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Table of Content

    12 December 2012, Volume 38 Issue 12
    • CROP GENETICS & BREEDING·GERMPLASM RESOURCES·MOLECULAR GENETICS
      Molecular Cloning of Sucrose Synthase Gene and Expression Analysis under Drought Stress in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
      HE Mei-Jing,LIU Li-Feng,MU Guo-Jun,HOU Ming-Yu,CHEN Huan-Ying,CUI Shun-Li
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(12):  2139-2146.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.02139
      Abstract ( 1349 )   RICH HTML    PDF (1683KB) ( 1811 )   Save
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      Sucrose synthase (SuSy), a key enzyme in sucrose metabolism, plays an important role in both plant growth and development and osmotic adjustment. Here, a cDNA sequence of sucrose synthase gene, designated AhSuSy (GenBank accession number: JF346233), was isolated from peanut using homologous cloning, RACE and TAIL-PCR. The full-length of AhSuSy cDNA is 2 790 bp, contained an ORF of 2 421 bp, the 5′UTR and 3′UTR of 57 bp and 312 bp, respectively. A peptide of 806 amino acid residues was deduced according to the ORF, which showed more than 75% homologous to the corresponding proteins in soybean, Arabidopsis and maize. The AhSuSy was ligated into pET-32a(+) and transformed into E. coli competent cell. After induced by IPTG, the fusion protein was obtained and its relative molecular weight was 92 kD, which was consistent with the theoretical value. The tissue specific expression analysis by using semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays indicated that AhSuSy was expressed in root, stem and leaf. After treated with 10%PEG, seedlings of peanut were used to determine transcript level for AhSuSy, sucrose synthase activity and sucrose content. The result showed that all of the three parameters were gradually increased during 4h to 12 h after treatment and the correlation coefficient between sucrose synthase activity and sucrose content was 0.993 (P=0.007<0.01) during this period, then declined from 12h to 24 h after treatment, which indicated that AhSuSy may play an important role in adaptation of plants to drought stress.

       

      Genetic Basis Dissection of Heterosis in Japonica Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
      JIANG Jian-Hua,LIU Qiang-Ming,LU Chao,ZHANG Hong,LIU Xiao-Li,DANG Xiao-Jing,NIU Fu-An,BRERIA Manamik Caleb,ZHAO Kai-Ming,HONG De-Lin
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(12):  2147-2161.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.02147
      Abstract ( 1262 )   RICH HTML    PDF (659KB) ( 1013 )   Save
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      To understand the types of gene action controlling yield-related traits and their mid-parental heterosis in japonica rice, we carried out quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping by using 254 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross of japonica rice varieties Xiushui 79, C Bao and two backcross hybrid (BCF1) populations derived from these RILs. Phenotypic values and mid-parental heterosis values (HMP) were investigated for eight traits in the three populations. The eight traits were plant height, growth duration, productive panicle number per plant, panicle length, spikelet number per panicle, percentage of spikelet fertility, primary branch number per panicle, and secondary branch number per panicle. A total of 58 main-effect QTLs (M-QTL) were detected in the three populations. The percentage of phenotypicvariance explained by single M-QTL ranged from 3.3% to 41.9%. Among the 58 M-QTLs detected, 45 M-QTLs (77.6%) showed additive effects, 9 M-QTLs (15.5%) showed partial-to-complete dominant effects, and 4 M-QTLs (6.9%) showed over-dominant effects. Ninety pairs of digenic epistatic QTL (E-QTL) were detected in the three populations. Among them, 44 pairs of E-QTLs were detected in RIL population, and the percentage of phenotypic variance explained by singlepair of QTL rangedfrom 1.7% to 8.0%, with an average of 3.7%.In XSBCF1 population (Xiushui 79 as recurrent parent), 27 pairs of E-QTL were detected. Sixteen pairs of E-QTL were detected by using BCF1 phenotypic values, and the percentage of phenotypic variance explained by singleE-QTL rangedfrom 12.7% to 78.5%, with an average of 29.2%. Eleven pairs of E-QTL were detected by using HMP values, and the percentage of phenotypic variance explained by singleE-QTL rangedfrom 15.0% to 71.8%, with an average of 40.1%. In CBBCF1 population (C Bao as recurrent parent), 19 pairs of E-QTL were detected. Twelve pairs of E-QTL were detected by using BCF1 phenotypic value, and the percentage of phenotypic variance explained by singlepair of E-QTL rangedfrom 2.7% to 64.4%, with an average of 30.1%. Nine pairs of E-QTL were detected by using HMP value, and the percentage of phenotypic variance explained by singlepair of E-QTL rangedfrom 21.7% to 64.1%, with an average of 40.0%. Two pairs of E-QTL were detected by using both BCF1 phenotypic value and HMP value in CBBCF1 population. These results indicated that epistatic effects were the primary genetic basis of heterosis in this cross in japonica rice.

      Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of CaM-Like Protein Genes (BoCML49) from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata)
      SONG Ming,XU Jun-Qiang,SUN Zi-Jian,TANG Qing-Lin,WANG Zhi-Min,WANG Xiao-Jia
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(12):  2162-2169.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.02162
      Abstract ( 979 )   RICH HTML    PDF (4434KB) ( 1292 )   Save
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      Calcium sensor proteins in plants play important roles in pollen germination and pollen tube growth processes. Calmodnlin-like (CML) protein of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) was identified in the process of pollen germination in cabbage line E1 by two-dimensional electrophosis of the pollen total protein. The sequence of BoCML49 fragment was 707 bp. The expression analysis by qPCR showed that the BoCML49 gene was down-regulated when pollen germinated, 550 bp and 721 bp DNA fragments were obtained by 5'-Race and 3'-Race, respectively. We obtain BoCML49 gene with a total length of 1 343 bp by splicing, its open reading frame was located in the region from 125 to 1 078 bp, and contained a 124 bp 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) and a 265 bp 3' UTR, the polyadenylation signal (AATAAA) was located at 1 222 bp. The deduced BoCML49 protein contained 317 amino acids, with a MW of 33.51 kD and pI of 6.93. The structural analysis of BoCML49 though Smart-embl showed that it contained two critical functional domain EF-hand modifs, which located at the position of 150178 and 216244 amino acid residues, at the same time the ORF might contain seven α-helixes and ten β-sheets. The phylogenetic tree indicated that the BoCML49 had close genetic relationship with AtCML49 and AtCML50. Prokaryotic expression showed that the molecular mass of BoCML49 protein was about 37.55 kD. cDNA

      Combining Ability and Heterosis Effects between 12 Exotic Maize Populations and Domestic Germplasm
      WANG Jian-Jun,YONG Hong-Jun,ZHANG Xiao-Cong,LI Ming-Shun,ZHANG De-Gui,BAI Li,GAO Zhi-Qiang,ZHANG Shi-Huang,LI Xin-Hai
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(12):  2170-2177.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.02170
      Abstract ( 1089 )   RICH HTML    PDF (338KB) ( 1687 )   Save
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      The introgression of exotic maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm with abundant genetic variation from International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) and the United States could be an important approach for broadening the genetic basis of maize germplasm used in China. The objectives of this study were to evaluate combining ability and heterosis effects between exotic and domestic maize populations by Miranda Filho-Geraldi model. Twelve populations from the United States and CIMMYT were test-crossed with three domestic populations (Csyn 5, Csyn 6, and Csyn 7) in an NCII mating design. Thirty-six crosses and one commercial hybrid (Zhengdan 958) were evaluated in 2009 and 2010 at Shunyi in Beijing, Jinan in Shandong province, and Xinxiang in Henan province. The results showed that the populations Pob43, La Posta, Pob21, Pob32, Pob49, and Pob501 had a good performance in GCA of yield and related traits. Pob49 and Pob501 were closer to PA germplasm; Pob32 and BS29 were closer to PB germplasm; Pob43 and La posta were closer to Sipingtou germplasm. Therefore, on the based of exotic germplasm adaptation, we recommended to compose populations or composites between Pob21, Pob49, Pob501, and domestic heterotic group A, Pob32 and domestic heterotic group B, as well as Pob43, La Posta, and domestic heterotic group D germplasm, in order to broaden genetic basis of domestic germplasm groups.

