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Table of Content

    12 October 2012, Volume 38 Issue 10
    • CROP GENETICS & BREEDING·GERMPLASM RESOURCES·MOLECULAR GENETICS
      Marker-Assisted Selection of HMW-Glutenin 1Dx5+1Dy10 Gene and 1B/1R Translocation for Improving Industry Quality in Common Wheat
      ZHANG Yong,SHEN Xiao-Yong,ZHANG Wen-Xiang,CHEN Xin-Min,YAN Jun,ZHANG Yan,WANG De-Sen,WANG Zhong-Wei,LIU Yue-Fang,TIAN Yu-Bing,XIA Xian-Chun,HE Zhong-Hu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1743-1751.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01743
      Abstract ( 2413 )   PDF (231KB) ( 1135 )   Save
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      Glutenin subunits play an important role in determining processing quality in common wheat. In this study, a total of 125 BC2F4 lines derived from four populations by marker-assisted backcrossing, with Yumai 34, Gaocheng 8901, and Zhongyou 9507 as quality donor and Lunxuan 987, Shi 4185, and Zhoumai 16 as recipients, were used to assess the effect of glutenin subunit 5+10 and 1B/1R translocation on quality parameters including protein content, mixograph mixing time and peak integral. A wide range of variation for all quality parameters in the populations was detected. Lines with 1Dx5+1Dy10 performed significantly longer mixing time and higher peak integral than those with alleles 1Dx2+1Dy12, while the genetic background of parents had a large impact on mixing time and peak integral among 1B/1R translocation lines. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) revealed that mixing time and peak integral were related with the quantity of glutenin subunit fractions, and significant and positive correlations between mixing time, peak integral and the quantity of LMW-GS were observed, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.38 to 0.74 (P < 0.05). Lines with 1Dx5+1Dy10 also performed significantly higher quantity of both HMW-GS and LMW-GS than those with alleles 1Dx2+1Dy12, while the effect of alleles at Glu-B3 locus on quantity of HMW-GS was insignificant, and that on quantity of LMW-GS varied among the populations. It would be efficient to select new line through backcross with quality parent as donor and high yield parent as recipient, by marker-assisted selection of Glu-D1d gene and 1B/1R translocation, in combination with field selection on agronomic parameters.

      Allelic Expression Variation of ahFAD2A and its Relationship with Oleic Acid Accumulation in Peanut
      HUANG Bing-Yan,ZHANG Xin-You,MIAO Li-Juan,GAO Wei,HAN Suo-Yi,DONG Wen-Zhao,TANG Feng-Shou,LIU Zhi-Yong
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1752-1759.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01752
      Abstract ( 1981 )   PDF (334KB) ( 1102 )   Save
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      ahFAD2A is a key regulator controlling oleic acid content in peanut. Using ahFAD2A allelic specific primers, the allelic variations of ahFAD2A were tested in 52 peanut varieties and the DNA sequences of 13 typical varieties, including Yuanza 9102, Yuhua 9416, wt08-0932 and wt08-0934, were compared. PCR results revealed that the presence of two alleles of ahFAD2A (referred as to wild type ahFAD2A-wt andmutant ahFAD2A-m respectively) in peanut germplasm, and the G/A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at 448 bp site of ahFAD2A was further confirmed by sequences comparison of 13 peanut varieties. Allelic expression variations of ahFAD2A alleles in peanut seeds were detected by Real-time PCR at different developmental stages. The results indicated that the expression level of mutant allele (ahFAD2A-m) from Yuhua 9416 was slightly higher than that of the wild type allele (ahFAD2A-wt) from Yuanza 9102 during the early to middle developmental stages (17–38 days). However, a rapid decrease in expression level was observed for the mutant allele as compared with its wild type at the late developmental stage (after 45 days). Further determination revealed that the ahFAD2A-m genotype showed higher oleic acid content than linoleic acid content with high O/L ratio (>1.0) starting at early seed developmental stages in Yuhua 9416 while the ahFAD2A-wtgenotype remained lower oleic acid content than linoleic acid content with steady O/L ratio (<1.0) until seed maturity stage in Yuanza 9102. This relationship between oleic acid accumulation and ahFAD2A allelic expression variation in peanut provide the fundamental information for genetic regulation and improvement of seed oleic acids content.

      Molecular Homozygosity Analysis of Soybean Varieties in Regional Test of China by Using SSR Markers
      GUAN Rong-Xia,FANG Hong-Liang,HE Yan-Qin,CHANG Ru-Zhen,QIU Li-Juan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1760-1765.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01760
      Abstract ( 1902 )   PDF (164KB) ( 1237 )   Save
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      Genomic homozygosity of seeds is very important for protection of breeder’s right and sustainable production of agriculture. Highly informative microsatellite (SSR) markers, widely used in soybean genetic mapping and genetic diversity research, are useful for soybean genomic analysis. Thirty pairs of SSR primers were used to test the DNA of 1 068 soybean varieties (lines) from regional trials of China. The average SSR locus homozygosity was 94.9–97.6% each year. Among the 1 068 varieties (lines) in China regional test screened in five years, the soybean varieties (lines) with homozygosity higher than 85% and 90% accounted for 95% and 91.4%, respectively. Only 42 (3.93%) of the varieties (lines) had homozygosity less than 85%, which were mostly from North spring and Huanghuai summer soybean planting areas. Among the 42 varieties (lines) with homozygosity less than 85% only 11 had the yield 5% more than the controls, 20 had a yield reduction of 0.04% to 13.08%. Compared with those with 100% homozygosity, varieties with lower SSR homozygosity also had lower yield in regional trials. It is suggested that criterion of soybean homozygosity in the national regional test should not be less than 90% so as to insure the protection and sustainable utilization of new soybean varieties (lines) in production.

