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Table of Content

    12 October 2019, Volume 45 Issue 10
    • CROP GENETICS & BREEDING·GERMPLASM RESOURCES·MOLECULAR GENETICS
      Seedling and slow rusting resistance to leaf rust in 70 introduced wheat lines
      ZHENG Hui-Min,WEN Xiao-Lei,HAO Chen-Yang,ZHANG Pei-Pei,GEBREWAHID Takele Weldu,YAN Xiao-Cui,LIU Da-Qun,ZHANG Xue-Yong,LI Zai-Feng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(10):  1455-1467.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.91003
      Abstract ( 440 )   HTML ( 61 )   PDF (1202KB) ( 256 )   Save
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      Leaf rust is one of the most important wheat diseases which has a great influence on yield. Breeding cultivars for durable resistance can effectively and economically control the disease. In this study, seventy introduced wheat varieties, including susceptible control Zhengzhou 5389 and thirty-six donor lines, were inoculated with 19 Chinese pathotypes of Puccinia triticina for leaf rust resistance genes postulation at seedling stage, and to detect APR genes at adult plant stage during the 2016-2017 cropping seasons in Zhoukou of Henan province and Baoding of Hebei province. Zhengzhou 5389 and Saar lines as a susceptible and resistance control, respectively, and thirty-six tester lines with known Lr genes were also used in the present study. Based on the results of gene postulation, marker-assisted detection and pedigree analysis, fifteen Lr genes, including Lr1, Lr2a, Lr26, Lr3ka, Lr11, Lr17, Lr30, Lr10, Lr14a, Lr2b, Lr13, Lr15, Lr21, Lr44, and Lr45, were identified among the tested cultivars. Wheat cultivars with the identified resistance genes in the present study can be used for breeding resistant cultivars of wheat leaf rust in China.

      Genetic diversity assessment in derivative offspring of Mazhamai and Xiaobaimai wheat
      BAI Yan-Ming,LI Long,WANG Hui-Yan,LIU Yu-Ping,WANG Jing-Yi,MAO Xin-Guo,CHANG Xiao-Ping,SUN Dai-Zhen,JING Rui-Lian
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(10):  1468-1477.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.91012
      Abstract ( 367 )   HTML ( 19 )   PDF (1421KB) ( 126 )   Save
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      “Mazhamai” originated in Guanzhong region of Shaanxi province, and “Xiaobaimai” in Pingyao county of Shanxi province, two landraces of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), are the primitive founder parents of wheat cultivars in northern China. The genetic diversity assessment of “Mazhamai”, “Xiaobaimai” and their derivative offsprings will be helpful to wheat cultivar improvement. In this study, a wheat 660K SNP Array was used to perform genome-wide scanning for analyzing genetic diversity of “Mazhamai”, “Xiaobaimai” and their derivatives. The polymorphic SNP marker number in three genomes was B>A>D, and the fourth homoeologous group had the least number of polymorphic markers. The gene diversity (H) and nucleotide diversity (π) ranges were 0.095-0.500 and 0.272-0.435, with corresponding average values of 0.336 and 0.340 in 149 wheat accessions, respectively. The genetic similarity coefficient (GS) ranged from 0.335 to 0.997, with an average value of 0.619 in the wheat panel. It indicated a low genetic diversity in the derivative offsprings of “Mazhamai” and “Xiaobaimai”. Cluster analysis exhibited that the derived cultivars of “Mazhamai” and “Xiaobaimai” were divided into five clusters, “Mazhamai” and “Xiaobaimai” were closely grouped into Cluster I. The cultivars released before 2000 were mainly the single derivatives of “Mazhamai” or “Xiaobaimai” in Cluster I, II and III and grouped, while the most cultivars released after 2000 possessed both blood of “Mazhamai” and “Xiaobaimai” with higher genetic diversity than the former, and grouped in Cluster IV and V just like commercial cultivars widely grown. Therefore, we should strengthen the introduction of beneficial genetic resources, broaden the genetic basis of wheat cultivars, resulting in improved breeding level.