      Development and Characterization of Wheat Lines with Resistance to Take-All and Powdery Mildew Diseases
      ZHU Xiu-Liang,LI Zhao,DU Li-Pu,XU Hui-Jun,YANG Li-Hua,ZHUANG Hong-Tao,MA Ling-Jian,ZHANG Zeng-Yan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(12):  2178-2184.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.02178
      Abstract ( 1078 )   RICH HTML    PDF (303KB) ( 1115 )   Save
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      “Take-all”, primarily caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt), and powdery mildew, mainly caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), are important diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. The wheat cultivar Yangmai 18 carrying a powdery mildewresistance gene Pm21, shows broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew. We have isolated a lipid transfer protein gene TaLTP5 from wheat. To study the role of TaLTP5 in wheat defense responses to the major pathogens of take-all, we introduced this gene intowheat cultivar Yangmai 18via bombarding the particle containing the TaLTP5 expressing vector pA25-TaLTP5. The TaLTP5 transgenic wheat plants from T0 to T3 generations were subjected to PCR, Southern blot, RT-PCR, and Q-RT-PCR analyses. We also evaluated the disease resistances of these TaLTP5 transgenic plants against inoculating Ggt and Bgt. The PCR and Southern blotting results showed that the alien TaLTP5 was transferred and integrated into the genomes of three transgenic wheat lines, and inherited stably in the transgenic wheat lines. The RT-PCR and Q-RT-PCR results indicated that the introduced TaLTP5 was over-expressed in transgenic wheat lines, which showed significantly-enhanced resistance to take-all, suggesting that TaLTP5 gene is involved in defense response to Ggt infection. In addition, the resistance of transgenic lines to powdery mildew was not influenced bythe introduced gene TaLTP5. Thus, TaLTP5 transgenic wheat Yangmai 18 exhibits resistance to both “Take-all” and powdery mildew.

      Establishment of a Transformation System Using Inbred Line of Yellow-Seeded Brassica napus
      LIN Na,LIU Lie-Zhao,YIN Jia-Ming,WANG Rui,CHAI You-Rong,LI Jia-Na
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(12):  2185-2191.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.02185
      Abstract ( 962 )   RICH HTML    PDF (1291KB) ( 944 )   Save
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      In this research, we established a transformation system using an inbred line of yellow-seeded Brassica napus. Hypocotyl explants precultured for 5–7 d on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 200 μmol L–1 acetosyringone were cocultured with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 (pCNR) for 63–69 hours.The plasmid pCNR was constructed by inserting Δ6-fatty acid desaturase gene from Rhizopusstolonifer into plant high-efficient expression vector pCAMBIA2301G. Kanamycin-tolerant shoots were regenerated on shoot induction medium for three months after Agrobacterium inoculation. The average transformation efficiency was about 1.3% under optimal conditions. Results from GUS assay and PCR analysis of transformed plants indicated that the introduced genewas integrated into B. napus genomes.The Southern blot revealed that those transformants carried one or two copies of the goal gene. The fatty acids of the transgenic plant seeds were analyzed by GC, and the γ-linolenic content was 8.2%.

      Analyzing Avirulence Genes of Magnaporthe oryzae from Heilongjiang Province and Screening Rice Germplasm with Resistance to Blast Fungus
      LI Xiang-Xiao,WANG Qian,LUO Sheng-Xiang,HE Yun-Xia,ZHU Ling-Hua,ZHOU Yong-Li,LI Zhi-Kang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(12):  2192-2197.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.02192
      Abstract ( 1079 )   RICH HTML    PDF (221KB) ( 1173 )   Save
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      Theavirulence genes from 177 single spore strains of Magnaporthe grisea isolated from different rice varieties in Heilongjiang province were detected by specific primers. The results indicated that Avr-pita, ACE1, Avr-pia, Avr-pit, Avr1-co39, Avr-pik, and Avr-pizt could be detected in the strains from different rice-growing regions, and the amplification frequencies of avirurence genes were associated with the geographical orgin and rice variety, ACE1 and Avr1-co39 showed the highest and lowest frequency, that was 61.6%and 31.6%, respectively. Moreover, 20 monogenic lines with known blast resistance genes from International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) were used to analyze the genes which were valuable in breeding program in Heilongjiang Province by artificial inoculation. The resistance gene Pi-9 had the broadest resistance spectrum to theisolates from six regions.
      Evaluation of Restorability of Two Fertility Restorer Genes in the Rice Chromosome Single Segment Substitution Lines (SSSLs)
      CAI Jian,ZHANG Qui-Quan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(12):  2198-2205. 
      Abstract ( 1149 )   RICH HTML    PDF (233KB) ( 1248 )   Save
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      Rice chromosome single segment substitution line (SSSL) S15, a strong restorer line for WA-, and DA-CMS, was recently isolatedat Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Breeding, South China Agricultural University. The present study was carried out with the objective to investigatethe genetic mode of fertility restorer (Rf) genes and the genetic relationship between WA- and DA-CMS systems. The SSSL S15 was used to pollinate WA-CMS line of BobaiA and DA-CMS line of XieqingzaoA producing two BC3F2 populations by using marker-assisted selection (MAS) and traditional backcrossing. The results were as follows: (1) The genetic effect showed a trend of WA-CMS > DA-CMS in the genetic background of SSSL S15, and the effect of Rf4 was slightly larger than that of Rf3 for the two CMS systems. (2) Two pairs of dominant genes governed pollen fertility restoration, and some modifying or minor genes were involved in inheritance of restorer ability besides Rf3 or Rf4 in SSSL S15, displaying that the genetic mode of Rf genes showed a qualitative-quantitative character for WA-, and DA-CMS system. (3) When 202 SSR markers were used to analyze the genetic background and average length of substituted chromosome segments of the two BC3F2 individuals, carrying the genotypes Rf3Rf3/rf4rf4 or rf3rf3/Rf4Rf4, the mean of segments of inherited background of them was 1.0, while the average lengths of the substituted chromosome segments, corresponding to Rf3 and Rf4 loci, of them were 12.9 cM and 18.4 cM, respectively.

