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Table of Content

    12 November 2019, Volume 45 Issue 11
    • CROP GENETICS & BREEDING·GERMPLASM RESOURCES·MOLECULAR GENETICS
      Transcription factor gene TaNAC67 involved in regulation spike length and spikelet number per spike in common wheat
      ZHANG Hong-Juan,LI Yu-Ying,MIAO Li-Li,WANG Jing-Yi,LI Chao-Nan,YANG De-Long,MAO Xin-Guo,JING Rui-Lian
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(11):  1615-1627.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.91009
      Abstract ( 511 )   HTML ( 72 )   PDF (2931KB) ( 324 )   Save
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      NAC transcription factor is a plant specific superfamily and plays an essential role in regulating plant growth and development and stress response. Our previous research indicated that TaNAC67 involved in the response to various environmental stimuli and its overexpression resulted in enhanced tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. To probe its roles in plant growth and development, a panel consisted of 36 wheat accessions with high diversity we need for polymorphism assays. The genomic sequences, covering the promoter region and gene coding region, were obtained by Sanger sequencing, and named as TaNAC67-6A, TaNAC67-6B, and TaNAC67-6D according to their genomic origins. For TaNAC67-6A, a SNP (A/G) at -1516 nt and a 126 bp InDel between -873 and -748 nt were identified in the promoter region, and one CAPS and one allele specific marker were developed, respectively. For TaNAC67-6B, two SNPs, at -2014 and -1916 nt were detected, and two dCAPS markers were developed accordingly. For TaNAC67-6D, two SNPs, one at -1795 nt in the promoter region, and the other at 357 nt in the gene coding region were identified, and one CAPS and one dCAPS marker were designed, respectively. To probe the relationship of molecular markers and potential agronomic traits, we introduced a population (PA) with 282 common wheat accessions to perform association assay. No association was identified between markers from TaNAC67-6A and 6B and agronomic traits. However, strong associations were identified between SNP-D-1and spike length (SL), and between SNP-D-2 and the total number of spikelet per spike (TNSS). Haplotype assays showed there were three major haplotypes in PA, i.e. Hap-6D-1, -2, -3. Furthermore, the SL of accessions with Hap-6D-3 was significant longer than that with the other two haplotypes under all 30 environments, and the TNSS was significant larger under 22 environments, thus Hap-6D-3 is an elite haplotype for both SL and TNSS, which was selected positively in the process of wheat breeding in China. Further transgenic experiments revealed that TaNAC67-overexpressing rice lines had lager panicles and more seeds relative to wild type, which is consistent with the association assay results. Therefore, TaNAC67 is a potential candidate gene in spike traits improvement, and TaNAC67-6D might be used in marker assistant molecular breeding in wheat.

      Improvement of rice eating quality and physicochemical properties by introgression of Wx in allele in indica varieties
      YANG Yong,LU Yan,GUO Shu-Qing,SHI Zhong-Hui,ZHAO Jie,FAN Xiao-Lei,LI Qian-Feng,LIU Qiao-Quan,ZHANG Chang-Quan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(11):  1628-1637.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.82064
      Abstract ( 440 )   HTML ( 20 )   PDF (2760KB) ( 310 )   Save
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      Nowadays, the Wx b allele has been widely used to improve grain quality of indica rice. However, some indica varieties carrying Wx b allele usually has a much softer texture, which is not favored by consumers in South China. So the grain quality of these varieties needs to be further improved. To understand the effect of Wx in allele on rice eating quality and physicochemical properties in indica rice, we developed two Near-Isogenic Lines (NILs) carrying Wx in and Wx b alleles by crossing an indica variety 3611 (receptor, carrying Wx a) with IR64 (carrying Wx in) and 9311 (carrying Wx b), and seven times of backcrossing based on molecular marker assistant selection (MAS). The Wx effects in controlling the synthesis of amylose, grain quality, and physicochemical properties were investigated. There were non-significant differences in the agronomic traits among the NILs. However, for grain quality characters, we found that the NIL(Wx in) rice showed significantly lower apparent amylose content (AAC) and higher gel consistency (GC), compared with the wild type 3611. Besides, the NIL(Wx b) rice showed the lowest AAC and highest GC among three lines. The NIL(Wx in) rice had a significantly higher taste value than the wild type 3611, while the NIL(Wx b) rice exhibited the highest taste value among the three samples. The granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) level was the highest in 3611, moderate in NIL(Wx in) and lowest in NIL(Wx b), which showed a positive correlation with the AAC level. Also, the starch viscosity, thermal gelatinization property and crystal structure of different rice flours had a high correlation with the AAC level. To sum up, our results proved that both Wx in and Wx b allele can improve the grain quality in 3611 background, and what is more, the Wx in allele might be more useful for the improvement of grain quality in indica rice.