      Genetic Basis of the High-Tillering Dwarf Trait in the Rice DUS Test Standard Variety Cong’ai 2
      WANG Tao,YUAN Shou-Jiang,YIN Liang,ZHAO Jin-Feng,WAN Jian-Min,LI Xue-Yong
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1766-1774.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01766
      Abstract ( 2012 )   PDF (424KB) ( 1187 )   Save
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      Cong’ai 2 (cl2), one of the standard varieties of rice DUS test in China, shows typical high-tillering dwarf phenotype.Genetic analysis showed that this trait is controlled by a single recessive nucleus gene, which was mapped between two InDel markers C4-CL5 and C4-CL4 on the long arm of chromosome 4. Between these two markers, there is a known gene D17/HTD1, mutations in which caused high-tillering dwarf phenotype. Sequencing analysis of the D17/HTD1 allele in cl2 revealed that the 1796th base was substituted from C to T, changing the 599th amino acid from proline to leucine. Another high-tillering dwarf mutant S1-40 was obtained from japonica variety Nipponbare mutagenized by EMS. The 3' splicing site of the 3rd intron of D17/HTD1 was substituted from AG to AA,which caused the formation of two aberrant transcripts in S1-40. D17/HTD1 encodes the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 7 (CCD7), which is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of a new plant hormone strigolactones (SLs). Exogenous application of GR24, a synthetic analogue of SLs, inhibited the tillering phenotype of cl2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CCD7 homologs existed in almost all plant species. Real-time RT-PCR showed D17/HTD1 was expressed in all rice tissues examined, with the highest expression in stems.

      Using Marker-Assisted Selection to Improve the Resistance to Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Viral Disease of Huaidao 5, an Elite Japonica Rice Cultivar in Jiangsu
      LI Ai-Hong,PAN Cun-Hong,DAI Zheng-Yuan,XIAO Ning,YU Ling,LI Yu-Hong,ZHANG Xiao-Xiang,ZHANG Hong-Xi,PAN Xue-Biao
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1775-1781.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01775
      Abstract ( 1785 )   PDF (230KB) ( 971 )   Save
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      Rice black-streaked dwarf viral disease (RBSDV), a kind of viral disease transmitted by small plant hopper, broke out recently in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces of China and posed a serious threat to rice production. Based on mapping of the QTLsfor RBSDV resistance previously, we used the resistant parent Minghui 63 as donor, the susceptible japonica cultivar Huaidao 5 as recurrent parent, and bred a series of Near-isogenic lines (NILs) aiming at two closely linked QTLs on the short arm of Chromosome 6 in rice. Natural inoculation and artificial inoculation results showed that RBSDV incidence rate of NILs was about 25% lower than that of recurrent parent and the resistance of NILs was improved significantly. Agronomic traits of most NILs, such as heading date, plant height, and yield components were similar to those of recurrent parent, indicating that the target chromosome region contains few linkage drags. The strategies for fine mapping the target QTLs and pyramiding more QTLs in the way of breed improvement were also discussed.

      Performance of Restorer Lines with Salt Tolerance in Whole Growth Period under Normal Irrigated Condition and Development of Hybrid Rice with Salt Tolerance
      ZHANG Lu-Biao,PAN Xiao-Biao,ZHANG Jian,CHEN Kai,ZHANG Qiang,XU Jian-Long,PAN Xue-Biao,LI Zhi-Kang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1782-1790.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01782
      Abstract ( 1723 )   PDF (267KB) ( 931 )   Save
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      Four introgression line populations derived from the recurrent parent Minghui 86 and four donor parents (Gayabyeo, Shennong 265, Zaoxian 14, and Y134) were screened and evaluated for salt tolerance (ST) under the stress of 0.5% salt concentration over the whole growth stages in Sanmen county of Zhejiang province, so that a total of 150 restorer lines with ST were selected. In this study, the 150 restorer lines with ST and their test-crossing hybrids with cytoplastic male sterile lines II-32A and Chuan 345A were investigated for grain yield and its related agronomic traits under normal irrigated condition. Segregations presented in yield and its related traits among those lines, showing various types with different populations and traits. Thirty promising restorer lines with significantly higher yield and ST were selected. Most of them showed a decrease in panicle length (PL), plant height (PH), and thousand grain weight (TGW), but significantly increased panicle number per plant (PNP) and seed setting rate (SSR), thus resulting in significantly higher yield. As compared with hybrids crossed between Minghui 86 and the two sterile lines, test-crossing populations derived from the crosses between the restorer lines with ST and the two sterile lines showed shorten PL and PH, similar PNP, but significantly increased TGW when tested with II-32A, indicating there were partial differences in trait performance between salt-tolerant restorer lines and their hybrids. Twenty-two and 23 hybrid combinations showed stronger heterosis as compared with the hybrids derived from Minghui 86 and the two corresponding sterile lines. Among them, seven (from II-32A) and four (from Chuan 345A) hybrids significantly surpassed the commercial check combination Shanyou 10 in yield. It was indicated that ST screening in the field under salt stress combined with selections of yield and its related traits in normal irrigated condition for introgression line populations with an elite restorer background will efficiently improve the ST of restorer lines and possibly facilitate to develop the ST-improved hybrid rice.