      Cloning of NAD(P)H complex O subunit gene and its interaction with VPg of Sugarcane mosaic virus
      ZHAI Yu-Shan,ZHAO He,ZHANG Hai,DENG Yu-Qing,CHENG Guang-Yuan,YANG Zong-Tao,WANG Tong,PENG Lei,XU Qian,DONG Meng,XU Jing-Sheng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(10):  1478-1487.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.94002
      Abstract ( 314 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (1871KB) ( 80 )   Save
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      NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH) complex mediates cyclic electron transports, playing key role in efficient photosynthesis in chloroplast. The involvement of NDH complex in Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) infection of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) has not been reported. In this study, we isolated the coding sequence of the subunit of the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex from sugarcane and designated it as ScNdhO. The open reading frame (ORF) of ScNdhO is 471 bp and encodes a 156 aa length protein. Bioinformatics analysis showed that ScNdhO is a stable hydrophilic protein with no signal peptide and transmembrane domain. The secondary structure of ScNdhO is composed of mostly random coilα-helices, with a typical domain of NDH complex O subunit. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that ScNdhO belongs to the NDHO supperfamily. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that ScNdhO gene was tissue specific in sugarcane, with the lowest expression level in roots or stem, and the highest in leaf. The expression of ScNdhO was upregulated in the early stage of SCMV infection, but downregulated with time going. Subcellular location assays showed that ScNdhO was located in chloroplast. ScNdhO interacted with the VPg from SCMV as demonstrated by yeast two hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. We proposed that ScNdhO should be selectively employed by SCMV and involved in the mosaic symptom.

      Genome-wide association study for main agronomic traits in common wheat
      ZHAI Jun-Peng,LI Hai-Xia,BI Hui-Hui,ZHOU Si-Yuan,LUO Xiao-Yan,CHEN Shu-Lin,CHENG Xi-Yong,XU Hai-Xia
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(10):  1488-1502.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.91002
      Abstract ( 583 )   HTML ( 23 )   PDF (1319KB) ( 349 )   Save
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      To illustrate the genetic mechanism of complex agronomic traits in wheat, we investigated nine agronomic traits using 150 wheat cultivars (lines) from China across four environments. Genome-wide association analysis was performed using wheat 35K genotyping assay with five association models (Q, PCA, K, PCA+K, Q+K). The results revealed that the polymorphic information content (PIC) of values was between 0.0950 and 0.5000, and the minimum allele frequency (MAF) was between 0.0500 and 0.5000. Both the population structure analysis and the PCA analysis showed that the tested materials could be divided into two sub-populations. Linkage disequilibrium analysis found that the LD decay distances of the A, B, D, and the whole genome were approximately 4.7, 8, 11, and 6 Mb, respectively. A total of 652 significant (P ≤ 0.001) marker-trait associations (MTAs) were detected, thereinto, 21 SNPs could be detected on chromosomes 1A(1), 1B(4), 2A(3), 2D(2), 3A(1), 5A(1), 5B(5), 6A(1), 6B(2), and 7D(3) in two or more environments. Three SNPs were significantly associated with two traits and the physical position of one SNP was unknown. Single SNPs could explain 7.67 % to 18.79 % phenotypic variation. It was found that eight favorable allelic variations accounted for a low proportion in the tested population. Fourteen candidate genes that may be related to agronomic traits of wheat were identified. Among them, TraesCS5B02G237200, TraesCS7D02G129700, and TraesCS1B02G426300 may play important roles in plants resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. TraesCS5B02G010800 and TraesCS7D02G436800 may be related to the hormones synthesis and response in plants. TraesCS2A02G092200 may enhance the cell wall formation of plants. TraesCS5A02G438800 may be involved in chloroplast development. The function of the other seven candidate genes is unknown.