      Molecular mechanism of stearoyl-ACP desaturase gene FAB2 expression in peanut
      LIU Hao,LU Qing,LI Hai-Fen,LI Shao-Xiong,CHEN Xiao-Ping,LIANG Xuan-Qiang,HONG Yan-Bin
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(11):  1638-1648.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.94003
      Abstract ( 413 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (4646KB) ( 125 )   Save
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      Stearoyl-ACP desaturase, encoded by FAB2, and located on the upstream of oleic acid biosynthesis pathway, modulates the conversion of stearic acid (C18:0) into oleic acid (C18:1). The expression of FAB2 was increased at the early stage of seed development in high-oleic variety Kainong 176, but over-accumulated oleic acid repressed the FAB2 expression at the period of seed maturation. An F2 hybrid population was constructed using Kainong 176 and Kainong 70, showing that the content of oleic acid up to 60% directly repressed the FAB2 expression on the whole. The activity of peroxidase (POD) and content of ROS were increased at the early stage of seed development with the oleic acid gradual accumulation, but decreased at the maturation stage. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that FAB2 and FAD2 were located on chloroplast and endoplasmic reticulum, respectively. Encoding sequence polymorphism analysis of FAB2 suggested that amino acid deficient at the N-terminal of FAB2 protein sequence probably induced the high content of stearic acid in peanut. Furthermore, the promotor sequence of FAB2 contained multiple AT-rich region, and possessed the light responsive, hormone regulation, and transcription factor binding site cis-regulating elements. Taken together, this study found that over-accumulated oleic acid activated the POD-induced ROS robust pathway, and then regulated the expression of FAB2 by unknown transcription factor in nucleus. The results extend the knowledge of FAB2 function, and provide a relevant theoretical guidance in future peanut breeding for high oleic acid.

      Genetic analysis and molecular characterization of a new allelic mutant of silky1 gene in maize
      WANG Xiao-Juan,PAN Zhen-Yuan,LIU Min,LIU Zhong-Xiang,ZHOU Yu-Qian,HE Hai-Jun,QIU Fa-Zhan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(11):  1649-1655.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.93009
      Abstract ( 379 )   HTML ( 26 )   PDF (3928KB) ( 203 )   Save
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      We identified a new maize male sterile mutant in early experiment, designated as msm-6. This mutant characters were steadily inherited and genetically regulated by a single recessive gene. An F2 population was developed by crossing B73 inbred line to msm-6, and four SSR markers (C6-24, C6-30, C6-34, and C6-40) closely linked to this locus were identified by BSA (Bulked Segregant Analysis) method. The 444 F2 individuals were used to map the target gene in an interval from 68.5 to 98.1 Mb between markers C6-24 and C6-34 on chromosome 6. Using genomic sequence database, we found that male sterile mutant gene Silky1 was located in this mapping region. Silky1 encodes a B function MADS box protein of ABCD model for floral organ establishment. The mutation of Silky1 led to sterile stamen and more silks of the ear. By crossing heterozygous +/silky1-mum3 plants to homozygous msm-6/msm-6 plants, we found a 1:1 segregation ratio for normal to male sterile plants. Genomic and cDNA sequences of msm-6 disclosed a single-nucleotide change from G to C at the first position of intron 6, which resulted in exon 6 skipping, producing aberrant mRNAs without exon 6. So msm-6 is a new allele mutant of Silky1, which is different from silky1-mum2, silky1-mum3, and silky1-mum4 caused by the insertion of mutator transposons. The identification of msm-6 provides not only abundant experimental materials for the study of the floral organ determination in maize, but also important evidence for the conservation of splicing sites in RNA processing.