      Development of EST Markers Specific to Agropyron cristatum Chromosome 6P in Common Wheat Background
      DAI Cheng,ZHANG Jin-Peng,WU Xiao-Yang,YANG Xin-Ming,LI Xiu-Quan,LIU Wei-Hua,GAO Ai-Nong,LI Li-Hui
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1791-1801.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01791
      Abstract ( 2566 )   PDF (303KB) ( 1218 )   Save
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      Wheat-Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. 6P addition line has the characteristics of superior numbers of florets and kernels per spike, which can be used in the improvement of wheat varieties. In this study, we developed EST markers specific to the A. cristatum 6P chromosome using the wheat-A. cristatum 6P disomic addition line 4844-12 (2n=44) and its common wheat parent “Fukuhokomugi” as well as A. cristatum accession Z559 (2n=4x=28, PPPP). PCR primers were designed according to the sequences of ESTs gained by the transcriptome sequencing of A. cristatum. A total of 130 6P-specific molecular markers were developed from 1 453 PCR primers. These specific markers were matched with protein database from NCBI and wheat EST sequence to understand the potential function genes on chromosome 6P and the gene synteny between A. cristatum and common wheat. The results showed that functions of four A. cristatum EST sequences are related to disease and stress resistance. Thirty six A. cristatum EST sequences could be matched with the located wheat EST bin map, in which 33 (91.67%) sequences were located in the sixth homoeologous group. To validate the specificity of these markers, we detected four EST specific markers with functional annotation under different backgrounds of other seven wheat varieties. Five specific markers were selected randomly to detect wheat-A. cristatum 6P translocation lines. The results showed that these specific markers can be used to detect chromosome 6P of A. cristatum in common wheat background, and to bulky select 6P addition lines derived from common wheat and A. cristatum.

      Dynamic Analysis of QTL for Plant Height of Rapeseed at Different Developmental Stages
      XIE Tian-Tian,CHEN Yu-Bo,HUANG Ji-Xiang,ZHANG Yao-Feng,XU Ai-Xia,CHEN Fei,NI Xi-Yuan,ZHAO Jian-Yi
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1802-1809.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01802
      Abstract ( 1792 )   PDF (176KB) ( 1414 )   Save
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      The main objective of this study was to explore the genetic control mechanism of plant height in rapeseed and to reveal its dynamic gene expression in specific growing period. Taking advantage of the updated SG map, we determined phenotypic data of plant height from 282 SG-DH lines in three environments and eight development stages, and analyzed both static and dynamic quantitative trait locus (QTL) with unconditional and conditional mapping approach. The results showed that when alleles from Gaoyou existed in two major QTLs PHA3 and PHC6 synchronously, the plant height could decrease about 20 cm; when alleles of plant height came from Sollux in PHA9 and PHC1, and Gaoyou in PHA1, PHA3 and PHC6, the plantsfell 40 cm in height. The mechanism of QTL for plant height was less affected by environment, but various QTLs showed difference in gene expression patterns: plant height was dominated by alleles from one of parents or from two parents by turns at different stages. In general, the QTL for plant height could be detected from the middle to late stages, while the gene expression appeared shortly and only during the most active growing period, in congruent with the rule of “trait appearance goes after genetic expression”.

      Screening of Microsatellite Loci for Identifying Genome Barcoding of Cotton Cultivars
      ZHAO Liang,CAI Cai-Ping,MEI Hong-Xian,GUO Wang-Zhen
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1810-1817.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01810
      Abstract ( 1778 )   PDF (239KB) ( 1154 )   Save
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      Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) loci with high information content, reproducibility and locus specificity can be used effectively to construct DNA barcode in plant. In this study, 12 cotton cultivars derived from different germplasm pedigrees and planted widely in three ecological cotton growing areas were selected to screen the SSR loci with high polymorphism. Based on our newly updated high-density genetic linkage map from G. hirsutum × G. barbadense BC1 mapping population, we selected 51 primer pairs with clear amplification products and high polymorphism from 376 genome-wide SSR primer pairs. In total, 155 polymorphic loci in 12 cultivars were produced by using the selected 51 primer pairs. Alleles ranging from two to seven with an average of 3.04 were detected by each SSR primer pair. Of them, 26 SSR primer pairs, which amplified SSR loci were tagged on corresponding 26 chromosomes in cultivated tetraploid cotton species, were recommended as first selected primer pairs to establish DNA barcode of cotton cultivars, and other 25 SSR primer pairs could be used as candidate primer pairs. DNA barcodes of 12 cultivars were further constructed effectively using these microsatellite loci with high polymorphism. In the future, these microsatellite loci can be used to construct DNA barcode for a large number of cotton varieties, and applied effectively in the identification of genuineness and purity in cotton cultivar seeds.

