Welcome to Acta Agronomica Sinica,

Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2019, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (11): 1628-1637.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.82064


Improvement of rice eating quality and physicochemical properties by introgression of Wx in allele in indica varieties

YANG Yong1,LU Yan1,2,GUO Shu-Qing1,SHI Zhong-Hui1,ZHAO Jie1,FAN Xiao-Lei1,LI Qian-Feng1,LIU Qiao-Quan1,*(),ZHANG Chang-Quan1,*()   

  1. 1 Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Crop Genomics and Molecular Breeding / Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics of Ministry of Education / Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops, Agricultural College of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu, China
    2 Instrumental Analysis Center, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu, China
  • Received:2018-12-14 Accepted:2019-06-20 Online:2019-11-12 Published:2019-07-15
  • Contact: Qiao-Quan LIU,Chang-Quan ZHANG E-mail:qqliu@yzu.edu.cn;cqzhang@yzu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2016YFD0100501);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31872860);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31561143008);the Government of Jiangsu Province(BE2018357);the Government of Jiangsu Province(BK20160464);the Natural Science Foundation of the Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions of China(16KJB210011);the Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice(Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center)(2018KF04Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center);the Personnel Training Program for Undergraduates in Agricultural College of Yangzhou University


Nowadays, the Wx b allele has been widely used to improve grain quality of indica rice. However, some indica varieties carrying Wx b allele usually has a much softer texture, which is not favored by consumers in South China. So the grain quality of these varieties needs to be further improved. To understand the effect of Wx in allele on rice eating quality and physicochemical properties in indica rice, we developed two Near-Isogenic Lines (NILs) carrying Wx in and Wx b alleles by crossing an indica variety 3611 (receptor, carrying Wx a) with IR64 (carrying Wx in) and 9311 (carrying Wx b), and seven times of backcrossing based on molecular marker assistant selection (MAS). The Wx effects in controlling the synthesis of amylose, grain quality, and physicochemical properties were investigated. There were non-significant differences in the agronomic traits among the NILs. However, for grain quality characters, we found that the NIL(Wx in) rice showed significantly lower apparent amylose content (AAC) and higher gel consistency (GC), compared with the wild type 3611. Besides, the NIL(Wx b) rice showed the lowest AAC and highest GC among three lines. The NIL(Wx in) rice had a significantly higher taste value than the wild type 3611, while the NIL(Wx b) rice exhibited the highest taste value among the three samples. The granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) level was the highest in 3611, moderate in NIL(Wx in) and lowest in NIL(Wx b), which showed a positive correlation with the AAC level. Also, the starch viscosity, thermal gelatinization property and crystal structure of different rice flours had a high correlation with the AAC level. To sum up, our results proved that both Wx in and Wx b allele can improve the grain quality in 3611 background, and what is more, the Wx in allele might be more useful for the improvement of grain quality in indica rice.

Key words: Oryza sativa L., eating quality, Wx allele, apparent amylose content, molecular marker assisted selection

Fig. 1

Construction of near-isogenic lines (A) and comparison of their grain phenotype (B) MAS: molecular marker-assisted selection; NIL: near-isogenic line."

Fig. 2

Detection of specific molecular markers for different Wx alleles (A): allelic specific molecular marker QRM190 for detecting Wxa and Wxb. Lanes 1-7: 3611, 9311 and their derived NIL NIL(Wxb) (lanes 3-7), respectively. (B): allelic specific molecular marker for detecting Wxa and Wxin. Lanes 1-7: 3611, IR64 and their derived NIL NIL(Wxin) (lanes 3-7), respectively."

Table 1

Main agronomic traits in different near-isogenic lines"

Plant height (cm)
Tiller number
Main panicle length (cm)
Seed setting rate (%)
1000-kernel weight (g)
3611(Wxa) 117.8±1.2 a 5.6±0.9 a 26.5±0.4 a 91.2±2.2 a 30.7±0.8 a
NIL(Wxin) 118.2±2.3 a 5.2±0.8 a 26.7±0.6 a 90.5±3.1 a 29.8±0.5 a
NIL(Wxb) 115.0±1.5 a 6.0±0.6 a 25.8±0.4 a 91.5±2.8 a 31.0±0.2 a

Fig. 3

SDS-PAGE analysis of the soluble (A) and bound (B) GBSS I isolated from mature rice of different NILs Lane M: the protein standard molecular mass; Lanes 1-2: 3611(Wxa); Lane 3-4: NIL(Wxin); Lanes 5-6: NIL(Wxb); The arrows indicate the 60 kD GBSSI."