      Screening and identification of salt-tolerant rice germplasm in whole growth period
      SUN Xian-Jun,JIANG Qi-Yan,HU Zheng,ZHANG Hui-Yuan,XU Chang-Bing,DI Yi-Huan,HAN Long-Zhi,ZHANG Hui
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(11):  1656-1663.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.92012
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      Five hundred and fifty rice germplasm collected from different regions at home and abroad were tested at 10 days after transplanting treated with various salt concentrations (0, 0.3%, and 0.5% salinity) during whole growth period, the various salt concentrations were obtained by watering different volumes of water and seawater. Six agronomic-related traits, including plant height, panicle number per plant, main panicle length, seed setting rate, yield per plant and heading date, were investigated under 0, 0.3% salinity treatments, and salt-tolerant phenotype was investigated under 0.5% salinity treatment. Under the salt treatment of 0.3% salinity during whole growth period, the plant height of 550 (100%) rice varieties decreased significantly; and there were significant difference in panicle number per plant of 124 (90 up, 34 down) rice varieties, main panicle length of 414 (405 down, 9 up) rice varieties, seed setting rate of 145 (84 down, 61 up) rice varieties, yield per plant of 375 (343 down, 32 up) rice varieties, while no significant difference in heading date. Principal component analysis showed that 77.25% variation was contributed by the three agronomic-related traits including main spike seed-setting rate, effective tiller number and yield per plant. One hundred and twenty-one salt-tolerant rice varieties with yield salt tolerance index ≥ 0.8 were obtained under 0.3% salinity treatment, 78 salt-tolerant rice varieties with salt tolerance phenotype of level 3 were screened under the durable 42 days salt treatment of 0.5% salinity. There were 25 rice varieties with both the yield salt tolerance index ≥ 0.8 under 0.3% salinity treatment and phenotype of level 3 under the durable 42 days salt treatment of 0.5% salinity. These salt-tolerant varieties can be used for cultivar innovation and the further study on mechanism of salinity tolerance.

      Mapping of QTLs for resistance to rice black-streaked dwarf disease
      LIU Jiang-Ning,WANG Chu-Xin,ZHANG Hong-GEN,MIAO Yi-Xu,GAO Hai-Lin,XU Zuo-Peng,LIU Qiao-Quan,TANG Shu-Zhu
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(11):  1664-1671.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.92003
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      Rice black-streaked dwarf virus disease (RBSDV) may cause great loss of rice production, and breeding resistant varieties is an effective method to control RBSDV. To develop resistant varieties, it is important to screen germplasm that shows RBSDV resistance and to identify the genes/quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contained. In the present study, a set of 222 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between L5494 (a susceptible japonica variety) and IR36 (a resistant indica variety) were constructed for RBSDV-resistant QTL mapping. With natural infection test, the RBSDV incidences of L5494 and IR36 were 84.26% and 28.70%, respectively, and the disease incidence of RILs was ranged from 11.21% to 89.81%. Using 134 polymorphic molecular markers, a linkage genetic map was constructed. The map covered a total length of 1475.97 cM with an average interval of 11. 1 cM between adjacent markers. Four RBSDV-resistant QTLs were discovered using QTL IciMapping 4.0 Software, of which, qRBSDV-1, qRBSDV-2, and qRBSDV-9 were from the resistant parent IR36, and qRBSDV-6 from the susceptible parent L5494. QTLs qRBSDV-1, qRBSDV-2, qRBSDV-6, and qRBSDV-9 were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, and 9, respectively, which explained 12.64%, 16.00%, 10.82%, and 8.43% of the phenotypic variations. Moreover, a RBSDV-resistant QTL from 93-11 (O. sativa spp. indica) at the qRBSDV-1 locus was confirmed by a near isogenic line that harbors qRBSDV-1 derived from 93-11 with the Nipponbare (O. sativa spp. japonica) genetic background. Our findings will be benefit for the marker assisted breeding of RBSDV-resistant varieties.

      Core collection screening of a germplasm population in jute (Corchorus spp.)
      XU Yi,ZHANG Lie-Mei,GUO Yan-Chun,QI Jian-Min,ZHANG Li-Lan,FANG Ping-Ping,ZHANG Li-Wu
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(11):  1672-1681.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.94008
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      Innovation of jute germplasm and breeding new varieties are based on core collection. In this study, 300 jute accessions were systematically identified. The core collections were constructed by SSR molecular markers, agronomic traits and geographical sources. The variation coefficient of 11 agronomic traits ranged from 13.06% to 84.87%, indicating an abundant genetic diversity. These jute germplasm was divided into eight groups based on agronomic traits while ten groups based on the clustering analysis of molecular markers. Combining the two cluster analyses, and geographic location of these jute accessions, a preselected core collection including 108 accessions was established. Furthermore, 44 pairs of SSR primers were used to analyze the genetic differences. The 108 varieties were divided into white jute and dark jute at the genetic similarity coefficient of 0.65. According to the analysis of genetic differences, genetic redundancy with genetic similarity greater than or equal to 0.85 was excluded and 84 core collections, including 60 white jute accessions and 24 dark jute ones, were obtained. By comparison in the coefficient of variation and Shannon-Wiener index of agronomic traits between 84 core collections and 300 germplasm, it was found that there was no significant difference between them, indicating that the 84 jute core collections could represent the genetic diversity of 300 jute germplasm resources to the maximum extent.

