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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (7): 1721-1729.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11045


Identification on sensitivity of wheat to low temperature at reproductive stages

WANG Juan(), LIU Yi, YAO Dan-Yu, ZOU Jing-Wei, XIAO Shi-He, SUN Guo-Zhong()   

  1. National Engineering Laboratory of Crop Molecular Breeding, Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2021-04-23 Accepted:2021-11-29 Online:2022-07-12 Published:2021-12-13
  • Contact: SUN Guo-Zhong E-mail:wj_1714661899@163.com;sunguozhong@caas.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFD0100703);Fundamental Research Funds for Central Public Welfare Research Institutes(S2020YC03);China Agriculture Research System(CARS-03)


Spring freezing injury caused by the low temperature at the reproductive stage is one of the natural disasters that seriously threaten the safety of wheat production in China. Spring wheat cultivar Zhongmai 8444 was employed to accurately determine the correlation between low-temperature damage and the sensitive stages of plant development under the controlled condition. Yield loss and the symptoms of frostbite were observed when plants were treated with freezing stress during the spike differentiation stage. The results showed that the developmental leaf age is relevant to the young spike differentiation stage in wheat plants. In addition, the degree of frost damage to the stems and leaves of wheat plants increased with the decrease of temperature and the developmental processes. In contrast, the plant height, spike length, and seed setting rate declined with a decrease in temperature and developmental processes. The late double ridge phase (S2.25) to floret primordia differentiation phase (S3.5) and the anther connective tissue formation phase (S5) to stigma branches protuberance phase (S7) are the two stages that change significantly to low-temperature sensitivity during the young spike development. Based on the tolerance of stems, leaves, spikes, and other organs to low temperature, the meiotic stage can be used to comprehensively evaluate the resistance level of wheat to frost in spring.

Key words: wheat, reproductive development, sensitivity to low temperature, meiosis stage

Fig. 1

LED spectrum at seedling and heading stages in wheat A: seedling stage; B: heading stage."

Fig. 2

Leaf ages of wheat plant at different sowing dates The developmental stages of wheat plants at seven sowing dates according to the Zadoks decimal code, bar: 10 cm. T1: 3 leaves unfolded (GS13); T2: 4 leaves unfolded (GS14); T3: 4 leaves unfolded and 5th leaf less than half visible (GS14.5); T4: 5 leaves unfolded (GS15); T5: 6 leaves unfolded (GS16); T6: 7 leaves unfolded (GS17, AD = 0.5-1.0 cm); T7: 7 leaves unfolded (GS17, AD = 4-5 cm). AD: auricle distances, leaf-occipital distance."

Fig. 3

Spike differentiation phases of wheat plant at different sowing dates The spike differentiation phase of wheat plants at seven sowing dates according to the Wadington scale, bar: 100 μm. T1: late double ridge phase (S2.25); T2: floret primordia differentiation phase (S3.5); T3: pistil and stamen primordia differentiation phase (S4.25); T4: anther connective tissue formation phase (S5); T5: stigma branches protuberance phase (S7); T6: stigma branches elongation phase (S8); T7: stigma branches formation phase (S9)."

Fig. 4

Freezing injury of wheat plants at different developmental stages after low temperature stress The photos were taken after 36 h of growth at room temperature. Bar: 10 cm. A: 22℃ (CK); B: 0℃; C: -2.5℃; D: -3.5℃."

Table 1

Freezing damage of wheat plants caused by low temperature stress during spike development period"

Developmental phase of spike
小麦植株冻害情况 Freezing damage of wheat plants
0℃ -2.5℃ -3.5℃
Late double ridge
No symptoms
No symptoms
Survival of new leaves
Floret primordia differentiation
No symptoms
Lower leaves wilted and chlorosis
Survival of new leaves
Pistil and stamen primordia differentiation
No symptoms
Lower leaves wilted and chlorosis
Survival of new leaves
Anther connective tissue formation
No symptoms
Lower leaves wilted and chlorosis
Survival of new leaves
Stigma branches protuberance
No symptoms
Lower leaves wilted and chlorosis
Freeze death rate of main stem is 44%
Stigma branches elongation
No symptoms
Lower leaves wilted and chlorosis
Freeze death rate of main stem is 60%
Stigma branches formation
No symptoms
Lower leaves wilted and chlorosis
Freeze death rate of main stem is 67%

Table 2

Effects of low temperature stress on plant height, spike length, and seed-setting rate of wheat plants at different spike differentiation stages"

Differentiation stage of spike
Plant height
Percentage of reduce (%)
Spike length (cm)
降幅Percentage of reduce 结实率
Seed-setting rate
Percentage of reduce (%)
CK 45.01±2.47 5.60±0.28 65.45±4.92
T1 二棱末期
Late double ridge
0 44.36±1.74 1.44 5.33±0.68 4.82 64.62±9.93 1.27
‒2.5 43.78±3.14 2.73 5.30±0.21 5.36 63.28±9.93 3.32
‒3.5 42.98±2.22 4.51 4.53±0.30** 19.11 56.55±6.83* 13.60
T2 小花原基分化期
Floret primordum differentiation
0 44.16±2.26 1.89 5.32±0.34 5.00 60.18±7.17 8.05
‒2.5 43.50±2.39 3.35 5.30±0.35 5.36 59.25±6.14 9.47
‒3.5 38.30±2.61** 14.91 4.48±0.66** 20.00 48.57±4.22** 25.79
T3 雌雄蕊原基分化期
Pistil and stamen
primordum differentiation
0 43.80±2.97 2.69 5.35±0.32 4.46 58.34±2.91 10.86
‒2.5 42.34±3.69 5.93 5.38±0.40 3.93 55.95±8.40 14.51
‒3.5 36.07±4.15** 19.86 4.13±0.58** 26.25 44.02±6.52** 32.74
T4 药隔期
Anther connective tissue formation
0 44.09±1.43 2.04 5.50±0.27 1.79 62.80±5.88 4.05
‒2.5 44.08±3.01 2.07 5.36±0.40 4.29 56.19±10.98* 14.15
‒3.5 38.08±3.51** 15.40 4.60±0.27** 17.86 46.93±2.50** 28.30
T5 柱头羽毛突起期
Stigmatic branches protuberance
0 43.68±1.82 2.95 5.47±0.35 2.32 62.38±6.57 3.00
‒2.5 43.55±2.70 3.24 5.25±0.25 6.25 58.64±4.78 6.00
‒3.5 33.82±8.57** 24.86 5.06±0.52** 9.64 50.81±12.14**# 22.37
T6 柱头羽毛伸长期
Stigmatic branches elongating
0 44.18±2.20 1.84 5.50±0.37 1.79 61.89±7.79 5.44
‒2.5 44.83±0.57 0.39 5.25±0.35 6.25 59.76±4.79 8.69
‒3.5 29.50±4.24** 34.46 5.10±0.28** 8.93 49.30±8.44**# 24.68
T7 柱头羽毛形成期
Stigmatic branches formation
0 42.30±2.50* 6.00 5.19±0.43* 7.32 57.36±10.63* 12.36
‒2.5 40.25±4.53** 10.58 5.16±0.43** 7.86 50.51±2.80** 22.83
‒3.5 30.10±0.43** 33.11 4.97±0.32** 11.25 46.53±3.92**# 28.91
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