Table 2

Appearance quality and physicochemical properties of different near-isogenic lines"

Apparent amylose content (%)
Gel consistency
Taste value
Chalkiness rate
Chalkness degree
3611(Wxa) 25.51±1.48 a 42.35±4.17 c 43.15±1.35 c 18.62±0.87 a 2.89±1.05 a
NIL(Wxin) 19.85±0.27 b 78.54±2.32 b 55.09±2.51 b 13.04±0.30 b 1.93±0.06 c
NIL(Wxb) 14.78±0.55 c 87.62±3.48 a 60.51±1.87 a 13.05±0.40 b 2.03±0.32 b

Fig. 4

RVA profiles of rice flours from different near-isogenic lines"

Table 3

Pasting properties of flours from different near-isogenic lines"

Peak viscosity (cP)
Hot paste
viscosity (cP)
Cool paste
viscosity (cP)
Peak time
Peak temperature (℃)
3611(Wxa) 3143.2±35.2 b 2607.4±27.1 a 536.4±12.8 c 3960.2±31.6 a 817.6±18.6 a 6.4±0.1 a 70.80±1.1 b
NIL(Wxin) 2961.5±47.1 c 2211.5±31.1 c 750.6±9.3 b 3503.4±28.7 b 514.8±12.6 b 6.3±0.1 a 71.65±1.0 b
NIL(Wxb) 3628.5±28.3 a 2383.3±30.4 b 1245.7±10.5 a 3390.3±21.5 c -238.7±9.5 c 6.4±0.1 a 73.25±1.0 a

Fig. 5

Gelatinization of rice flours from different near-isogenic lines as determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)"

Table 4

Thermal properties of rice flours from different near-isogenic lines"

T0 (°C)
Tp (°C)
Tc (°C)
ΔH (J G-1)
3611(Wxa) 62.89±0.21 c 67.68±0.62 c 76.54±0.31 c 6.39±0.30 c
NIL(Wxin) 63.57±0.12 b 69.53±0.70 b 77.02±0.07 b 8.01±0.10 b
NIL(Wxb) 64.86±0.41 a 71.33±0.60 a 77.91±0.46 a 8.53±0.11 a

Fig. 6

XRD patterns (A) and FTIR spectra (B) of rice flours from different near-isogenic lines"

Table 5

XRD and FTIR spectra parameters of rice flours from different near-isogenic lines"