      Genetic analysis and chromosomal localization of powdery mildew resistance gene in wheat germplasm CH1357
      CHEN Fang,QIAO Lin-Yi,LI Rui,LIU Cheng,LI Xin,GUO Hui-Juan,ZHANG Shu-Wei,CHANG Li-Fang,LI Dong-Fang,YAN Xiao-Tao,REN Yong-Kang,ZHANG Xiao-Jun,CHANG Zhi-Jian
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(10):  1503-1510.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.91011
      Abstract ( 357 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (4122KB) ( 123 )   Save
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      Powdery mildew is a serious disease affecting yield and quality of wheat. Wheat-Thinopyrum imtermedium introgression line CH1357 is highly resistant to Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) at the adult plant stage and immune or highly resistant to 27 Bgt isolates at the seedling stage. Two mapping populations (F1, BC1, and F2:3) derived from Taichang 29/CH1357 and Mianyang 11/CH1357 were used to map the powdery mildew resistance gene by the bulked segregant analysis. The powdery mildew resistance in CH1357 was controlled by a single dominant gene, temporarily named PmCH1357. This gene was located on the short arm of chromosome 5D and linked to SSR markers Xcfd81 and Xbwm8, with genetic distances of 2.0 cM and 11.3 cM in the Taichang 29/CH1357 population and 1.5 cM and 8.9 cM in the Mianyang 11/CH1357 population, respectively. PmCH1357 differs from other Pm genes reported on chromosome 5DS in resistance spectrum, which may be a new source of resistance.

      Genetic diversity and population genetic structure of broomcorn millet accessions in Xinjiang and Gansu
      XUE Yan-Tao,LU Ping,SHI Meng-Sha,SUN Hao-Yue,LIU Min-Xuan,WANG Rui-Yun
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(10):  1511-1521.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.84174
      Abstract ( 470 )   HTML ( 19 )   PDF (4572KB) ( 163 )   Save
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      Xinjiang and Gansu, are the critical junctures for the ancient Silk Road of China as well as the main cultivation areas of broomcorn millet. In this study, a total of 103 SSR primers and 216 millets were used to analyze the genetic diversity and population genetic structure which promotes the study on origin evolution and propagation path of broomcorn millet. The 299 alleles were detected with an average of 2.9 for each SSR. The mean values of Shannon-Weaver index, Ne, Nei were 0.7360, 0.6298, and 0.5497 respectively, and the range of PIC value was 0.0688-0.7786 with a mean of 0.4714, indicating the moderate polymorphism of these SSRs. The genetic differentiation was very small in terms of the inbreeding line number and genetic differentiation coefficient which were 0.5870 and 0.0383, respectively. The values of Na, Shannon-Weaver index, Nei, PIC of broomcorn millet accessions in Gansu were 2.8252, 0.7347, 0.4501, and 0.4674, respectively, which were higher than those in Xinjiang, indicating more abundant genetic diversity in Gansu. Two hundred and sixteen broomcorn millet accessions could be divided into five groups based on cluster analysis of genetic distance. Group I-IV had seven accessions with a distant genetic relationship with other samples. Ninety-six percent of accessions were distributed in group V, which were further divided into four subgroups at a genetic distance of 0.38. The main accessions of subgroups A and D came from Gansu, those of subgroups B and C were from Xinjiang, indicating that the accessions between Xinjiang and Gansu are obviously separated and permeated with each other. The result of genetic structure analysis was similar to that of UPGMA clustering, both of them related to their geographical distribution.

      Enhancing CRISPR/Cas9 genomic editing efficiency based on optimization of sgRNA of Gossypium barbadense L.
      LI Ji-Yang,HU Yan,YAO Rui,DAI Pei-Hong,LIU Xiao-Dong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(10):  1522-1534.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.84130
      Abstract ( 430 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (8059KB) ( 108 )   Save
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      The CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system has been established in many crops. The advantages of its directional creation of mutants are increasingly favored by researchers. However, the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology targets the editing of the target gene and also triggers off-target effects at different frequencies, which determine the reliability of the genome editing system. This study was based on the previous CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system established in the island-cotton somatic cells. Edit the vector by constructing different codon optimization methods for Cas9, different numbers of PAM sites and different target sites, and the difference in editing efficiency and off-target effect were analyzed and compared. There was no significant difference in editing effects and off-target effects caused by Cas9-edited vectors with different optimal codons. The partially double-sgRNA had significantly higher editing efficiency and significantly lower off-target efficiency than the single sgRNA; the editing efficiency of the transformed No shift sgRNA target sequence was significantly higher than that of the Shift sgRNA and the former had a significant decrease in off-target efficiency relative to the latter. Therefore, using No shift sgRNA type target sequence can effectively improve the editing efficiency and significantly reduce the off-target efficiency, thus laying a theoretical foundation for optimizing the CRISPR/Cas9 mediated island cotton genome editing system and accurately and efficiently creating island cotton functional gene mutants in the future.

      TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY
      Regulation of coronatine on the grain filling characteristics and starch synthesis in maize kernels
      YU Hai-Yue,HAN Zi-Xuan,ZHANG Yu-Shi,DUAN Liu-Sheng,ZHANG Ming-Cai,LI Zhao-Hu
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(10):  1535-1543.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.93007
      Abstract ( 342 )   HTML ( 21 )   PDF (599KB) ( 190 )   Save
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      Maize yield is strong linked to grain filling characteristics, which one important strategy to be improved for achieving high yield of maize. This study was conducted to clarity the effects of coronatine (COR) on grain filling characteristics, starch content, activities of starch biosynthetic enzymes and their gene expression in maize kernels. The two-year field experiments showed that COR had a significant concentration effect on ear traits and yield of maize. The appropriate COR concentration of 1.0 mg L -1 could significantly reduce the length of bald tip of ear and increase the number of grains per ear and 1000-grain weight, which increased the maize yield. Meanwhile, high concentration of COR with 10 mg L -1 (COR 10) increased grain filling rate, but shortened the duration of grain filling, which led to reducing grain weight. However, COR 1.0 treatment increased grain filling rate, prolonged the duration of grain filling and increased grain weight. In addition, COR 1.0 significantly regulated the activities of AGPase, SSS, GBSS, and SBE during grain filling, and increased the expression levels of starch synthetic genes ZmSH1, ZmSH2, ZmWX1, and ZmAE1, which increased amylopectin, amylose and total starch contents. In conclusion, COR can regulate grain morphogenesis and dry matter accumulation in maize, providing a new technical method for maize production and efficient cultivation.

      Analysis of differences in summer maize yield and fertilizer use efficiency under different cultivation managements
      WANG Hong-Zhang,LIU Peng,JIA Xu-Cun,LI Jing,REN Hao,DONG Shu-Ting,ZHANG Ji-Wang,ZHAO Bin
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(10):  1544-1553.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.93002
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      Our study was conducted in Tai’an, Zibo, and Yantai city from 2017 to 2018. According to the production research and experience of high-yield summer maize, three cultivation modes simulating super-high production level (SH), high production and high-efficiency production level (HH), and farmer production level (FP) were comprehensively set up in the same plot. The fertilizer blanks were applied with no nitrogen (SHN0, HHN0, FPN0), no phosphorus (SHP0, HHP0, FPP0), and no potassium (SHK0, HHK0, FPK0). Quantitative analysis of the yield gap and fertilizer utilization efficiency gap under different yield levels was carried out to explore the factors affecting yield gap and efficiency gap, and the way to reduce the gap and improve the efficiency. The grain yields of SH, HH, and FP of summer maize in Shandong province were realized 68.13%, 63.71%, and 53.22% of the potential yield of light and temperature. The fertilizer utilization efficiency decreased with the enlarged yield gap. The agronomic utilization rates of N, P and K fertilizers in FP were 4.23, 5.83, and 4.94 kg kg -1, respectively. The N, P, and K fertilizer utilization efficiencies of FP were 4.23, 5.83, and 4.94 kg kg -1, and those of SH were 3.84, 4.64, and 2.97 kg kg -1, respectively. After optimizing the cultivation measures, the high-yield and high-efficiency management mode increased the fertilizer utilization efficiency of N, P, and K by 67.07%, 101.35%, and 57.65%, respectively, and the output by 10.49%, as compared with FP. It is an effective technical way to achieve the synergistic improvement of yield and fertilizer use efficiency. The yield performance analysis of summer maize yields showed that with the increase of yield level, the mean leaf area index and the number of panicles per unit area increased significantly, while the number of kernels per panicle, average net assimilation rate and grain weight decreased. At the same time, with the increase of yield level, the accumulation ratio of biomass and N, P, and K uptake decreased in pre-silking stage, and increased in post-silking stage. Therefore, under the condition of keeping functional parameters unchanged on the existing basis, optimizing structural parameters is an effective measure for current yield and efficiency increase, and with the increase of yield, more attention should be paid to structural optimization in post-silking stage.