      Development of Genome-Specific Molecular Markers for Lophopyrum elongatum Based on Suppression Subtractive Hybridization
      GE Jiang-Yan,CHEN Shi-Qiang,GAO Ying-Ying,GAO Yong,ZHU Xue,HUANG Ze-Feng,CHEN Jian-Min
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1818-1826.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01818
      Abstract ( 1939 )   PDF (344KB) ( 1147 )   Save
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      The unidirectional subtracted library of the testerLophopyrum elongatum (2n=2x=14, EE) and the driver wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring, 2n=6x=42, AABBDD) was constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method to remove the homologous sequences and enrich the difference of sequences between L. elongatum and Chinese Spring. After cloning and sequencing the specific fragments of L. elongatum, we obtained 36 genome-specific molecular markersof L. elongatum with the efficiency of 69.2%. These markers could be stably inherited in different wheat backgrounds and different hybrid generations with L. elongatum chromosomes, indicating that they are applicable in the detection of chromosomes or chromosomal fragments of L. elongatum in wheat background.

      Development and Application of Functional Markers Specific to Powdery Mildew Resistance on Chromosome Arm 6VS from Different Origins of Haynaldia villosa
      ZHANG Yun-Long,WANG Mei-Jiao,ZHANF Yue,CHU Cui-Ping,LIN Zhi-Shan, XU Qiong-Fang,YE Xing-Guo,CHEN Xiao,ZHANG Xian-Sheng
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1827-1832.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01827
      Abstract ( 1788 )   PDF (317KB) ( 973 )   Save
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      Lines Pm97033 and 92R137 with good resistance to powdery mildew are wheat–Haynaldia villosa translocation lines carrying 6VS from different H. villosa germplasms. In this study, we identified the similarity of powdery mildew resistance genes in both lines using molecular markers. Based on the sequence of Stpk-V gene (GenBank accession number HQ864471.1), we designed three primer pairs in the coding regions containing at least one intron. Using one pair of primers, a polymorphic fragment of Pm97033 pattern was amplified, which was specific to the alien chromosome arm 6VS. According to the sequencing result of this specific fragment, two new primer pairs were designed for better stability. Primer pair A amplified a specific band specific to 6VS·6DL translocation line Pm97033 and its resistance donor H.v#2. Primer pair B amplified two polymorphic fragments corresponding to 6VS from different H. villosa donors. The effectiveness of primer pairs A and B was then verified in wheat line CB037 with strong powdery mildew resistance, which was developed using both 6V(6D) substitution and 6VS·6AL translocation lines. The banding pattern in CB037 was identical to that in 92R137; however, the amplification fragment of Pm97033 was not observed in CB037. The result of genomic in situ hybridization revealed only one pair of wheat–H. villosa translocation chromosomes in CB037, and the translocation chromosome arm was identified as 6A by molecular markers NAU/xibao15F and NAU/xibao15R. The GISH analysis confirmed the result based on molecular markers designed in this study. Thus, we infer that the powdery mildew resistance in CB037 is derived from 92R137, and CB037 and Pm97033 probably have different genetic bases on resistance to powdery mildew.

      Development and Characterization of GmPGIP3 Transgenic Wheat Yangmai 18 with Enhanced Resistance to Common Root Rot
      DANG Liang,WANG Ai-Yun,XU Hui-Jun,ZHU Xiu-Liang,DU Li-Pu,SHAO Yan-Jun,ZHANG Zeng-Yan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1833-1838.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01833
      Abstract ( 1863 )   PDF (327KB) ( 920 )   Save
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      GmPGIP3 is a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein from soybean, which could reduce the infection of fungal pathogen throughr inhibiting the endo-polygalacturonase activity of pathogen fungi. Using genetic recombination technique, we constructed the transformation vector of GmPGIP3 gene expressing highly in monocot plants, pA25-GmPGIP3, in which GmPGIP3 gene was driven by maize ubiquitin promoter. Embryo callus of Yangmai 18 was bombarded by the particle containing pA25-GmPGIP3 vector DNA. The GmPGIP3 transgenic wheat plants from T0 to T2 generations were detected by PCR, Southern blot, RT-PCR, and Q-RT-PCR analyses. The alien GmPGIP3 proved to be introduced into seven transgenic wheat lines with heritability and expression events. We also evaluated the disease resistance in these GmPGIP3 transgenic plants through inoculating the common root rot pathogen, Bipolaris sorokiniana. Compared with untransformated Yangmai 18, five GmPGIP3 transgenic lines showed significantly-enhanced resistance to Bipolaris sorokiniana.

      Cloning and Expression Analysis of Heat Shock Protein Gene ZmHSP90-1 in Maize
      LIU Ling-Ling,LIU Si-Si,WENG Jian-Feng,WANG Chang-Tao,LI Xin-Hai,ZHANG Shi-Huang,SHI Qing-Hua,WANG Li-Juan,HAO Zhuan-Fang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1839-1846.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01839
      Abstract ( 1982 )   PDF (428KB) ( 1248 )   Save
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      The heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a widespread family of molecular chaperones found in prokaryotes and all eukaryotes, with high conservation among plant species. In this study, a HSP90 gene was isolated from maize, named ZmHSP90-1. The full cDNA sequence of ZmHSP90-1 is 2 371 bp, containing a 2 094 bp open reading frame (ORF) and encoding 697 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 79.98 kD. The ZmHSP90-1 protein contains a predicted ATPase site and a HSP90 conservative structure domain, which is highly conserved in plants and especially similar to AtHSP90.1. Instantaneous expression analysis showed that ZmHSP90-1 proteins was localized in cytoplasm. The expression of ZmHSP90-1 in maize analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR was induced by hot, high-salt, ABA, cold and drought treatments. These results suggested that ZmHSP90-1 might be a stress related gene of maize.

      Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Stress-Related TaLEAL3 Gene in Wheat
      MIN Dong-Hong,ZHAO Yue,CHEN Yang,XU Zhao-Shi,HUO Dong-Ying,HU Di,CHEN Ming,LI Lian-Cheng,MA You-Zhi
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1847-1855.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01847
      Abstract ( 2021 )   PDF (844KB) ( 1254 )   Save
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      Group 3 LEA proteins are proved to mediate plant responses to abiotic stresses such as drought, low temperature, and high salt. However, the LEA genes from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have been rarely studied. We cloned a LEA gene, designated TaLEAL3, from the cDNA library of drought-treated wheat seedlings using phage hybridization in situ. The TaLEAL3 gene is 750 bp in full length and has a 501 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 166 amino acids. Based on multiple sequence alignment, TaLEAL3 was found to have the LEA structure characterized by α-helix and three incomplete repeat motifs comprising 11-mer amino acids. The result of electronic mapping showed that TaLEAL3 was located on chromosomes 4BL, 4DL, and 5AL. This gene was mainly expressed in stems but almost not in roots. Besides, the expression of TaLEAL3 was induced markedly by drought, low-temperature, and exogenous abscisic acid. Promoter analysis showed that the core promoter elements and cis-acting elements responding to drought and low-temperature stresses were found in the region of 1.7 kb upstream of TaLEAL3 gene. These results provided experimental data for further studying the function of LEA genes and the mechanism of LEA proteins.

      Cloning and Bioinformatic Analysis of γ-Tocopherol Methyltransferase Gene (γ-TMT) in Peanut
      LI Shuan-Zhu,WAN Yong-Shan,LIU Feng-Zhen
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1856-1863.  doi:0.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01856
      Abstract ( 1637 )   PDF (1109KB) ( 1062 )   Save
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      γ-tocopherol methyltransferase(γ-TMT) is one of the critical enzymes that determine the composition and activity of vitamin E in plant. γ-TMT catalyzes the biological reaction from γ-tocopherol to α-tocopherol, is the most bioactive component of vitamin E. In this study, DNA sequence of γ-TMT in peanut (designated as AhgTMT ) was cloned by using in silico cloning combined with PCR from six cultivars and four diploid wild species that belong to Arachis section. cDNA sequence of γ-TMT (designated as AhrTMT) was cloned from Fenghua 2. Nucleotide sequencesof AhgTMT are identical with AhrTMT, which means no intron in this gene. AhrTMT has a 1 059 bp open reading frame encoding a protein (AhTMT) of 352 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 39.094 kD. The isoelectric points of AhTMT is 6.72 and its grand average of hydropathy is –0.12. Secondary structure prediction of AhTMT indicated that 55.40% of the protein sequence is alpha helixes, 10.51% beta turn and 34.09% random coil. AhTMT has a conserved SAM domain and is localized in chloroplasts. The similarity between AhTMT and γ-TMTs reported in other species is from 61.75% to 72.80%. Alignment analysis of AhgTMT nucleotide sequences indicated that the homology of AhgTMT from cultivars and those from A. ipaensis (BB), A. batizocoi (BB), A. dura nensis (AA) and A. kuhlmannii (AA) was 100%, 99.91%, 99.74%, and 95.63%, respectively.

      TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY
      Response of Grain Yield to Plant Density and Nitrogen Application Rate for Maize Hybrids Released from Different Eras in Heilongjiang Province
      QIAN Chun-Rong1,3,YU Yang3,GONG Xiu-Jie,JIANG Yu-Bo,ZHAO Yang,WANG Jun-He,YANG Zhong-Liang,ZHANG Wei-Jian
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1864-1874.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01864
      Abstract ( 1923 )   PDF (385KB) ( 1214 )   Save
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      Eight typical maize hybrids released over 1970s to 2000s in Heilongjiang province were selected to investigate the productivity response to nitrogen fertilizer and plant density in 2009 and 2010. During the variety improvement period from 1970s to 2000s, the yield gains per plant and per unit area were 19.96 g 10 a-1 and 790 kg ha-1 10 a-1, respectively, while the rates of lodging and barren plant decreased significantly. The plant height, ear height, leaf area per plant, kernel number per ear and 1000-kernel weight of newer hybrids were higher than those of older varieties. For all hybrids released in each era, grain yield per plant decreased with increasing plant density, while grain yield per unit area showed a parabolic shape response. The theoretical optimal density for the highest yield rose by 3 507 plants ha-1 10 yr-1. The barren plant rates of all hybrids increased with the density increasing, and the lodging rates rose only for the older hybrids released in 1970s and 1980s. Higher plant population led to decreases in the agronomic indicators of plant height , leaf area per plant, kernel number per ear and 1000 kernel weight and the increase in the ear height. Higher nitrogen application rate tended to promote the agronomic indicators of plant height, ear height, leaf area and 1000-kernel weight. However, at the nitrogen application rate ranging from 150 kg ha-1 to 450 kg ha-1, no significant increase was found in the yields for all hybrids released in the same era. There were significant interactions among density, nitrogen and era on the yield and agronomic traits. Compared with the present situations of maize variety and cropping technique, the above results indicated that there are great potentials in yield gains from new variety breeding and cultivation technique innovation for higher-yield with higher-efficiency through increasing plant density with unchanged nitrogen application rate in Northeast China.