Crystallinity (%)
IR ratio of 1045/1022 cm-1
3611(Wxa) 27.35±0.31 c 0.64±0.01 c
NIL(Wxin) 29.17±0.28 b 0.76±0.01 b
NIL(Wxb) 32.04±0.41 a 0.80±0.01 a
[1] Tilman D, Balzer C, Hill J, Befort B L . Global food demand and the sustainable intensification of agriculture. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2011,108:20260-20264.
[2] 张昌泉, 赵冬生, 李钱峰, 顾铭洪, 刘巧泉 . 稻米品质性状基因的克隆与功能研究进展. 中国农业科学, 2016,49:4267-4283.
Zhang C Q, Zhao D S, Li Q F, Gu M H, Liu Q Q . Progresses in research on cloning and functional analysis of key genes involving in rice grain quality. Sci Agric Sin, 2016,49:4267-4283 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[3] Zeng D L, Tian Z X, Rao Y C, Dong G J, Yang Y L, Huang L C, Leng Y J, Xu J, Sun C, Zhang G H, Hu J, Zhu L, Gao Z Y, Hu X M, Guo L B, Xiong G S, Wang Y H, Li J Y, Qian Q . Rational design of high-yield and superior-quality rice. Nat Plants, 2017,3:17031.
[4] Li H Y, Prakash S, Nicholson T M, Fitzgerald M A, Gilbert R G . The importance of amylose and amylopectin fine structure for textural properties of cooked rice grains. Food Chem, 2016,196:702-711.
[5] Tian Z X, Qian Q, Liu Q Q, Yan M X, Liu X F, Yan C J, Liu G F, Gao Z Y, Tang S H, Zeng D L, Wang Y H, Yu J M, Gu M H, Li J Y . Allelic diversities in rice starch biosynthesis lead to a diverse array of rice eating and cooking qualities. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2009,106:21760-21765.
[6] Mohapatra D, Bal S . Cooking quality and instrumental textural attributes of cooked rice for different milling fractions. J Food Eng, 2006,73:253-259.
[7] 贺晓鹏, 朱昌兰, 刘玲珑, 江玲, 张文伟, 刘宜柏, 万建民 . 不同水稻品种支链淀粉结构的差异及其与淀粉理化特性的关系. 作物学报, 2010,36:276-284.
He X P, Zhu C L, Liu L L, Jiang L, Zhang W W, Liu Y B, Wan J M . Difference of amylopectin structure among various rice genotypes differing in grain qualities and tts relation to starch physicochemical properties. Acta Agron Sin, 2010,36:276-284 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[8] Li H Y, Gilbert R G . Starch molecular structure: The basis for an improved understanding of cooked rice texture. Carbohyd Polym, 2018,195:9-17.
[9] Tao K Y, Li C, Yu W W, Gilbert R G, Li E P . How amylose molecular fine structure of rice starch affects functional properties. Carbohyd Polym, 2019,204:24-31.
[10] 朱霁晖, 张昌泉, 顾铭洪, 刘巧泉 . 水稻Wx基因的等位变异及育种利用研究进展. 中国水稻科学, 2015,29:431-438.
Zhu J H, Zhang C Q, Gu M H, Liu Q Q . Progress in the allelic variation of Wx gene and its application in rice breeding. Chin J Rice Sci, 2015,29:431-438 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[11] Cai X L, Wang Z Y, Xing Y Y, Zhang J L, Hong M M . Aberrant splicing of intron 1 leads to the heterogeneous 5' UTR and decreased expression of waxy gene in rice cultivars of intermediate amylose content. Plant J, 2010,14:459-465.
[12] Isshiki M, Morino K, Nakajima M, Okagaki R J, Wessler S R, Izawa T, Shimamoto K . A naturally occurring functional allele of the rice waxy locus has a GT to TT mutation at the 5' splice site of the first intron. Plant J, 1998,15:133-138.
[13] Sreenivasulu N, Butardo V M J, Misra G, Cuevas R P, Anacleto R, Kavi Kishor P B . Designing climate-resilient rice with ideal grain quality suited for high-temperature stress. J Exp Bot, 2015,66:1737-1748.
[14] Mikami I, Uwatoko N, Ikeda Y, Yamaguchi J, Hirano H Y, Suzuki Y, Sano Y . Allelic diversification at the wx locus in landraces of Asian rice. Theor Appl Genet, 2008,116:979-989.
[15] Xiang X C, Kang C F, Xu S J, Yang B W . Combined effects of Wx and SSIIa haplotypes on rice starch physicochemical properties. J Sci Food Agric, 2017,97:1229-1234.