      Effects of HMW-GS on wheat quality under different water conditions
      ZHAO Jia-Jia,MA Xiao-Fei,ZHENG Xing-Wei,HAO Jian-Yu,QIAO Ling,GE Chuan,WANG Ai-Ai,ZHANG Shu-Wei,ZHANG Xiao-Jun,JI Hu-Tai,ZHENG Jun
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(11):  1682-1690.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.91007
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      The effects of high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) on quality traits were evaluated using recombine inbred lines (RILs) under different water conditions. Different water regimes influenced effects of subunits at Glu-1 loci on quality traits. Under the same background of 1 at Glu-A1 and 5'+12 at Glu-D1, the 14+15 had more significant effects on the development time under rain-fed and max resistance under well-watered regime than 13+16, with the increase of 5.10% and 6.16%, respectively. The combination of 5+10 had much more significant effects on Zeleny sedimentation under well-water regime and stretch area and max resistance under rain-fed than 5'+12. The effect of (1, 14+15, 5+10) on Zeleny sedimentation was significantly higher than that of (1, 13+16, 5'+12), and the stretch area under well-watered condition had similar trends. The protein content and extensibility of each combination, and the stability time and stretch area of (1, 14+15, 5+10) and the stability time of (1, 13+16, 5+10) were significantly influenced by water conditions, and the performance of other quality traits was relatively stable. Compared with the condition of well-watered, the bread volume of (1, 13+16, 5+10) and (1, 14+15, 5+10) were slightly larger under rain-fed conditions, while (1, 14+15, 5'+12) and (1, 13+16, 5'+12) were opposite. The results of the study have a positive guiding role to select and popularize varieties suitable for production and cultivation at local area.

      TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY
      Effects of plant density and N fertilizer spraying concentration on growth of rapeseed blanket seedlings
      ZHANG Han-Xiao,LIN Shen,ZUO Qing-Song,YANG Guang,FENG Qian-Nan,FENG Yun-Yan,LENG Suo-Hu
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(11):  1691-1698.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.94029
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      In order to explore the effects of sowing density and N fertilizer on the key biological indicators of rapeseed blanket seedlings, the cultivation methods of rapeseed blanket seedlings suitable for mechanical transplantation were studied. In this paper, Ningza 1818, a Brassica napus variety, was used to analyze the effect of sowing density and N fertilizer spraying concentration on some important morphological and physiological indicators, including number of survival plants, number of green leaves, dry matter accumulation, ratio of shoot to root and so on. With the increase of sowing density, the number of survival plants, the number of leaves and green leaves decreased. High sowing density reduced dry matter accumulation of shoots and roots, and that of roots had a greater decline, resulting in a decreased ratio of shoot to root. At the same time, the root collar length and plant height increased, and seedling fullness decreased. With the increase of N fertilizer spraying concentration, the above indicators were optimized. Under the low sowing density condition, the quality of blanket seedlings was improved, however, it was not conducive to forming the good blanket of seedlings and transplanting, and the transplanting density could not be guaranteed. Therefore, considering the quality of blanket seedlings and the effect of mechanized transplanting, the combination of the nutrient solution of 3 g urea L -1 and sowing density of 800 seed plate -1 is reasonable to cultivate rapeseed blanket seedlings when the seedling age of late rice stubble is about 30-40 days.

