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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2019, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (10): 1576-1585.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.81076


Temporal and spatial variations of winter wheat freezing injury in northern winter wheat region

MENG Fan-Yuan1,FENG Li-Ping1,*(),ZHANG Feng-Yao1,ZHANG Yi2,WU Lu1,WANG Chun-Lei1,YAN Jin-Tao1,PENG Ming-Xi1,MO Zhi-Hong3,YU Wei-Dong4   

  1. 1College of Resources & Environmental Sciences, China Agriculture University, Beijing 100193, China
    2Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081
    3COFCO Trading Co. Ltd., Beijing 100005, China
    4China Henan Institute of Meteorological Sciences, Zhengzhou 450003, Henan, China
  • Received:2018-10-17 Accepted:2019-05-12 Online:2019-10-12 Published:2019-09-10
  • Contact: Li-Ping FENG E-mail:fenglp@cau.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2016YFD0300201-6);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31371528)


Base on daily meteorological data of 43 observation stations across northern China from 1951 to 2014, we calculated the freezing injury factors including maximum scale of drop in temperature, extreme minimum temperature, negative accumulated temperature, mean temperature, precipitation and wind speed during over-wintering stage. The freeze injury index (FII) of winter wheat was established by considering the freezing injury factors with principal component analysis. The greater the FII was, the more severe the freeze injury would occur. The Mann-Kendall method was used to analyze the mutation characteristics of FII, and explore the spatial-temporal distribution of freeze injury to winter wheat. The historical freeze injury of winter wheat could be actually reflected by the FII. The FII had a sudden change around 1980, which indicted the frequency and extent of winter wheat freezing injury in this region decreased significantly after climate warming. But due to the increasing of climate instability, the moderate to severe levels of freeze injury have increased since 2000. The annual FII had a declined trend significantly in the past 60 years, which was aggravated with increasing latitude and altitude in spatial distribution. The FII was high in Yan-Taihang Mountains and basin region relative to other two regions.

Key words: winter wheat, overwintering stage, freeze injury index (FII), the Northern winter wheat region, spatial and temporal distribution characteristics, climate warming

Fig. 1

Distribution of weather stations in study area I: Yan-Taihang Mountains and basin region; II: Hebei and Shanxi mountains and plain region; III: Loess Plateau gully-hilly region."

Table 1

Definition and calculation method of climate indices of overwintering stage"

因子Factor 计算方法Calculation method
Maximum scale of drop in temperature during over-wintering stage
越冬期降温过程中连续72 h内日平均气温的最大降温幅度
The maximum temperature drop of daily average temperature during continuous cooling for 72 hours during over-wintering stage
Extreme minimum temperature during over-wintering stage
Extreme minimum temperature of over-wintering stage
Negative accumulated temperature during over-wintering stage
Accumulative value of average daily temperature <0℃
during over-wintering stage
Mean temperature during over-wintering stage
Average daily average temperature during over-wintering stage
Precipitation during over-wintering stage
Daily precipitation cumulative value during over-wintering stage
Wind speed during over-wintering stage
Mean daily wind speed during over-wintering stage

Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of FII in three secondary area"

Table 2

Grade indexes for freeze injury of winter wheat during overwintering stage"

Freeze injury index
致灾等级Disaster level
无冻害Freeze-free 轻度Mild 中度Moderate 重度Severe
冻害指数FII FII<0.55 0.55≤FII≤0.75 0.75≤FII<0.95 0.95≤FII<1.82
死苗率Mortality rate (%) <8 8~15 15~30 >30

Fig. 3

Inter-annual variation of the FII of three subplot from 1951 to 2014 in northern winter wheat region I: Yan-Taihang mountains and basin region; II: Hebei and Shanxi mountains and plain region; III: Loess Plateau gully-hilly region. ** significant at P<0.01."

Fig. 4

Jumping test on the FII of three subplot by using Mann-Kendall method from 1951 to 2014 in northern winter wheat region I: Yan-Taihang mountains and basin region; II: Hebei and Shanxi mountains and plain region; III: Loess Plateau gully-hilly region."

Fig. 5

Inter-decades distribution of FII during overwintering stage in Northern winter wheat region. I: Yan-Taihang mountains and basin region; II: Hebei and Shanxi mountains and plain region; III: Loess Plateau gully-hilly region."

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