[16] Yang B W, Xu S J, Xu L, You H, Xiang X C . Effects of Wx and its interaction with SSIII-2 on rice eating and cooking qualities. Front Plant Sci, 2018,9:456.
[17] Umemoto T, Horibata T, Aoki N, Hiratsuka M, Yano M, Inouchi N . Effects of variations in starch synthase on starch properties and eating quality of rice. Plant Prod Sci, 2008,11:472-480.
[18] Cao X M, Sun H Y, Wang C G, Ren X J, Liu H F, Zhang Z J . Effects of late-stage nitrogen fertilizer application on the starch structure and cooking quality of rice. J Sci Food Agric, 2017,98:2332-2340.
[19] Tian Z X, Yan C J, Qian Q, Yan S, Xie H L, Wang F, Xu J F, Liu G F, Wang Y H, Liu Q Q, Tang S Z, Li J Y, Gu M H . Development of gene-tagged molecular markers for starch synthesis-related genes in rice. Chin Sci Bull, 2010,55:3768-3777.
[20] Murray M G, Thompson W F . Rapid isolation of high molecular weight plant DNA. Nucl Acids Res, 1980,8:4321-4325.
[21] 刘巧泉, 张景六, 王宗阳, 洪孟民, 顾铭洪 . 根癌农杆菌介导的水稻高效转化系统的建立. 植物生理学报, 1998,24:259-271.
Liu Q Q, Zhang J L, Wang Z M, Hong M M, Gu M H . A highly efficient transformation system mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in rice(Oryza sativa L.). Acta Phytophysiol Sin, 1998,24:259-271 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[22] Zhang C Q, Zhu L J, Shao K, Gu M M, Liu Q Q . Toward underlying reasons for rice starches having low viscosity and high amylose: physiochemical and structural characteristics. J Sci Food Agric, 2013,93:1543-1551.
[23] Liu D R, Wang W, Cai X L . Modulation of amylose content by structure-based modification of OsGBSS1 activity in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Biotechnol J, 2015,12:1297-1307.
[24] 舒庆尧, 吴殿星, 夏英武, 高明尉 , Anna M C. 稻米淀粉RVA谱特征与食用品质的关系. 中国农业科学, 1998,31:25-29.
Shu Q Y, Wu D X, Xia Y W, Gao M W, Anna M C . Relationship between RVA profile characteristics of rice starch and edible quality. Sci Agric Sin, 1998,31:25-29 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[25] Zhang C Q, Chen S J, Ren X Y, Lu Y, Liu D R, Cai X L, Li Q F, Gao J P, Liu Q Q . Molecular structure and physicochemical properties of starches from rice with different amylose contents resulting from modification of OsGBSSI activity. J Agric Food Chem, 2017,65:2222.
[26] Cai J W, Man J M, Huang J, Liu Q Q, Wei W X, Wei C X . Relationship between structure and functional properties of normal rice starches with different amylose contents. Carbohyd Polym, 2015,125:35-44.
[27] Cooke D, Gidley M J . Loss of crystalline and molecular order during starch gelatinisation: origin of the enthalpic transition. Carbohyd Polym, 1992,227:103-112.
[28] Sevenou O, Hill S E, Farhat I A, Mitchell J R . Organisation of the external region of the starch granule as determined by infrared spectroscopy. Int J Biol Macromol, 2002,31:79-85.
[29] Chen M J, Liu G F, Yu H, Wang B, Li J Y . Towards molecular design of rice plant architecture and grain quality. Chin Sci Bull, 2018,63:1276-1289.
[30] Chen M H, Bergman C J, Pinsona S R M, Fjellstrom R G . Waxy gene haplotypes: associations with pasting properties in an international rice germplasm collection. J Cereal Sci, 2008,48:781-788.
[31] Hoai T T T, Matsusaka H, Toyosawa Y, Suu T D, Satoh H, Kumamaru T . Influence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding granule-bound starch synthase I on amylose content in Vietnamese rice cultivars. Breed Sci, 2014, 64:142.