      Relationship of Resveratrol Content and Resistance to Aflatoxin Accumulation Caused by Aspergillus flavus in Peanut Seeds
      WANG Hou-Miao,HUANG Jia-Quan,LEI Yong,YAN Li-Ying,WANG Sheng-Yu,JIANG Hui-Fang,REN Xiao-Ping,LOU Qing-Ren, LIAO Bo-Shou
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1875-1883.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01875
      Abstract ( 2079 )   PDF (359KB) ( 1319 )   Save
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      Resveratrol is an important component of phytoalexins responding to biotic and abiotic stresses. To investigate the possible influence of peanut resveratrol on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus, we selected eight peanut varieties (lines) resistant or susceptible to aflatoxin accumulation resveratrol content and aflatoxin production. The results showed that the average resveratrol content (37.3 µg kg–1) of resistant varieties (lines) was significantly higher than that of susceptible ones (13.3 µg kg–1) in naturally dried seeds. Resveratrol accumulation amount increased by twice in imbibed resistant peanut seeds, and by 1.6 flod in those of the susceptible ones, and the consequent aflatoxin content declined in the imbibed seeds from 37.6% to 75.8%. However, the resistant varieties (lines) had lower aflatoxin content compared with the susceptible seeds in the imbibition treatments. Resveratrol content in peanut seeds was negatively correlated with aflatoxin production. Trials in vitro also demonstrated that resveratrol could inhibit aflatoxin production in medium. It was suggested that resveratrol is one of the phytoalexins highly related to resistance to aflatoxin production in peanut seeds. As resveratrol has been reported to have certain functions in human health protection, increased resveratrol in peanut would enhance food safety of peanut products and contribute to consumer’s health.caused byAspergillus flavus to determine

      Effects of Drought Stress on Physiological Characteristics and Dry Matter Production in Maize Silking Stage
      ZHANG Ren-He,GUO Dong-Wei,ZHANG Xing-Hua,LU Hai-Dong,LIU Jian-Chao,LI Feng-Yan,HAO Yin-Chuan,XUE Ji-Quan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1884-1890.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01884
      Abstract ( 1985 )   PDF (388KB) ( 1331 )   Save
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      Maize cultivars Zhengdan 958 (drought-tolerance) and Shaandan 902 (drought-sensitive) were used to determine the responses of photosynthetic traits, protective enzyme activity and dry matter production at silking stage to in drought pool experiment. The results showed that under drought stress, the yield of drought-tolerant maize Zhengdan 958 reduced 39.10 percent compared with control, while drought-sensitive maize Shaandan 902 reduced 44.87 percent. At 15 d after anthesis, leafs net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (Gs) decreased significantly, whereas intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) first decreased and then increased under drought stress in both cultivars. The quantum yield (ΦPSII), photochemical quenching (qP) and non-photochemical quenching (qN) of photosystem II decreased under drought stress in leaves of both cultivars. Meanwhile, the superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) activities first increased then decreased while malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased under drought stress in both cultivars. In addition, drought stress significantly increased dry matter translocation, dry matter translocation efficiency, and contribution of pre-anthesis assimilates to grains, however, the effect was smaller in Zhengdan 958 than in Shaandan 902. Our results indicated that higher ability of oxidative enzyme defense system eliminates reactive oxygen, and the absorbed energy is effectively utilized, resulting in the greater photosynthesis capacity in Zhengdan 958, so extending the period of leaf’s photosynthesis and enhancing the contribution of pre-anthesis assimilates to grains, which may be one of the important roles in getting high yield of drought-tolerant maize Zhengdan 958 under drought conditions.

