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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2019, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (2): 297-309.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.83010


Spatiotemporal characteristics of water requirement and agricultural drought during summer maize season in Huaihe River Basin

Chao GAO1,Xue-Wen LI2,Yan-Wei SUN1,Ting ZHOU3,Gang LUO1,Cai CHEN1   

  1. 1 Department of Geography & Spatial Information Techniques, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, Zhejiang, China;
    2 School of Geography and Tourism, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000, Anhui, China
    3 Department of Water Resources Engineering, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui, China
  • Received:2018-01-21 Accepted:2018-08-20 Online:2019-02-12 Published:2018-09-17
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(41571018);This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51509001);the Natural Science Fund of Anhui Province(1608085QE112);and the Talent Training Program for Universities of Anhui Province(gxyqZD2017019)


Based on daily meteorological data from 110 stations during 1961-2015 in the Huaihe River Basin, we analyzed the spatial and temporal variations of water requirement in different growth stages of summer maize by the Penman-Monteith (P-M) formula and ‘crop coefficient method’. Crop water deficit index (CWDI) was used as an indicator of drought evaluation to reveal the spatial and temporal variation of drought in summer maize growth period. The CWDI sequence was fitted by 33 distribution functions of four categories, and an optimal probability distribution model was established to estimate the probability of drought in the growth stages of summer maize in the Huaihe River Basin. In the past 55 years, the water requirement of summer maize in whole growth period and each growth stage showed a significant decreasing trend and the spatial distribution of water requirement showed higher in central and northern region and lower in southwest and southeast region. The trend of water deficit index in summer maize growth period did not change significantly. In addition to jointing-tasseling stage, the rest of the growing stages showed water deficit in whole the basin, and the northern region was more severely affected by water deficit than the southern region. During the growth period of summer maize, the probability of drought in the sowing-emergence stage and the tasseling-milking stage was the highest. Except for the probability between 30% and 50% of severe drought in the sowing-emergence period, the drought probability of different grades in each growth stage was less than 20%.

Key words: agricultural drought, crop water deficit index, summer maize, drought probability, optimal probability distribution model

Fig. 1

Meteorological stations and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in Huaihe River Basin"

Table 1

Four kinds of probability distribution functions"

Bounded probability
distribution function
Unbounded probability
distribution function
Non-negative probability
distribution function
Generalized distribution
Beta Cauchy Chi-Squared Gen.Extreme Value
Pert Error Function Erlang Gen.Logistic
Power Function Gumbel Max Exponential Gen.Pareto
Triangular Gumbel Min Fatigue Life Phased Bi-Exponential
Uniform Laplace Gamma Phased Bi-Weibull
Logistic log-Logistic Wakeby
Normal Lognormal
Student’s t Pareto

Fig. 2

Spatial characteristics of summer maize water requirement and Mean-Kendall (M-K) trend in 1961-2015"

Fig. 3

Spatial characteristics of CWDI and Mean-Kendall (M-K) trend in summer maize growth period 1961-2015"

Fig. 4

Optimal probability distribution function of water deficit index for each growth stage of summer maize at 110 stations in Huaihe River Basin"

Fig. 5

Spatial distribution of drought probability for each growth stage of summer maize"

Fig. 6

Spatial distribution of probability for each grade of drought at each growth stage of summer maize"

Fig. 7

Temporal changes of average relative humidity (a), mean wind speed (b), sunshine hours (c), and solar radiation (d) of summer maize growth period The black curve shows meteorological changed year by year; the dotted shows the liner trend."

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