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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2023, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (7): 1906-1918.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.21042


Grain Mn concentration of wheat in main wheat production regions of China: Effects of cultivars and soil factors

ZHANG Lu-Lu1(), ZHANG Xue-Mei1, MU Wen-Yan1, HUANG Ning1, GUO Zi-Kang1, LUO Yi-Nuo1, WEI Lei1, SUN Li-Qian1, WANG Xing-Shu1, SHI Mei1,*(), WANG Zhao-Hui1,2,*()   

  1. 1College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University / Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Agro-Environment in Northwest China, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
    2Northwest A&F University / State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
  • Received:2022-06-14 Accepted:2022-11-25 Online:2023-07-12 Published:2022-12-26
  • Contact: *E-mail: meishi@nwafu.edu.cn; E-mail: w-zhaohui@263.net E-mail:zhanglulusun@163.com;meishi@nwafu.edu.cn;w-zhaohui@263.net
  • Supported by:
    The China Agriculture Research System of MOF and MARA(CARS-3);The National Key Research and Development Program of China(2021YFD1900700);The National Key Research and Development Program of China(2018YFD0200400)


It is of great significance to clarify the effects of cultivars and soil factors on wheat manganese nutrition for optimizing wheat manganese nutrition and achieving high yield and high-quality wheat production. From 2016 to 2020, a field experiment was carried out at 38 test sites in 13 provinces in three wheat production regions: Northwest dry-farming wheat area (DW), Huanghuai wheat-maize rotation area (WM), and Southern rice-wheat rotation area (RW). Wheat yield, yield components, grain Mn concentration, soil available manganese, pH value, and other indicators were tested. Results showed that, wheat yield was in the following order: WM > RW > DW, with the average value of 8.1, 5.9, and 5.9 t hm-2, respectively. Mn concentration in wheat grains was in the following order: RW > DW > WM, with the average value of 46.9, 45.4, and 41.4 mg kg-1, respectively. In different wheat production regions, the relationships of grain Mn concentration with the dry matter accumulation distribution, yield components, Mn uptake, and the utilization of wheat cultivars were different. The correlation of grain Mn concentration was significantly negative with the yield, biomass, and harvest index of wheat cultivars in DW, and was significantly negative with yield and harvest index in WM, but not significant in RW. There was a significant negative correlation between wheat grain Mn content and soil pH value, available Cu, and the total N, but not significant correlation between wheat grain Mn content and soil available Mn. Grain Mn concentration was positively correlated with spike number, but significantly negative with 1000-grain weight in RW. Grain Mn concentration was positively correlated with Mn uptake in shoots and Mn uptake in grains in WM and RW, and only positively correlated with Mn uptake in grains in DW, while its correlation with Mn harvest index was significantly negative in RW but positive in DW and WM. The main soil factors affecting wheat grain Mn concentration included soil total nitrogen, pH value, available Fe, available Mn, and available Cu. In WM, the grain Mn concentration was significantly positively correlated with soil available Fe, available Cu and Mn, but negatively correlated with soil pH. In RW, grain Mn concentration was significantly and negatively correlated with soil pH value, available Cu, and the total nitrogen, but not correlated with soil available Mn. Soil available P and available K were the main factors affecting grain Mn concentration in DW. In conclusion, wheat cultivars in RW of China had higher grain Mn concentration. Lower soil pH value, the total nitrogen, and the higher soil available Fe and Mn were beneficial to the increase of grain Mn concentration, while the effects of soil available Cu on grain Mn concentration varied with wheat regions. The yield had a dilution effect on Mn concentration, and the increase of spike number, grain number per spike, and 1000-grain weight were beneficial to the decrease of Mn content in wheat cultivars.

Key words: wheat, Mn concentration, grain yield, cultivar, soil

Table 1

Average of soil basic physical and chemical properties and soil trace elements concentration in 0-20 cm soil layer"

Wheat region
有效养分 Available nutrient (mg kg-1) pH OM
(g kg-1)
(g kg-1)
NO3--N NH4+-N AP AK Fe Mn Cu Zn
旱作区DW 10.7 0.2 11.8 151 5.0 10.9 1.02 0.37 8.2 16.8 0.84
稻麦区RW 18.4 11.9 28.5 164 53.4 23.3 2.96 1.45 6.3 29.4 1.48
麦玉区WM 20.7 7.3 37.3 192 11.9 14.5 1.33 1.56 7.7 22.8 1.13
全国ALL 16.6 6.5 25.9 169 23.4 16.2 1.77 1.13 7.4 23.0 1.15

Table 2

Average fertilizer application rates in DW, WM, and RW (kg hm-2)"

Fertilizer application year
旱作区DW 麦玉区MW 稻麦区RW
2017 249±78.0 127±52.9 75±33.6 213±40.9 96±24.8 88±22.9
2018 180 100 75 238±60.8 130±34.5 73±36.8 187±78.0 80±36.8 70±32.6
2019 180 100 75 257±105 123±42.3 71±42.4 169±75.7 75±27.3 74±27.5
2020 180 100 75 262±55.5 145±48.8 93±71.7 183±64.7 75±39.0 65±33.6

Fig. 1

Frequency distribution of yields of main wheat cultivars in main wheat production regions of China The data used in the figure is the average of cultivars, the number in the bar chart is the sample size, and the values at the top of the bar chart are the average yield of each yield grade. DW: dry wheat; RW: rice wheat; WM: wheat maize."

