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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2019, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (4): 485-498.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.83051

• REVIEW •     Next Articles

Theoretical and technical models of quantitative regulation in food crop production system

ZHAO Ming(),ZHOU Bao-Yuan,MA Wei,LI Cong-Feng,DING Zai-Song,SUN Xue-Fang   

  1. Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences / Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Production, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2018-06-12 Accepted:2019-01-12 Online:2019-04-12 Published:2019-04-03
  • Contact: Ming ZHAO E-mail:zhaoming@caas.cn
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2016YFD0300207);the National Science and Technology Support Project(2006BAD02A13);the National Science and Technology Support Project(2013BAD07B00);the China Agriculture Research System (CARS-02-12).


Multi-objective collaborative development of crop production with high yield, high efficiency, and environmental friendliness is more important in China. Further improving theoretical models of crop system is a main way to adapt multi-objective coordinated development, and promote the sustainable development of crop production. In this paper, we reviewed current theoretical and technical regulation approaches for crop system. Meanwhile, according to the current crop production developing condition and previous researches, a new model “Three Collaboration Theory and Technology System” was established based on the overall composition of crop system, which can collaboratively optimize the relationship of “climate-crops”, “soil-crops”, and “population-individual” simultaneously. The application and perspective of such model were discussed.

Key words: crop production system, climate, soil, crop, collaborative optimization

Fig. 1

“Three Collaboration” theoretical models of crop production systemRa: radiation; AT: accumulated temperature; DR: distribution ratio; TPPE: photothermic production potential equivalence; DM: dry matter."

Table 1

Accumulated temperature and radiation for different cropping systems"

Cropping system
积温 Accumulated temperature 辐射 Radiation
Annual amount (°C)
Ratio of two seasons
Annual amount (MJ m-2)
Ratio of two seasons
W-M 5330.3±79.3 46:54 4169.5±145.9 60:40
D-D 5275.1±139.8 43:57 4336.6±300.9 58:42
W-R 5237.7±100.1 36:64 4490.1±116.9 53:47
M-M 4974.3±151.9 50:50 3428.7±103.5 58:42
M-R 5439.7±53.0 54:46 3381.3±197.2 55:45
R-R 5645.3±272.5 48:52 3455.3±272.5 54:46
r-r 5250.1±156.1 71:29 3420.2±160.5 72:28

Fig. 2

Photothermic production potential equivalence of wheat, maize, and rice with different levels of yield"

Fig. 3

Models of collaboration quantitative optimization between soil and crop"

Table 2

Soil physical and chemical characteristics of different plots at different districts"

Soil characteristics
Spring maize in Northeast China
Wheat/maize in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain
Rice in Yangtze Plain
Farmers’ field
Optimized field
Farmers’ field
Optimized field
Farmers’ field
Optimized field
物理特征Physical characteristics
Depth of topsoil (cm)
15.1 26.5 17.2 27.3 14.5 25.0
Soil volume weight (g cm-3)
1.43 1.21 1.37 1.16 1.54 1.28
Effective amount of tilling soil
(×106 kg hm-2)
1.97 3.15 2.21 3.07 2.01 3.18
化学特征Chemical characteristics
Organic matter (%)
1.81-4.61 2.63-6.67 0.78-1.26 1.12-1.68 0.95-2.45 2.01-3.81
Total nitrogen (%)
0.08-0.32 0.21-0.52 0.03-0.09 0.08-0.15 0.06-0.13 0.12-0.17
Available phosphorus (mg kg-1)
4-10 8-15 2.8-7.8 6.7-13.2 2.8-6.7 5.5-8.5
Available potassium (mg kg-1)
92-136 116-251 91-136 141-215 53-102 76-142

Table 3

Structures and function parameters of populations with high yield and high efficiency"

叶系统 Leaf system 穗系统 Spike system 产量
Grain yield
(kg hm-2)
MLAI MNAR HI EN (×104 hm-2) GN (No. ear-1) GW (g)
春玉米 Spring maize 4.29 5.94 0.49 8.69 411.3 342.8 13121.3
夏玉米 Summer maize 3.42 6.07 0.52 7.98 443.8 362.6 12408.4
冬小麦 Winter wheat 2.72 5.19 0.46 691.0 32.0 45.0 10110.2
水稻 Rice 3.81 3.94 0.51 373.4 129.7 22.5 11306.8
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