      Spatio-temporal changes of China’s wheat production based on division of farming system during 1985-2015
      BAI Bing,YANG Yu-Hao,WANG Xiao-Hui,JIA Hao,WU Yao,SHI Lei-Gang,YIN Xiao-Gang,CHEN Fu
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(10):  1554-1564.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.81094
      Abstract ( 380 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (6027KB) ( 153 )   Save
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      Comparing spatio-temporal variation characteristics of China’s wheat production, yield, sown area and yield-area-contribution in different farming zones in the past 30 years could help improving wheat planting layout and adjusting planting structure. Concentration index, rate of change, moving of gravity and resolution of yield-area-contribution were used to analyze spatio-temporal changes of China’s wheat production and yield-area-contribution based on county wheat production statistics including sown area, production and yield from 1985 to 2015. The wheat sown area decreased obviously in Northeast farming region, Northwest farming region and South farming region and increased rapidly in Huang-Huai-Hai farming region and Yangtze Plain farming region. In Huang-Huai-Hai farming region, the concentration indexes of Haihe Plain farming region, Huang-huai Plain farming region and Fenwei Basin farming region reached to 20.64%, 25.77%, and 21.65% respectively in 2015. Wheat production increased significantly by more than 48 milliontons in Huang-Huai-Hai farming region, and nearly 8 million tons Yangtze Plain farming region but decreased by more than 2.6 million tons in Northeast farming region. In Huang-Huai-Hai farming region, wheat production was concentrated in Haihe Plain farming region, Huang-huai Plain farming region and Yuxi Hill farming region. The average wheat yield continuously improved during the study period, Huang-Huai-Hai farming region and Northwest farming region had the yield increase up to 103.5 kg hm -2 and 92.9 kg hm -2 each year. Wheat yield in Yuxi Hill farming region, Fenwei Basin farming region and Haihe Plain farming region was relatively high in Huang-Huai-Hai farming region. The yield-reduced area was mainly caused by the decreasing of sown area, while the yield-area-contribution rate was different in yield-increased area. Yield-dominant counties were reduced, area-dominant counties were increased and yield-area-dominant counties were relatively steady. In production increased area, yield-dominant and yield-area-dominant counties were the main types in Huang-Huai-Hai Farming region, area-dominant and yield-area-dominant counties were the main types in Yangtze Plain farming region. Chinese wheat production was increasingly concentrated in Huang-Huai-Hai farming region which has high and rapid increase of wheat yield over the past three decades. Haihe Plain farming region, Huang-huai Plain farming region and Fenwei Basin farming region were the most concentrated areas in Huang-Huai-Hai farming region for wheat production during this period. Wheat yield and sown area jointly promoted the increase of wheat production in Huang-Huai-Hai farming region, wheat sown area was the crucial factor to increase wheat production in Yangtze Plain farming region, especially in the north of Jiangsu, Anhui province and greater part of Xinjiang.

      Effects of phosphorus fertilizer application depths on root distribution and phosphorus uptake and utilization efficiencies of summer maize under subsoiling tillage
      CHEN Xiao-Ying,LIU Peng,CHENG Yi,DONG Shu-Ting,ZHANG Ji-Wang,ZHAO Bin,REN Bai-Zhao
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(10):  1565-1575.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.93005
      Abstract ( 379 )   HTML ( 25 )   PDF (1010KB) ( 374 )   Save
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      Phosphorus fertilizer application depths are extremely important for increasing phosphorus uptake and utilization efficiencies. In the present study, root distribution, biomass, grain yield, phosphorus uptake and utilization efficiencies were determined in field experiment and soil column experiment, with five treatments including CK (no P applied), P5 (phosphorus application depth was 5 cm), P10 (phosphorus application depth was 10 cm), P15 (phosphorus application depth was 15 cm), and P20 (phosphorus application depth was 20 cm). Phosphorus fertilizer application depths significantly affected root dry weight and root length of summer maize with a trend of P15>P10>P20>P5>CK. Compared with P5 treatment, averaged grain yield of P15 treatment increased by 23.1% in two years, averaged root dry weight and total root length increased by 13.1% and 22.9% in two years. Both P15 and P20 treatments increased the proportion of root dry weight and root length in the soil layer below -20 cm. The proportion of root dry weight of P15 and P20 treatments reached 35.4% and 36.4%, and the proportion of root length reached 58.7% and 59.3% in soil column experiments; the proportion of root dry weight both reached 19.0% and the proportion of root length reached 39.8% and 39.9% in field experiment, respectively. The optimization of root distribution promoted the accumulation and transport of phosphorus in plants. Compared with P5 treatment, P10, P15, and P20 treatments increased the averaged phosphorus accumulation in two years by 10.6%, 25.2%, and 14.7%, the average phosphorus transport amount in two years by 46.9%, 76.6%, and 57.6%, and the grain yield by 12.9%, 23.1%, and 10.6%, respectively. Compared with P5 treatment, P15 treatment increased the averaged P partial factor productivity, P agronomic efficiency and P apparent utilization efficiency by 19.1 kg kg -1, 19.1 kg kg -1, and 25.2% in two years, respectively. In summary, deep fertilization of phosphorus could increase the distribution of root in deep soil layers, improve the absorption and utilization efficiencies of phosphorus in plants, and significantly improve the grain yield of summer maize. Under the condition of this study, the suitable P fertilizer application depth was 15 cm from the soil surface.

