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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2020, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (7): 1087-1098.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.92062


Individual and combined effects of air temperature at filling stage and nitrogen application on storage protein accumulation and its different components in rice grains

HAN Zhan-Yu1,GUAN Xian-Yue1,ZHAO Qian1,WU Chun-Yan2,HUANG Fu-Deng2,PAN Gang1,CHENG Fang-Min1,*()   

  1. 1 College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang, China
    2 Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, Zhejiang, China
  • Received:2019-11-28 Accepted:2020-03-24 Online:2020-07-12 Published:2020-04-10
  • Contact: Fang-Min CHENG E-mail:chengfm@zju.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(31871566);National Key Research and Development Program of China(2016YFD0300502);National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFD0300103)


Air temperature during grain-filling stage and application amount of nitrogen fertilizer are two of most important factors affecting rice grain quality, which largely related to grain protein content and cooking palatability. In this paper, the difference in grain protein content and its composition was investigated using different rice varieties, with different temperature treatments under artificial controlled condition and three nitrogen application levels in a long-term experiment field. Meanwhile, another experiment of two factors (temperature and nitrogen) in pot condition was conducted to clarity the interaction effects of temperature and nitrogen on grain protein content and its components. The higher temperature (HT) and heavier N application (HN) significantly enhanced the total protein content and glutelin accumulation in rice grain. However, HT differed obviously from HN in their impact on grain prolamin. HT significantly decreased grain prolamin concentration and markedly enhanced the ratio of glutelin to prolamin in rice grains, while HN increased in grain glutelin and prolamin contents had smaller effects on ratios of glutelin to prolamin and the proportion of subunit compositions in grain storage proteins. Furthermore, HT had a marked impact on the glutelin composition in rice grains, with the significant increase in 57 kD pro-glutelin amount. However, the effect of HT on 37 kD α-glutelin and 22 kD β-glutelin was greatly variable among different rice varieties. The varying extent of grain protein amount per grain (mg grain-1) affected by HT was much smaller than that of grain protein content (%). The combined effect of HT and HN on the total storage protein and glutelin accumulation in rice grain was much greater than the individual effect of HT and HN. The dropping extent of grain prolamin content under HT appeared to be smaller for HN relative to LN, suggesting that appropriate N application was beneficial to keep the relatively stable content of grain prolamin composition under the fluctuating temperature for rice growth.

Key words: rice (Oryza sativa L.), high temperature, nitrogen, storage protein, grain quality

Table 1

Differences in total protein and its component contents in rice kernels between two temperature treatments"

相对含量Relative content (%) 绝对含量Accumulation amount (mg grain-1)
Zhehui 7954
NT 0.72 b 0.80 b 0.61 a 6.92 b 9.17 b 0.171 b 0.190 a 0.145 a 1.644 b 11.34 b
HT 1.06 a 0.95 a 0.57 b 7.83 a 10.29 a 0.221 a 0.199 a 0.122 b 1.678 a 13.74 a
NT 0.95 b 0.93 b 0.72 a 7.93 b 10.46 b 0.214 b 0.209 b 0.162 a 1.785 a 11.01 a
HT 1.15 a 1.02 a 0.65 b 8.21 a 10.83 a 0.253 a 0.225 a 0.143 b 1.810 a 12.63 a
Xiushui 134
NT 1.06 a 0.96 a 0.56 a 6.53 b 8.97 b 0.233 a 0.211 a 0.123 a 1.442 b 11.71 b
HT 0.92 b 0.97 a 0.52 b 7.26 a 9.61 a 0.186 b 0.196 b 0.103 b 1.466 a 14.23 a
Xiushui 09
NT 1.01 a 1.07 b 0.64 a 6.47 b 9.38 b 0.224 a 0.237 a 0.142 a 1.433 a 10.11 b
HT 0.98 a 1.12 a 0.57 b 7.24 a 10.15 a 0.195 b 0.221 b 0.113 b 1.439 a 12.70 a
9311 NT 0.89 a 0.97 a 0.57 a 7.32 b 10.67 b 0.209 b 0.228 a 0.130 a 1.724 a 12.84 b
HT 0.88 a 1.02 a 0.58 a 8.01 a 11.02 a 0.224 a 0.216 b 0.120 a 1.695 a 13.81 a
Yongyou 2640
NT 0.92 b 1.09 a 0.65 a 7.13 b 9.96 b 0.212 a 0.251 a 0.150 a 1.642 a 10.97 b
HT 0.99 a 1.18 a 0.54 b 7.46 a 10.35 a 0.216 a 0.258 a 0.123 b 1.632 a 13.81 a

Fig. 1

Differences in SDS-PAGE and relative optical density of storage protein between two temperature treatments NT and HT mean normal temperature regime and high temperature regime during grain filling, respectively. A and B mean SDS-PAGE and relative optical density of storage protein, respectively. For a same rice cultivar, bars indexed with the same small letters are not significantly different (P < 0.05) between NT and HT. Error bars represent SD values of three biological replicates."