      Regulation of grain yield and nutrient absorption of modern summer maize varieties in the Yellow-Huaihe-Haihe Rivers region
      CHENG Yi,LIU Peng,LIU Yu-Wen,PANG Shang-Shui,DONG Shu-Ting,ZHANG Ji-Wang,ZHAO Bin,REN Bai-Zhao
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(11):  1699-1714.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.93004
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      In order to investigate the grain yield and nutrient absorption of modern summer maize varieties in the Yellow-Huaihe- Haihe Rivers region, with the aim at proposing the theoretical basis for rational application of fertilizer, and high yield and high efficiency production, the experiment was conducted in 2016 at National Demonstration Center for New Crop Varieties in Shanghe, Jinan and the State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University in Tai’an. Plants were sampled at maturity stage, and the grain yield, yield components, and mineral element uptake and utilization of plants were analyzed. Exploring analyses and normality tests showed that yield per plant, biomass per plant, 1000-kernel weight and grain yield were all conformed to normal distribution, with N (167.0, 22.72 2), N (285.0, 33.47 2), N (318.0, 35.75 2), and N (10.9, 1.50 2), ranging from 141.55 to 246.99 g plant -1, from 197.68 to 389.92 g plant -1, from 226.58 to 413.76 g 1000 kernel -1, and from 5.84 to 13.41 t hm -2, respectively. The average N requirement per 100 kg grain was 1.95 kg and declined with increasing grain yield. When the yield increased from < 7.0 t hm -2 to 8.0-9.0 t hm -2, the N requirement per 100 kg grain decreased from 2.15 to 1.96 kg due to increasing harvest index and decreasing grain N concentration. When the yield increased from 8.0-9.0 t hm -2 to 9.0-11.0 t hm -2, the N requirement per 100 kg grain decreased from 1.96 to 1.84 kg due to decreasing grain N concentration. When the yield was more than 11.0 t hm -2, the N requirement per 100 kg grain tended to be stable. The average P requirement per 100 kg grain was 0.97 kg, which was negatively correlated with grain yield, and declined from 1.07 to 0.92 kg when the yield increased from < 7.0 t hm -2 to > 11.0 t hm -2 due to increasing harvest index and declining grain P concentrations. The average K requirement per 100 kg grain was 1.89 kg, which was negatively correlated with grain yield, showing a decrease from 2.14 to 1.74 kg when the yield increased from < 7.0 t hm -2 to > 11.0 t hm -2, which was attributed to the increase of the harvest index and stem potassium concentrations, and the decline in leaf potassium concentrations. The grain yield of main maize varieties currently grown in the Yellow- Huaihe-Haihe Rivers region was (8.91±1.23) t hm -2, with the N, P2O5, and K2O requirement per 100 kg grain of (1.95±0.24), (0.97±0.11), and (1.89±0.28) kg, respectively. The N, P, and K requirement for plant growth increased with increasing grain yield, while the average N, P2O5 and K2O requirement for producing 100 kg grain declined with increasing grain yield.

      Difference of physiological characteristics of grain weight at various kernel positions in wheat spikelets
      LI Yan-Xia,YANG Wei-Bing,YIN Yan-Ping,ZHENG Meng-Jing,CHEN Jin,YANG Dong-Qing,LUO Yong-Li,PANG Dang-Wei,LI Yong,WANG Zhen-Lin
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(11):  1715-1724.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.91004
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      The object of the experiment was to explore the main physiological mechanism of heterogeneous development of grains located at the various kernel positions in wheat spikelets, further to reveal the factors restricting grain filling of inferior grains located on the distal kernel positions. Two varieties with different spike sizes of winter wheat (a large-spike cultivar Tainong 18 and a multiple-spike cultivar Shannong 20) were used to as the experimental materials. We have studied the dynamic changes of concentrations of endogenous hormones, soluble sugar and total nitrogen in grains located at different kernel positions in wheat spikelets during grain-filling period, and the microstructure of vascular bundle junction on kernel handle and kernel weight. Correlation analysis showed that the grain filling rate was significantly correlated with the contents of GA and IAA in grains. Higher GA and IAA contents in proximal kernels could make the conversion from sucrose to starch start earlier, the seed differentiate rapidly and the grain-filling rate higher, which is the physiological mechanism of the higher weight of proximal kernel in wheat spikelets. The micrograph showed that the cross-sectional area of vascular bundle of seed stalk on proximal kernels at the early stage of grain-filling period was significantly larger than that of distal kernels, and the microcosmic space was small and orderly, which is conducive to the transport of assimilates and physiological active substances, showing an anatomical basis for the rapid increase of seed weight and higher grain-filling rate in the proximal kernels of spikelets.