      Temporal and spatial variations of winter wheat freezing injury in northern winter wheat region
      MENG Fan-Yuan,FENG Li-Ping,ZHANG Feng-Yao,ZHANG Yi,WU Lu,WANG Chun-Lei,YAN Jin-Tao,PENG Ming-Xi,MO Zhi-Hong,YU Wei-Dong
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(10):  1576-1585.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.81076
      Abstract ( 330 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (2217KB) ( 138 )   Save
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      Base on daily meteorological data of 43 observation stations across northern China from 1951 to 2014, we calculated the freezing injury factors including maximum scale of drop in temperature, extreme minimum temperature, negative accumulated temperature, mean temperature, precipitation and wind speed during over-wintering stage. The freeze injury index (FII) of winter wheat was established by considering the freezing injury factors with principal component analysis. The greater the FII was, the more severe the freeze injury would occur. The Mann-Kendall method was used to analyze the mutation characteristics of FII, and explore the spatial-temporal distribution of freeze injury to winter wheat. The historical freeze injury of winter wheat could be actually reflected by the FII. The FII had a sudden change around 1980, which indicted the frequency and extent of winter wheat freezing injury in this region decreased significantly after climate warming. But due to the increasing of climate instability, the moderate to severe levels of freeze injury have increased since 2000. The annual FII had a declined trend significantly in the past 60 years, which was aggravated with increasing latitude and altitude in spatial distribution. The FII was high in Yan-Taihang Mountains and basin region relative to other two regions.

      RESEARCH NOTES
      Expression profiles of FAD2 genes and their responses to cold stress in peanut
      XUE Xiao-Meng,LI Jian-Guo,BAI Dong-Mei,YAN Li-Ying,WAN Li-Yun,KANG Yan-Ping,HUAI Dong-Xin,LEI Yong,LIAO Bo-Shou
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(10):  1586-1594.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.84177
      Abstract ( 386 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (3174KB) ( 187 )   Save
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      To explore the roles of FAD2s in response to cold stress in peanut, we cloned seven AhFAD2 genes from normal oleate peanut ZH16 and high oleate peanut ZH413, respectively. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the expression patterns of FAD2 genes were similar in ZH16 and ZH413. AhFAD2-1A/B was highly expressed in flower and developing seed, AhFAD2-3A/B was mainly expressed in leaf and stem, and AhFAD2-4A/B was expressed specifically in root and flower, indicating that AhFAD2 genes played their respective roles in different developmental stages and tissues of peanut. At 6 days after inducing under 15℃, the germination rate of ZH16 was significantly decreased while that of ZH413 was not significantly affected. The expression of both AhFAD2-1A/B and AhFAD2-4A/B were induced by cold stress. The expression of AhFAD2-1A/B was significantly up-regulated at 6 DAI in ZH16, while at 1 DAI in ZH413, suggesting that AhFAD2-1A/B was induced by cold more quickly in high oleate peanut. Furthermore, the expression of AhFAD2-4A/B was significantly up-regulated at 3 DAI in ZH16 and then decreased, while it was increased immediately and maintained at high level for six days in ZH413. Based on these results, we speculate that up-regulation of AhFAD2-4A/B may compensate the function of AhFAD2-1A/B that is deactivated under cold stress in high oleate peanut, and the deactivation of AhFAD2-1A/B is not the most important factors affecting peanut cold tolerance. This study provides a theoretical basis in breeding of high oleate peanut with high tolerance to cold stress, and the theoretical support for extension of high oleate peanut in both high latitude and high altitude regions.