      Establishment of Molecular ID of Soybean Varieties (Lines) with SSR Marker Linked to Resistance Genes of Cercospora sojina
      DING Jun-Jie,JIANG Cui-Lan,GU Xin,YANG Xiao-He,ZHAO Hai-Hong,SHEN Hong-Bo,SHI Xiang-Lin,LIU Chun-Yan,HU Guo-Hua,CHEN Qing-Shan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(12):  2206-2216.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.02206
      Abstract ( 1113 )   RICH HTML    PDF (263KB) ( 1089 )   Save
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      One hundred and three soybean varieties (lines) developed by 29 breeding units from six accumulated temperature zones in Heilongjiang were investigated. The resistances of 103 soybean varieties (lines) were identified with three races of Cercospora sonija. Eighty-six polymorphic alleles were detected with 19 SSR markers, for each primer, two to six allele variations were detected in all varieties (lines), with an average of 4.42. The diversity index of the 19 SSR loci ranged from 0.198 to 0.751 with an average of 0.606. The results of calculating specific index and genetic similarity among varieties (lines) showed that specific index of varieties (lines) ranged from 46.592 to 481.541, and the average was 87.415. According to fragment size of allele variation, the data calculated from the PAGE bands were analyzed by the software ID Analysis 1.0. Seven markers (Satt565, Satt547, Satt431, Sct_186, SOYGPATR, Satt244, and Sat_151) linked to the gene controlling resistance to Cercospora sojina were used to identify all 103 soybean lines, so that a set of molecular ID of soybean varieties (lines) was established.
      TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY
      High Yield Formation and Its Eco-Physiological Characteristics of Cast-Transplanting Rice
      ZHANG Jun,ZHANG Hong-Cheng*,GUO Bao-Wei,GE Meng-Jie,ZHOU Xing-Tao,Zhu Cong-cong,DONG Xiao-Bo,CHEN Jing-Du,DAI Qi-Gen,HUO Zhong-Yang,XU Ke,WEI Hai-Yan,GAO Hui
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(12):  2217-2228.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.02217
      Abstract ( 875 )   RICH HTML    PDF (379KB) ( 1034 )   Save
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      Cast-Transplanting rice has a low cast, easy operation, high and stable yield potential advantage, Depth study of the seedings throwing is very important to develop the light and simple cultivation of rice. The purpose of this study is to explore the high yield formation and its eco-physiological characteristics of cast-transplanting rice. Under the rice-wheat cropping systems, conventional japonica cultivar “Nanjing 44” and japonica hybrid rice cultivar “Yongyou 8” were used to investigate the characteristics of high yield formation including tillering dynamic, LAI, photosynthetic potential, dry matter production and the eco-physiological basis, such as post-root activity, photosynthetic characteristics, material accumulation and translocation, with three cast-transplanting methods of transplanted seedlings (TS), pointed seedlings (PS), and broadcasted seedlings (BS) in contrast with the manually transplanting of seedlings with roots washed beforehand (MTS), which could provide the theoretical and practical basis for the high and stable yield of the cast-transplanting rice. The results showed that the yields of three methods were 21.9%, 18.3%, and 13.2% higher than MTS for “Yongyou 8”, and 18.3%, 14.1%, and 9.87% higher than MTS for “Nanjing 44”, respectively. The yields of two cultivars both showed the trend of TS > PS > BS > MTS. Though the filled-grain percentage and 1000-grain weight of cast-transplanting rice were significantly or very significantly lower than those of MTS, the total number of spikelets of cast-transplanting rice was conformably higher than that of MTS at a significant or very significant degree. The increased yield was mainly due to the higher total spikelet number. Compared to MTS, the cast-transplanting rice had more peak seedling tillers, higher or equivalent ratios of productive tillers to total tillers, an enough number of ultimate effective panicles, higher LAI and LAD, and thus a more robust population quality. According to these results, we could give the conclusion of the eco-physiological basis of high and stable yield of cast-transplanting rice. After transplantation, there were earlier tillering, more leaf tillering positions, stronger tillering capability, and higher quality and enough quantity of tillering. At the heading stage, they had suitable plant height, stouter stems and sheaths, efficient leaf configurations, preferable air ventilation and light transmission conditions, higher biomass accumulation, a more coordinated sink-source relationship, and hence a higher yield potential. In the late growth period, the cast-transplanting rice had stronger roots, slower senescence of leaves, more powerful photosynthesis, more coordinated dry matter accumulation and translocation of stem and sheath, higher filling ratios, being more conducive to the higher yield. TS and PS have evident advantages than MTS, and are more favorable in achieving higher yield.