Fig. 2

Frequency distribution of Mn concentration in grains of main wheat cultivars in main wheat production regions of China The data used in the figure is the average of cultivars, the number in the bar chart is the sample size, and the values at the top of the bar chart are the average Mn of each Mn concentration grade. DW: dry wheat; RW: rice wheat; WM: wheat maize."

Fig. 3

Relationship of grain Mn concentration with yield components, Mn uptake and distribution of main wheat cultivars in main wheat production regions of China The data used for correlation analysis and linear regression analysis in Fig. 3-A are standardized data, and the data used for correlation analysis and linear regression analysis in Fig. 3-B are original data (for reference). The ordinate (y) is grain Mn concentration, and the abscissa (x) is yield (GrY), biomass (Bm), harvest index (HI), spike number (×104) (SpN), grain number per panicle (GrN), 1000-grain weight (TGW), shoot Mn uptake (ShMnU) grain Mn uptake (GrMnU), and Mn harvest index (MnHI), respectively. Red represents the positive correlation and blue represents the negative correlation. The darker the color and the narrower the ellipse, the greater the correlation coefficient. **: P < 0.01, *: 0.01 < P < 0.05."

Table 3

Average values of grain Mn concentrations, yield, biomass and yield components, Mn uptakes and Mn harvest indexes of main wheat cultivars in main wheat production regions of China"

旱作区DW 麦玉区WM 稻麦区RW 全国ALL
≤48.7 >48.7 ≤48.7 >48.7 ≤48.7 >48.7 ≤48.7 >48.7
籽粒锰 Grain Mn (mg kg-1) 44.2 50.8 40.5 51.8 42.2 52.1 42.1 51.5
产量 Yield (t hm-2) 5.9 5.8 8.2 7.5** 6.0 5.8 7.1 6.1**
生物量 Biomass (t hm-2) 13.3 13.4 17.9 17.0 13.4 12.7 15.7 13.9**
收获指数 Harvest index (%) 45.0 43.7 46.1 44.7 45.6 46.0 45.6 44.8
穗数 Spike number (×104 hm-2) 480.4 500.2 648.6 564.8** 385.5 417.4 559.2 480.4**
穗粒数 Grain number per spike (No. spike-1) 28.9 27.3 31.7 33.2 38.4 37.8 31.2 32.6
千粒重 Thousand-grain weight (g) 44.9 44.7 41.7 41.5 43.4 39.3** 43.1 41.9*
锰地上部吸收量 Shoot Mn uptake (g hm-2) 734.5 767.9 812.1 974.8** 708.0 894.7** 772.5 858.0**
籽粒吸锰量 Grain Mn uptake (g hm-2) 273.6 277.4 330.2 391.4** 250.6 291.5** 301.0 302.2
锰收获指数 Mn harvest index (%) 40.3 39.4 44.6 47.2 42.1 38.2* 42.7 40.5**

Fig. 4

Principal component analysis of grain Mn concentration and soil factors related to Mn uptake and utilization of main wheat cultivars in main wheat production regions of China Due to the few numbers of samples in DW, variance analysis cannot be carried out; WM: wheat-maize area; RW: rice-wheat area; GMn: grain Mn concentration; TN: soil total nitrogen; NO3--N: soil nitrate nitrogen; NH4+-N: soil ammonium nitrogen; OM: soil organic matter; K: soil available potassium; P: soil available phosphorus; Fe: soil available Fe; Mn: soil available Mn; Cu: soil available Cu; Zn: soil available Zn. Standardized data were used in principal component analysis, original data were used in multiple linear regression equation, and the value in the figures was the correlation coefficient that was significantly correlated with Mn concentration in grains (P < 0.05); significant positive correlations are indicated by long dash and significant negative correlations are indicated by short dash. In order to maintain the comparability of results, soil total nitrogen, pH value, Mn, Cu, Fe, and grain Mn were selected for multiple linear regression analysis in the two regions to obtain the equations. In the equation, y represents Mn concentration in grains, and x1, x2, x3, x4, and x5 represent soil pH value, available Fe, available Mn, available Cu, and the total nitrogen, respectively."

Fig. 5

Average values of soil related indexes in main wheat production regions of China DW: dry-farming wheat area; WM: wheat-maize area; RW: rice-wheat area; GMn: grain Mn concentration; TN: soil total nitrogen; AK: soil available potassium; AP: soil available phosphorus; Fe: soil available Fe; Mn: soil available Mn; Cu: soil available Cu."

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