      DNA methylation involved in regulating drought stress response of potato
      LI Peng-Cheng,BI Zhen-Zhen,LIANG Wen-Jun,SUN Chao,ZHANG Jun-Lian,BAI Jiang-Ping
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(10):  1595-1603.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.94024
      Abstract ( 289 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (1498KB) ( 132 )   Save
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      Although epigenetics is essential for regulating gene expression in plant under abiotic stress, there are few reports regarding the epigenetics of potato under drought stress. In this study, five potato cultivars including Atlantic, Favorita, C119, C16, and Qingshu 9, were used to verify that DNA methylation is involved in potato drought stress response. The plantlets were cultured for 24 days on MS medium, MS medium supplemented with 60 μmol L -1 methylation inhibitor (5-azadC), 200 mmol L -1 mannitol, and 60 μmol L -1 methylation inhibitor combined with 200 mmol L -1 mannitol, respectively. Phenotypes, and physiological and biochemical traits were recorded and comprehensively analyzed. The response of five potato cultivars to mannitol and 5-azadC was similar. With treatments of mannitol or 5-azadC, the dry/fresh weight, shoot height, leaf number and chlorophyll content decreased significantly (P < 0.05), while the activities of SOD, POD, CAT, and contents of proline and MDA increased significantly (P < 0.05). No significant changes were observed in branch number, root length and average root diameter, indicating that potato traits might have different regulatory pathways in response to drought stress and DNA demethylation. Compared with the individual treatment, combined-treatment further inhibited the growth of plantlets, and increased activities of SOD, POD, CAT, and contents of MDA and Pro under drought stress and 5-azadC treatment, indicating that the formation of some phenotypes (not all) in response to drought was regulated through the DNA methylation. The results provide preliminary data for further study on epigenetics regulatory pathway of potato under drought stress.

      Hexaploid ancestor of cultivated hexaploid oats inferred from high throughput GBS-SNP markers
      ZHOU Ping-Ping,YAN Hong-Hai,PENG Yuan-Ying
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2019, 45(10):  1604-1612.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.81091
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      Cultivated hexaploid oat is one of the most important cereal crops in the word, clearing its hexaploid ancestor would substantially improve the utilization efficiency of the genetic resources of oat, and therefore provide theoretical reference for oat germplasm conservation. In this study, 27 naked oats originated from China were sequenced by using GBS (genotyping by sequencing). SNPs were calling by combining the previously published GBS data of another 66 hexaploid oats including six species using UNEAK pipeline. A total of 8902 SNPs with MAF > 0.5, call rate > 0.95 were obtained. Four taxa with missing value greater than 15% were excluded for further analyses. Finally, 89 oat taxa meeting the requirement were used for PCA, STRUCTURE and UPGMA clustering analyses. All three analyses revealed some consistent results as follows: most wild hexaploid oats with the exception of A. sterilis showed strong genetic differentiations among each other, resulting in a grouping by species. Clustering analysis divided all the taxa into two clusters representing wild species and cultivated species, respectively, indicating some significant genetic differences existed between this two types of hexaploids. Within cultivated hexaploid oats, A. byzantina showed a high degree of genetic homogeneity with A. sativa, while naked oats differed from the others and formed an independent subcluster with close relationships with A. sativa. The taxa from the wild hexaploid species A. sterilis were mainly subdivided into two groups. Notably, these accessions of A. sterilis originated from western Asia (Iran-lraq-Turkey region) were clustered with the cultivated oats A. sativa and A. byzantina, suggesting that A. sativa and A. byzantina might be derived from progenitor germplasm from Iran-lraq-Turkey region. Another wild hexaploid species A. hybrida showed high degree of genetic homogeneity with A. fatua, is better to consider as a subspecies of A. fatua. This research contributes to clarifying the hexaploid origin of cultivated hexaploid oats.

Co-sponsored:
the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

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  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/the-crop-journal
Submission: https://www.editorialmanager.com/cj/
E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
Tel: 8610-82108548

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