      Evaluation of Cotton Regional Trial Environments Based on HA-GGE Biplot in the Yangtze River Valley
      XU Nai-Yin,ZHANG Guo-Wei,LI Jian,ZHOU Zhi-Guo
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(12):  2229-2236.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.02229
      Abstract ( 1013 )   RICH HTML    PDF (200KB) ( 675 )   Save
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      The latest heritability adjusted GGE (HA-GGE) biplot analysis was adopted toevaluate cotton regional trial environments (trial locations) in terms of the discriminating ability, representative ability, desirability index and superiority index for cotton lint yield selection in27 independent sets of cotton variety trials in the Yangtze River Valley during 20002010 periods. The results showed that Huanggang, Nanjing and Jinzou werethe most ideal trial environments and thereforewere the most effective locations for developing and/or remanding cultivars for broad adaptation selection in the target region. However, Shehong, Jianyang, Xiangyang and Nanyang were not desirable for cotton lint yield selection in the whole regions. The desirable test environments were alllocated in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Valley, while among the undesirable test environments Nanyang and Xiangyang were located at the inland Nan-Xiang basin bordering with the Yellow River Valley in the north, where the first frost came early and temperature declined sharply in the late autumn, and Shehong and Jianyang were located at the mountainous Sichuan basin in the west area, where cotton planting density was higher and cotton matured earlier. Therefore, this article fully displayed the HA-GGE biplot application efficiency in regional trial environment evaluation and also provided the theory background for the decision-making in national cotton scheme implementation and cotton megaenvironment investigation in the Yangtze River Valley.
      Functional and Structural Model for Above-Ground Growth in Cotton
      CHEN Chao,PAN Xue-Biao,ZHANG Li-Zhen,PANG Yan-Mei
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(12):  2237-2245.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.02237
      Abstract ( 988 )   RICH HTML    PDF (556KB) ( 1235 )   Save
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      Three-year experiments with different planting densities were conducted in Anyang, Henan Provence of China. The development and morphogenesis module of COTGROW model was improved based on the allometry relationship between biomass and morphology, which was used to construct cotton model for above-ground organs. The morphology model included several sub-models, such as stem, leaf, petiole, boll, and so on. A visual cotton growth process was displayed through linking the COTGROW and the GroIMP models, thus, the cotton canopy light interception was simulated. The results showed that the dynamic change of each organ size could be characterized by relationship between biomass and morphology based on cotton above-ground organs model of COTGROW. The model was validated by independent experiments in 2010. The root mean squared error (RMSE) between the measured and simulated values for morphological parameters were 3.85, 0.64, 0.52, 0.66, 1.00, 0.15, 1.58, 2.39, 2.54, 0.05, 0.13, and 0.10 cm for plant height, nodes on main stem, the number of fruiting branches, nodes on different fruiting branches, internode length, internode diameter, leaf length, leaf width, petiole length, petiole diameter, boll length and boll diameter, respectively. Various 3D morphology of cotton plant in different environmental conditions and different plant densities was shown, and light interception of canopy also well simulated. Functional and structural model for above-ground organs in cotton could be used to simulate cotton morphological characteristics and display the real growth process of organs and plant, which provides a technical basis for virtual farming.