[32] Luo J X, Jobling S A, Millar A, Morell M K, Li Z Y . Allelic effects on starch structure and properties of six starch biosynthetic genes in a rice recombinant inbred line population. Rice, 2015,8:15.
[33] Li Q F, Liu X Y, Zhang C Q, Jiang L, Jiang M Y, Zhong M, Fan X L, Gu M H, Liu Q Q . Rice soluble starch synthase: I. Allelic variation, expression, function, and interaction with Waxy. Front Plant Sci, 2018,9:1591.
[34] Wang K, Hasjim J, Wu A C, Li E P, Henry R J, Gilbert R G . Roles of GBSSI and SSIIa in determining amylose fine structure. Carbohydr Polym, 2015,127:264-74.
[35] Zhou H J, Wang L J, Liu G F, Meng X B, Jing Y H, Shu X L, Kong X L, Sun J A, Yu H, Smith S M, Wu D X, Li J Y . Critical roles of soluble starch synthase SSIIIa and granule-bound starch synthase Waxy in synthesizing resistant starch in rice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2016,113:12844-12849.
[36] Fan M Y, Wang X J, Sun J, Zhang Q, Xu Z J, Xu Q . Effect of indica pedigree on eating and cooking quality in rice backcross inbred lines of indica and japonica crosses. Breed Sci, 2017,67:450-458.
[37] Misra G, Badoni S, Domingo C J, Cuevas R P O, Llorente C, Mbanjo E G N, Sreenivasulu N . Deciphering the genetic architecture of cooked rice texture. Front Plant Sci, 2018,9:1405.
[38] Teng B, Zeng R Z, Wang Y C, Liu Z Q, Zhang Z M, Zhu H T, Ding X H, Li W T, Zhang G Q . Detection of allelic variation at the Wx locus with single-segment substitution lines in rice(Oryza sativa L.). Mol Breed, 2012,30:583-595.
[39] Teng B, Zhang Y, Du S Y, Wu J D, Li Z F, Luo Z H, Yang J B . Crystalline, thermal and swelling properties of starches from single-segment substitution lines with different Wx alleles in rice(Oryza sativa L.). J Sci Food Agric, 2017,97:108-114.
[40] Bao J S, Kong X G, Xie, J K, Xu L J Analysis of genotypic and environmental effects on rice starch: 1. Apparent amylose content, pasting viscosity, and gel texture. J Agric Food Chem, 2004,52:6010-6016.
[41] Xu Y J, Ying Y N, Ou-Yang S H, Duan X L, Sun H, Jiang S K, Sun S C, Bao J S . Factors affecting sensory quality of cooked japonica rice. Rice Sci, 2018,2:330-339.
[42] Champagne E T, Bett-Garber K L, Fitzgerald M A, Grimm C C, Lea J, Ohtsubo K I, Jongdee S, Xie L H, Bassinello P Z, Resurreccion A, Ahmad R, Habibi F, Reinke R . Important sensory properties differentiating premium rice varieties. Rice, 2010,3:270-281.
[43] Inukai T, Hirayama Y . Comparison of starch levels reduced by high temperature during ripening in japonica rice lines near- isogenic for the Wx locus. J Agron Crop Sci, 2010,196:296-301.
[44] Wang K, Zhou Q F, Liu J Y, Qiu F L, Angelita dela Paz M, Larazo W, Yang Y Z, Xie F M . Genetic effects of Wx allele combinations on apparent amylose content in tropical hybrid rice. Cereal Chem, 2017,94:887-891.
[1] TIAN Tian, CHEN Li-Juan, HE Hua-Qin. Identification of rice blast resistance candidate genes based on integrating Meta-QTL and RNA-seq analysis [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(6): 1372-1388.
[2] ZHENG Chong-Ke, ZHOU Guan-Hua, NIU Shu-Lin, HE Ya-Nan, SUN wei, XIE Xian-Zhi. Phenotypic characterization and gene mapping of an early senescence leaf H5(esl-H5) mutant in rice (Oryza sativa L.) [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(6): 1389-1400.
[3] WANG Yan, CHEN Zhi-Xiong, JIANG Da-Gang, ZHANG Can-Kui, ZHA Man-Rong. Effects of enhancing leaf nitrogen output on tiller growth and carbon metabolism in rice [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(3): 739-746.