      Dynamic Changes of Jasmonic Acid Biosynthesis in Rice Florets during Natural Anthesis
      HE Yong-Ming,LIN Yong-Jun,ZENG Xiao-Chun
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1891-1899.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01891
      Abstract ( 2287 )   PDF (355KB) ( 1438 )   Save
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      Exogenously applied jasmonic acid (JA) or its methyl ester (MeJA) could significantly induce floret opening in gramineous plants such as rice, wheat, sorghum and rye. However, whether the endogenous JA is involved in the regulation of rice floret opening has remained unclear. To elucidate the role of endogenous JA in natural floret opening, we measured the JA levels in florets of Wuyunjing 7 (japonica cultivar) and Minghui 63 (indica cultivar) by HPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry system (HPLC-MS/MS) during natural anthesis, and analyzed the expression of key genes involved in JA biosynthesis in florets of Wuyunjing 7 by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (real-time RT-PCR). The results showed that the JA levels in rice florets were related with the process of anthesis. JA levels in rice florets kept relatively constant before anthesis in the morning, and reached a peak rapidly during anthesis, and then decreased after the floret closing. The peak levels of JA in opening florets were 4–5 times higher than that in florets 1 h before anthesis. Consistent with the changes of JA levels in florets during anthesis, the expression of OsDAD1-3, OsLOX-RCI1, OsAOS1, OsAOC,and OsOPR7 that encode isozymes catalyzing the key steps in JA biosynthetic pathway was up-regulated to some extent during floret opening, and was down-regulated after floret closing. Meanwhile, the levels of JA and transcripts of JA biosynthetic genes were higher in opening florets than in unopened or closed florets at the same panicle. The increasing of JA levels and transcripts of JA biosynthetic genes in florets at the time of opening and their decreasing in florets after closing strongly indicated that endogenous JA is involved in the regulation of floret opening in rice.

      Effect of Cytokinins on Formation of Seed Coat Colour in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus)
      WAN Hua-Fang,LU Dong,LIANG Ying,SUN Fu-Jun,LI Jia-Na
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1900-1907.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01900
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      The seed color of yellow-seeded rape is closely related to seed maturity and plant hormone plays an important role in the regulation of seed maturity. This paper mainly focuses on the relationship between the cytokinin and the seed coat color of oilseed rape. Three pairs of rape seed with the same genetics background but different seed coat colors (yellow-seeded and black-seeded oil seed) were used to determine the dynamics of endogenous cytokinin (ZR), pigments and the activities of enzymes, as well as the aforementioned indices under the treatment with 6-BA. The results showed that the content of ZR in yellow-seeded rape was 4–5 times higher than that in black-seeded oneat 27 days after flowering,which was coupled with the less color of the rape seed; the content of ZR was negatively correlated with that of flavonoids, anthocyanin and melanin,and significantly positively correlated with polyphenols. Furthermore, it was significantly negatively correlated with tyrosinase activity, and not with the activity of phenylalnine ammonialyase or polyphenoloxidase; exogenous cytokinin (6-BA, 50 mg L–1) improved the color degree of the yellow seeds, and induced the decrease of the contents of melanin, anthocyanidin in seeds, it had no obvious effect on the black-seeded ones, but it increased the polyphenols content in the yellow seeds; the application of 6-BA decreased the activities of tyrosinase (TYR) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). However, the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was not changed. Therefore, we concluded that cytokinin may significantly influence the seed coat color, and delay the pigment synthesis in the seed coat of yellow seeds through regulating the activities of enzymes involved in the pigment synthesis.

      Characterization of Nitrogen Uptake and Utilization in Rice under Different Planting Methods
      HUO Zhong-Yang,LI Jie,ZHANG Hong-Cheng,DAI Qi-Gen,XU Ke,WEI Hai-Yan,GONG Jin-Long
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1908-1919.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01908
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      A field experiment was conducted with three planting methods including precisionartificial transplanting with dry nursery middle and strong seedlings (AT), mechanical transplanting with small seedlings (MT) and direct seeding (DS) using early-maturing late japonica rice (EMLJ), late-maturing medium japonica rice (LMMJ) and medium-maturing medium japonica rice (MMMJ) (including conventional rice and hybrid rice). The results showed that the N content and uptake in plant were DS>MT>AT at jointing and AT>MT>DS at heading and maturity. Total N uptake at maturity with AT was 11.68% and 39.03% higher than that with MT and DS and that with MT was 24.49% higher than that with DS. N uptake rate was DS>MT>AT before jointing and AT>MT>DS from jointing to heading and from heading to maturity. Maximum N uptake rate of AT and MT appeared in the period from jointing to heading, and that of DS with MMMJ appeared from jointing to heading while that with EMLJ and LMMJ appeared before jointing. N periodic accumulation from jointing to heading and from heading to maturity were AT>MT>DS and the difference among different planting methods all reached significant or very significant level. N recovery efficiency of AT, MT and DS were 44.49%, 39.00% and 31.41%, respectively. N recovery efficiency among different varieties with AT and MT was EMLJ>LMMJ>MMMJ,and that with DS was MMMJ>LMMJ>EMLJ,and in the case for the same type of variety,that of conventional japonica rice was higher than that of hybrid japonica rice. N requirement for 100 kg grain of AT, MT and DS were 1.959(1.900–2.009) kg, 1.842(1.681–1.914) kg, 1.638(1.540–1.721) kg, respectively. It was no significant difference between AT and MT while both were significantly higher than that of DS for conventional japonica rice. For hybrid japonica rice, the differences among different planting methods were all significant. N requirement for 100 kg grain among different growth type of varieties with DS was MMMJ>LMMJ>EMLJ while that with AT and MT was not significantly different. It is important to select scientific planting method and suitable variety type for achieving effective nitrogen uptake and utilization.