      Regulation effects of water and nitrogen on wheat yield and biomass in different precipitation years
      RU Xiao-Ya,LI Guang,CHEN Guo-Peng,ZHANG Tong-Shuai,YAN Li-Juan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(11):  1725-1734.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.91008
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      Water and nitrogen are the main factors affecting grain production in the rain-fed agriculture area of the Loess Plateau in Northwest China, but their yield-increasing effects will be affected by the type of precipitation. In this paper, the APSIM model was used to conduct water-nitrogen coupling test based on the meteorological data of the experimental area from 1971 to 2018. The effects of different precipitation years on the variation coefficient and sustainability index of wheat yield and biomass were analyzed. In addition, the relationship between annual yield and nitrogen application rate and precipitation was also discussed. According to the model the wheat yield and biomass determination coefficient R 2 was above 0.90, the D index was above 0.95, and the normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) was below 15%, indicating that the model has good model fitting and adaptability in the study area. Based on natural conventional rainfall in each year, we explored the optimized combination of water and nitrogen for the three types of annual yields using the binary quadratic regression equation. When the potential yield of wheat in drought year reached 3492.6 kg hm -2, the precipitation increased by 39.73% and the nitrogen consumption was 182.73 kg hm -2; when the potential yield of wheat in flat water year reached 4514.5 kg hm -2, the precipitation increased by 45.26%, the nitrogen consumption was 208.26 kg hm -2; and when the potential yield in wet year reached 4890.3 kg hm -2, the precipitation increased by 46.31%, the amount of nitrogen was 211.15 kg hm -2. Among them, precipitation increased on the basis of the total annual precipitation in that year. The research results can provide a theoretical basis for alleviating wheat drought and nutrient stresses in different precipitation years in the study area, saving fertilizer resources and keeping sustainable development of agriculture.

      Establishment of an accurate evaluation method for drought resistance based on multilevel phenotype analysis in sorghum
      ZHANG Xiao-Xiao,PAN Ying-Hong,REN Fu-Li,PU Wei-Jun,WANG Dao-Ping,LI Yu-Bin,LU Ping,LI Gui-Ying,ZHU Li
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(11):  1735-1745.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.94022
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      Drought is one of the important abiotic stresses that restrict agricultural production. Research on drought resistance of crops is of significance in both theoretical and practical aspects. In this study, 73 sorghum accessions were preliminarily evaluated for drought resistance at the germination and seedling stages under simulated drought environment with PEG-6000. Among them, 21 accessions including 15 tolerant and 6 susceptible, were screened to measure the morphological characteristics such as plant height, leaf length and leaf width, and physiological and biochemical indicators such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and peroxidase (POD) activity. Finally, one accession was identified with high drought resistance, one accession was moderate drought resistance and two accessions with drought-sensitivity. A new evaluation method for sorghum drought resistance was established based on the multilevel phenotypic analysis, in which the data from subordinate function method, principal component analysis and clustering analysis were comprehensively applied, and combined with various phenotypic data (morphological, physiological and biochemical indicators) at different growth stages (germination and seedling stages) in different growth environments (field test and laboratory test). This method can be used to systematically, efficiently and accurately identify the drought resistance of sorghum based on the consistency of evaluation results by multiple comparison analysis, which is useful in the research on drought resistance mechanism and sorghum breeding for drought resistance.

      Yield-increasing effect of supplementary irrigation at winter wheat flowering and its influencing factors based on water and nitrogen coupling in north China
      ZHANG Jing-Ting,LYU Li-Hua,DONG Zhi-Qiang,ZHANG Li-Hua,YAO Yan-Rong,SHEN Hai-Ping,YAO Hai-Po,JIA Xiu-Ling
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(11):  1746-1755.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.81060
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      Facing the increasing water shortage in North China, new techniques for high-yield and less irrigation are urgently needed in winter wheat production. A 10-year successive field experiment was carried out from 2007 to 2016 to clarify the effects of soil water storage before sowing and effective precipitation in wheat growth duration on the yield-increasing efficiency of supplementary irrigation at flowering stage, as well as the interaction of irrigation with nitrogen (N) application rate. The objective of the study was to propose an applicable standard of irrigation for winter wheat in North China Plain. The plots were arranged in a split-plot design with the main factor of irrigation amount and sub-factor of N rate. On the condition that 75 mm water was given at jointing stage of wheat, the main-plots were assigned with supplementary water of 0 (W1) and 75 mm (W2) at flowering stage. The sub-plot treatments were N rate of 0 (N0), 60 (N60), 120 (N120), 180 (N180), 240 (N240), and 300 kg hm -2 (N300). The yield-increasing ratio of supplementary irrigation at flowering stage was negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the water storage in 2 m soil body before sowing and influenced by soil N level. The soil organic matter and total N content of N0 and N60 declined gradually with the years of experiment, and no positive effect of W2 on yield was observed since the sixth year. Under the condition of adequate soil water before sowing and normal nitrogen supply (at least 120 kg hm -2), the effect of W2 on yield was also influenced by the effective precipitation during wheat growth, especially that from jointing to flowering stage. The yield-increasing ratio of W2 decreased with the increasing effective precipitation in wheat growing period. When the effective precipitation from jointing to flowering stage was more than 25.3 mm, W2 had no significant advantage on spike number, grain number per spike, 1000-grain weight, biomass, harvest index, and final grain yield, indicating that irrigation of 75 mm at jointing stage was available for water-saving, high water use efficiency and high yield level. In conclusion, under the condition of well soil water content before sowing, N application rate ≥120 kg hm -2 and irrigation at jointing stage, the effective precipitation from jointing to flowering might be considered as an important criterion to determine the necessity of supplementary irrigation at flowering stage of winter wheat in North China Plain.