[4] ZHENG Xiang-Hua, YE Jun-Hua, CHENG Chao-Ping, WEI Xing-Hua, YE Xin-Fu, YANG Yao-Long. Xian-geng identification by SNP markers in Oryza sativa L. [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(2): 342-352.
[5] JIANG Jian-Hua, ZHANG Wu-Han, DANG Xiao-Jing, RONG Hui, YE Qin, HU Chang-Min, ZHANG Ying, HE Qiang, WANG De-Zheng. Genetic analysis of stigma traits with genic male sterile line by mixture model of major gene plus polygene in rice (Oryza sativa L.) [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2021, 47(7): 1215-1227.
[6] LI Bo, ZHANG Chi, ZENG Yu-Ling, LI Qiu-Ping, REN Hong-Chao, LU Hui, YANG Fan, CEHN Hong, WANG Li, CHEN Yong, REN Wan-Jun, DENG Fei. Effects of sowing date on eating quality of indica hybrid rice in Sichuan Basin [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2021, 47(7): 1360-1371.
[7] HAN Zhan-Yu,GUAN Xian-Yue,ZHAO Qian,WU Chun-Yan,HUANG Fu-Deng,PAN Gang,CHENG Fang-Min. Individual and combined effects of air temperature at filling stage and nitrogen application on storage protein accumulation and its different components in rice grains [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2020, 46(7): 1087-1098.
[8] ZHAO Chun-Fang,YUE Hong-Liang,TIAN Zheng,GU Ming-Chao,ZHAO Ling,ZHAO Qing-Yong,ZHU Zhen,CHEN Tao,ZHOU Li-Hui,YAO Shu,LIANG Wen-Hua,LU Kai,ZHANG Ya-Dong,WANG Cai-Lin. Physicochemical properties and sequence analysis of Wx and OsSSIIa genes in japonica rice cultivars from Jiangsu province and northeast of China [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2020, 46(6): 878-888.
[9] Ya-Ping CHEN,Rong MIAO,Xi LIU,Ben-Jia CHEN,Jie LAN,Teng-Fei MA,Yi-Hua WANG,Shi-Jia LIU,Ling JIANG. Identification and mapping of round seed related gene in rice (Oryza sativa L.) [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2019, 45(1): 1-9.
[10] Sai-Sai XIA,Yu CUI,Feng-Fei LI,Jia TAN,Yuan-Hua XIE,Xian-Chun SANG,Ying-Hua LING. Phenotypic characterizing and gene mapping of a lesion mimic and premature senescence 1 (lmps1) mutant in rice (Oryza sativa L.) [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2019, 45(1): 46-54.
[11] Jun WANG,Jie-Yu ZHAO,Yang XU,Fang-Jun FAN,Jin-Yan ZHU,Wen-Qi LI,Fang-Quan WANG,Yun-Yan FEI,Wei-Gong ZHONG,Jie YANG. Development and Application of Functional Markers for Rice Blast Resistance Gene Bsr-d1 in Rice [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2018, 44(11): 1612-1620.
[12] Yi-Ran TAO,Yu-Zhen XIONG,Jia XIE,Wei-Jiang TIAN,Xiao-Qiong ZHANG,Xiao-Bo ZHANG,Qian ZHOU,Xian-Chun SANG,Xiao-Wen WANG. Identification and Gene Mapping of sdb1 Mutant with a Semi-dwarfism and Bigger Seed in Rice [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2018, 44(11): 1621-1630.
[13] Yun-Yan FEI, Jie YANG, Fang-Jun FAN, Fang-Quan WANG, Wen-Qi LI, Jun WANG, Jin-Yan ZHU, Wei-Gong ZHONG. Genetic Analysis of Imazethapyr Resistance in Rice and the Closely Linked Marker Selection and Application [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2018, 44(05): 716-722.
[14] Fang-Quan WANG, Jie YANG, Fang-Jun FAN, Wen-Qi LI, Jun WANG, Yang XU, Jin-Yan ZHU, Yun-Yan FEI, Wei-Gong ZHONG. Development and Application of the Functional Marker for Imidazolinone Herbicides Resistant ALS Gene in Rice [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2018, 44(03): 324-331.
[15] Xian-Cheng YAN, Li-Kai CHEN, Yu-Hua LUO, Wen-Long LUO, Hui WANG, Tao GUO, Zhi-Qiang CHEN. Identification and Gene Mapping of a Floral Organ Number Mutant mf2 in Rice (Oryza sativa) [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2018, 44(02): 169-176.
Full text



No Suggested Reading articles found!