      Differences of Starch Granules in Grains from Different Spikelet Positions and Their Correlation with Grain Weight in Winter Wheat
      TAN Xiu-Shan,BI Jian-Jie,WANG Jin-Hua,YE Bao-Xing
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1920-1929.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01920
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      The purpose of this study was to reveal the differences in development and size-distribution of starch granules in endosperm of wheat grains in different grain positions and spikelet positions. The endosperm cell size, and the number, volume and surface area distribution of starch granules in mature caryopsis, as well as the changes of starch granule number during endosperm development, were studied using wheat cultivar Jimai 20 grown in the field. The results showed that the development of starch granule was closely related with grain position and spikelet position. In the same spikelet position, starch grains formed 4–5 d earlier in superior grains (the first and the second grains) than in inferior grains (the third and the fourth grains).At the same grain position, starch granules developed first in the grains of the middle spikelets, and then in grains of upper and lower spikelets. The amount of starch granules was the highest in the middle spikelet grains all the time. The lower spikelet grains had the least starch granules at the beginning of grain filling, however, the number of starch granules increased gradually and surpassed that of the upper spikelet grainsas caryopsis matured. Correlation coefficients between grain weight and starch granule amount became more significant with grain filling, which reached 0.88** (large starch granule) and 0.78** (small starch granule) at mature stage. Correlation coefficients between grain weight and large starch granule amount were higher than 0.96**, and had no difference among different spikelet positions. Correlation coefficients between grain weight and small starch granule amount were higher than 0.93**, and had a trend of upper > lower > middle in different spikelet positions. The trend of size distribution was BL-type > BS-type > A-type. There were more BS-type granules in superior grains than in inferior grains. The number of BS-type granules increased with the spikelet position rising, whereas the number of BL-type granules showed a reverse trend. The size distribution of starch granules had similar changes to volume and surface area. The formation and size distribution of starch granules were affected significantly by grain position and spikelet position, and inferior grains had the potential of increasing grain weight through increasing the quantity of starch granules.

      Effects of Cultivation Methods on Dry Matter Production and Yield of Rice under Different Ecological Conditions
      DENG Fei,WANG Li,LIU Li,LIU Dai-Yin,REN Wan-Jun,YANG Wen-Yu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1930-1942.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01930
      Abstract ( 2263 )   PDF (313KB) ( 1524 )   Save
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      To explore the effects of cultivation methods on dry matter production and grain yield of rice under different ecological conditions, we measured dry matter accumulation, distribution, translocation, grain yield and its components in a field experiment with different seedling ages and transplanting methods in Renshou, Pixian and Ya’an using a randomized block experimental design. The results showed as follows. (1) The dry matter accumulation of rice such as dry matter weight per stem or in a population was clearly influenced by ecological condition, seedling age, transplanting method, and there were significant interactions of ecological condition and seedling age on dry matter weight of population from tillering to heading stages. Moreover, the interactions of ecological condition and transplanting method, seedling age and transplanting method, and all of the three factors mainly affected dry matter weight per stem and in a population after heading stage. (2) The diversification of dry matter production characteristics was due to the ecological condition changes. The grain yield was primarily come from the accumulation of photosynthate after heading stage in Renshou, but not significantly correlated with the dry matter translocation from stem-sheath. In Pixian, the dry matter translocation from stem-sheath affected grain yield intensely, rice yield was positively correlated with dry matter translocation ratio from stem-sheath at booting stage (r = 0.775*), but negatively with that at maturity (r = –0.757*), significantly. In addition, the dry matter redistribution from stem-sheath after heading was positively correlated with rice yield in Ya’an. (3) The yield in Renshou increased by 5.52% and 17.65% respectively, compared with that in Pixian and Ya’an. Seedling age and transplanting method had an effect on the yield, that was significantly different under the different cultivation methods. Cultivation methods influenced the yield through changing effective panicles per unit area, seed-setting rate, and 1000-grain weight in Renshou, while by changing effective panicles per unit area and spikelets per panicle in Pixian, and by changing total spikelets and 1000-grain weight in Ya’an. (4) It was suggested that, with the effective regulation of cultivation methods on rice dry matter production, a higher yield would be reached. Overall, the 50 d single seedling with optimized-broadcasting treatment could coordinate the dry matter accumulation at different growth stages to promote the grain yield in Renshou and Pixian. Furthermore, the 50 d single seedlings with hand-transplanting treatment enhanced the dry matter accumulation before heading and the dry matter translocation from stem-sheath after heading, resulting in the extraordinarily increased rice yield inYa’an.

      AGRICULTURAL ARCHAEOLOGY
      Ancient Rice Unearthed from Wells of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty Ruins at Daping Shuangyan of Li County in Hunan Province
      XIANG An-Qiang,ZHANG Wen-Xu,CAO Yi,LIU Gui-Fu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(10):  1943-1947.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01943
      Abstract ( 1373 )   PDF (412KB) ( 846 )   Save
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       Three ancient carbonized unhusked rice and seven carbonized rice grains from wells of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty ruins at Daping Shuangyan in Hunan were morphologically analyzed. The results showed that Shuangyan ancient rice has the features of big grain and many similar morphological characteristics (including bi-peaked tubercles) to japonica rice, indicating that it belongs to the intermediate form between indica and japonica subspecies that is in the amesiality of japonica. Compared with the ancient unhusked rice unearthed from the Neolithic ruins, Shuangyan ancient rice has wider, thicker and heavier grains, tending to japonica characteristics of short and round grain.

Co-sponsored:
the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

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  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/the-crop-journal
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E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
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