yielding cultivars, 2000-75 and Jihong 9218, and two low-yielding cultivars, Hongbao 1 and Wanxuan 1, all adopted in the summer planting ecological region of China, were grown in 2008 and their leaf physiological indices, such as chlorophyll content, soluble-protein content, SOD, CAT and POD activities and MDA accumulations, were measured from flowering to ripening stages. The results showed that after flowering of the cultivars, their functional leaves aged gradually from bottom nodes to top nodes, and showed decreased chlorophyll and soluble-protein contents, decreased SOD and CAT activities and increased POD activities and MDA accumulations in the proceed of senescence, for which there were significant differences among cultivars. Compared with the low-yielding varieties, the leaves of the high-yielding cultivars aged slower, showing relatively higher contents of chlorophyll and soluble-protein, higher activities of SOD and CAT at the late growth stage, and thus resulting significantly higher grain yields. The overall data indicated that yield is positively correlated with leaf chlorophyll and soluble-protein contents, as well as SOD and CAT activities and negatively associated with POD activities and MDA accumulations at the late growth stage. Therefore, effective inhibition of leaf senescence or prolonging the functional period of leaves at the late growing stage plays an important role in raising yield.
      The Response of Indica Hybrid Rice Released at Different Periods to Nitrogen Application Level
      WANG Dan-Ying,XU Chun-Mei,YUAN Jiang,ZHAO Feng,LIAO Xi-Yuan,ZHANG Xiu-Fu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(2):  354-360.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00354
      Abstract ( 1598 )   PDF (363KB) ( 1150 )   Save
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      Nitrogen is one of the most important macro elements; nitrogen use efficiency is affected by variety, nitrogen application level, application method and water management. In this paper, 16 three-line indica hybrid combinations released during 1976–2006 were widely planted in hybrid rice growing region with three nitrogen application levels in Fuyang, Zhejiang province. Yield and its components, indexes of rice N accumulation and translocation, and N use efficiency were analyzed. The results were as follows: (1) the former (released before 1985) and the middle (released between 1983 and 1993) combinations were more sensitive to nitrogen than the latter varieties (released after 1993), the yield of the former combination increased largely when 135 kg ha-1 nitrogen was applied, while the yield of the latter combination increased significantly till 255 kg ha-1 nitrogen was applied. (2) Nitrogen application increased the amount of N accumulation in plant. When nitrogen was applied at 135 kg ha-1, the increase of N content in stem, leaf and panicle is close to each other between combinations at different periods; when nitrogen was applied at 255 kg ha-1, N accumulation amount increased largely before flowering in the former combinations, while after flowering in the latter combinations. Nitrogen application did not affect the translocation rate in the former combinations, but dropped it largely in the latter combinations when nitrogen was applied from 135 kg ha-1 to 255 kg ha-1. (3) Nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE), partial factor productivity of applied N (PFP), nitrogen recovery efficiency (NRE) and physiological efficiency (NPE) decreased in the former combinations, when nitrogen was applied from 135 kg ha-1 to 255 kg ha-1, while NAE and PFP increased, NPE changed little in the latter combinations. (4) Correlation analysis showed AE, PFP positively corrected with plant nitrogen accumulation content, grain yield and biomass at P<0.01, only NPE positively correlated with NAE at P<0.05 at 135 kg ha-1 nitrogen application level, while both NPE and NRE positively correlated with NAE at P<0.05 at 255 kg ha-1 nitrogen application level.
      Analysis of Junction Sequence in the Transgenic Maize MON8817 and the Methods of Qualitative PCR Detction
      YUAN Lei,SUN Hong-Wei,ZHAO Lei,YANG Chong-Liang,SHANG You-Fen,LU Xing-Bo
      Acta Agron Sin. 2010, 36(2):  361-364.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.00361
      Abstract ( 1804 )   PDF (383KB) ( 1897 )   Save
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      The experiment was conducted to investigate the integration site of transgene in maize MON88017 and to establish event specific methods for qualitative detection of MON88017 based on the left border junction fragment, which was isolated with the amended GenomeWalker and Nested-PCR methods. Sequence alignment between the T-DNA sequence and isolated junction fragments showed a 504 bp junction fragment of MON88017 including 336 bp of T-DNA sequence and 168 bp of MON88017 genome DNA. MON88017 event-specific qualitative PCR method was established with the primers (MON88017-1F/R) targeting the junction regions to produce a 446 bp product. The limit of detection for qualitative PCR assay was 0.1%. The method developed in this work is highly specific, sensitive and suitable for MON88017 sample detection.

the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
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E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
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