      RESEARCH NOTES
      Effect of varieties and cultivation conditions on the bioactive substances contents of wheat grain
      CHEN Shi-Hao,LI Zheng-Yang,CHEN Jia-Lu,ZHANG Yuan-Qing,WEI Yu-Ming,ZHENG You-Liang,PU Zhi-En
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(11):  1756-1763.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.91010
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      People pay more attention to the bioactive substances because of its antioxidant capability. To investigate the effect of N-application time, nitrogen fertilizer rate, sowing time and P application note on the bioactive substance contents of wheat grain, we analyzed the contents of phytic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid and total phenol in wheat cultivars planted at two locations for two consecutive growth seasons. The genotype contributed the most variations of bioactive substance contents. The cultural practices had less influence than varieties, the interaction between N-application and phosphorus application also had significant effect on bioactive substances contents. Mianmai 51 had the highest contents of γ-aminobutyric and total phenol and the lowest phytic acid content. According to the results, the gains of Mianmai 51 with the optimum content of bioactive substances can be obtained by using the base fertilizer of 150 kg hm -2 of pure nitrogen and 75 kg hm -2 of P2O5 and rowing on October 29th in Sichuan province.

      Pyramiding and evaluation of brown planthopper resistance genes in water-saving and drought-resistance restorer line
      ZHANG An-Ning,LIU Yi,WANG Fei-Ming,XIE Yue-Wen,KONG De-Yan,NIE Yuan-Yuan,ZHANG Fen-Yun,BI Jun-Guo,YU Xin-Qiao,LIU Guo-Lan,LUO Li-Jun
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(11):  1764-1769.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.82066
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      The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens St?l, BPH) is the most serious pest threat to rice production across Asia. Increasing host-plant resistance is the most economical and ecological strategy for controlling this pest. The objective of this study was to survey the resistance effects of different R genes to brown planthopper, reveal its influence on agronomic traits, and provide insights into molecular breeding of rice with resistance to brown planthopper. In this research, the brown planthopper R genes Bph6, Bph9, Bph14, and Bph15 were introgressed into the water-saving and drought-resistant rice restorer line ‘Hanhui 3’ through marker-assisted backcrossing scheme. The standard seedling group screening method was used to identify the resistance of the improved lines. Among single-gene improved lines, the order of the R genes effects was Bph9 > Bph6 > Bph15 > Bph14, and among pyramiding improved lines, that was Bph6+Bph9+Bph14+Bph15 > Bph6+Bph9 > Bph6+Bph9+Bph14 > Bph6+Bph9+Bph15 > Bph6+Bph14+Bph15 > Bph9+Bph14+Bph15 > Bph14+Bph15. Furthermore, the survey of agronomic traits demonstrated that there were no significant differences between the 11 improved lines and recurrent parent ‘Hanhui 3’ in plant height, panicle number per plant and 1000-grain weight. These results suggest that the introgression of Bph6, Bph9, Bph14, and Bph15 genes by molecular marker-assisted selection technology could enhance the resistance to brown planthopper and improve breeding efficiency.

Co-sponsored:
the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

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  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/the-crop-journal
Submission: https://www.editorialmanager.com/cj/
E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
Tel: 8610-82108548

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