Table 2

Differences in total protein and its component contents in rice kernels among different N treatment"

相对含量Relative content (%) 绝对含量Accumulation amount (mg grain-1)
清蛋白Albumin 球蛋白Globulin 醇溶
谷蛋白Glutelin 总蛋白Total protein 清蛋白Albumin 球蛋白Globulin 醇溶蛋白Prolamin 谷蛋白Glutelin 谷/醇比Glu/Prol
LN 0.87 b 0.83 b 0.53 b 6.71 c 8.87 c 0.197 b 0.188 c 0.120 b 1.524 c 12.66 b
MN 0.89 b 1.06 a 0.58 a 7.39 b 10.57 a 0.206 ab 0.246 a 0.137 a 1.714 b 12.53 b
HN 1.03 a 0.97 b 0.61 a 8.06 a 10.81 a 0.228 a 0.215 b 0.135 a 1.786 a 13.21 a
LN 0.86 b 0.92 b 0.66 b 7.47 b 9.43 b 0.187 c 0.200 b 0.144 b 1.626 b 11.57 b
MN 1.02 a 1.11 a 0.68 ab 8.08 a 11.06 a 0.226 a 0.245 a 0.151 a 1.790 a 11.93 a
HN 0.98 a 1.06 a 0.71 a 8.12 a 11.18 a 0.211 b 0.228 ab 0.153 a 1.747 a 11.66 b
秀水 134
Xiushui 134
LN 0.87 b 0.91 b 0.56 b 5.75 c 8.57 b 0.184 b 0.192 b 0.110 b 1.320 b 11.16 b
MN 0.91 b 1.07 a 0.63 a 6.91 b 10.24 a 0.189 b 0.222 a 0.131 a 1.538 a 11.76 a
HN 1.12 a 1.08 a 0.66 a 7.17 a 10.53 a 0.223 a 0.215 ab 0.132 a 1.530 a 11.62 a
Xiushui 09
LN 0.92 b 0.93 c 0.51 c 6.32 c 9.09 c 0.204 b 0.206 b 0.113 b 1.384 c 12.21 b
MN 0.90 b 1.07 b 0.57 b 7.04 b 9.85 b 0.201 b 0.239 a 0.127 a 1.663 b 13.05 a
HN 1.06 a 1.14 a 0.64 a 7.76 a 10.98 a 0.223 a 0.240 a 0.130 a 1.716 a 13.16 a

Fig. 2

Differences in SDS-PAGE and relative optical density of storage protein among three N treatments LN, MN, and HN mean low nitrogen (0 kg hm-2), medium nitrogen (180 kg hm-2), and high nitrogen (300 kg hm-2) levels, respectively. A and B mean SDS-PAGE and relative optical density of storage protein, respectively. Bars indexed with the same small letters are not significantly different (P < 0.05) between different N levels for the same rice cultivar; Error bars represented SD values of three biological replicates."

Table 3

Differences of grain protein components and contents in rice under different temperature and different N levels"

N level
Temperature treatment
相对含量Relative content (%) 绝对含量Accumulation amount (mg grain-1)
Total protein
LN NT 0.81 b 0.84 b 0.53 a 6.45 b 8.52 c 0.19 a 0.19 a 0.12 a 1.49 a 12.17 c
HT1 0.87 b 0.95 a 0.51 a 7.03 a 9.29 b 0.19 a 0.21 a 0.11 a 1.52 a 13.48 b
HT2 1.09 a 1.03 b 0.46 b 6.98 a 9.41 a 0.20 a 0.20 a 0.09 b 1.38 b 15.17 a
平均 Mean 0.92 B 0.94 B 0.50 B 6.80 B 9.04 B 0.19 B 0.20 B 0.11 B 1.47 B 13.63 A
HN NT 0.93 b 1.02 b 0.61 a 7.15 b 9.77 b 0.21 a 0.23 ab 0.14 a 1.64 a 11.72 b
HT1 0.91 a 0.97 a 0.56 b 7.23 b 10.24 a 0.21 a 0.22 b 0.13 ab 1.66 a 13.15 a
HT2 1.07 a 1.18 a 0.58 ab 7.84 a 10.59 a 0.22 a 0.24 a 0.12 b 1.58 b 13.75 a
平均 Mean 0.97 A 1.06 A 0.58 A 7.41 A 10.20 A 0.21 A 0.23 A 0.13 A 1.63 A 12.84 B
氮肥效应 Nitrogen ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
温度效应 Temperature ** ** ** ** ** ns * ** ** **
Nitrogen × temperature
** ** ** ** ** ns ns ns ** **

Fig. 3

Differences in SDS-PAGE and relative optical density of storage protein treated under different temperature regimes and different N levels LN and HN mean low nitrogen and high nitrogen levels, respectively; NT, HT1, and HT2 mean normal temperature regime (23℃), HT1 (30℃) and HT2 (34℃), respectively. A and B mean SDS-PAGE and relative optical density of storage protein, respectively. Bars indexed with the same small letters are not significantly different (P < 0.05) among different treatments; Error bars represent SD values of three biological replicates."

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