      Response of Rice Production Based on Self-Adaption to Climate Change in Fujian Province
      JIANG Min,JIN Zhi-Qing,SHI Chun-Lin,LIN Wen-Xiong
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(12):  2246-2257.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.02246
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      The goal of this study is to take the self-adaption of rice production in future into consideration in the climate change impact studies, to enhance its rationality. The first step we did was to classify Fujian Province into three rice regions according to the topographic features and rice-based cropping systems. Altogether 17 sites and 9 representative rice varieties with different maturity types were selected to conduct the simulation experiments. The second step, to generate climate change scenarios in two periods (1961–1990 and 2021–2050), based on three emission schemes (A2, B2, and A1B) in IPCC Special Report (SRES), combined with the Regional Climate Model of PRECIS. The third step to run CERES-Rice model under the three climate change scenarios to simulate the influence of future climate change on rice production in Fujian Province, without considering the self-adaption of rice production. The direct effects of CO2 enrichment on photosynthesis and transpirations were also included.The forth step, to assess the possible change in rice-based cropping system, varietal type as well as sowing date in future in the studied area, based on the simulated results and some climatic indices, and these changes could be regarded as the results of self-adaption adjustment in future. The fifth step, to run CERES-Rice model again under the three climate change scenarios using the possible cropping systems, varietal types and sowing dates after self-adaption adjustment. Finally, to assess change in rice yield, yield stability in different rice regions and the overall output of rice in the province in future with considering the self-adaption adjustment. The results indicated that the simulated yields of early rice in the Double Rice Region in southeastern Fujian under A2, B2, and A1B scenarios increase by 15.9%, 18.0%, and 19.2% and that of late rice increase respectively by 9.2%, 7.4%, and 7.4% when the self-adaption adjustment was considered, compared without consideration. In the Double Rice Region in Northwestern Fujian, the simulated yields of early rice increase by 21.2%, 20.5%, 18.9% and that of late rice increase respectively by 14.7%, 14.8%, and 7.2% under the three climate change scenarios when the self-adaption was considered, compared with without consideration. Similar results could be obtained in the Single Rice Region in the mountain areas of Northwestern Fujian. The simulated yields of single rice increase respectively by 4.9%, 5.0%, and 2.9% under the three scenarios, comparing the two cases with and without consideration of self-adaption. In this rice region, double rice might be grown in future in the site of Changting under the A1 and B2 scenarios. When the self-adaption adjustment was considered, the overall output of rice crop in Fujian Province under the three climate change scenarios would increase by 5.9%, 5.2%, and 5.1%, respectively. It is concluded that more optimistic results could be obtained when self-adaption ability of food production was taken into consideration.

      Photosynthetic Characteristics and Its Significance of Topmost Three Leaves at Fruiting Stage in Wheat with Presenile Flag Leaf
      ZHANG Song-Wu,WANG Chang-Fa,MIAO Fang,ZHOU Chun-Ju,YAU You-Hua,LI Gui-Xian
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(12):  2258-2266.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.02258
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      A type of wheat has been discovered by the long time observation that the flag leaf senesces earlier than second and third leaves from top, differing from the conventional understanding for leaf senescing sequence in the majority of wheats. To reveal the biological characteristics of the type of wheat and its possible utilization in theoretical study and practice, we carried out an experiment of the type of wheat with presenile flay leaf, using normal wheat as the control in 2005–2011. The results showed that : in the type of wheat with presenile flag leaf , the leaf chlorophyll content , transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate were higher in the penultimate leaves, the roots, stems, and leaves were more developed, its grain filling rate was faster, and some important agronomy traits caused by above-mentioned factors were excellent, as compared with normal wheat. The grain volume, 1000-grain weight and weight of grain per spike of this type of wheat were 9.64%, 10.35%, and 8.43% higher than those of the normal wheat, respectively, and this may be closely related to the special grain filling mechanism differing from that of the normal wheat whose flag leaves work as the main nutrient sources for grain filling in the whole fruiting process. This study provided an new approach to research wheat growth, fruiting and senescence theory, further increasing whew yield.

      Effects of Plant Density on Agronomic Characters and Yield in Spring Maize Zhongdan 909 and Their Regional Differences in Northeast China
      SONG Zhen-Wei,QI Hua,ZHANG Zhen-Ping,QIAN Chun-Rong,GUO Jin-Rui,DENG Ai-Xing,ZHANG Wei-Jian
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(12):  2267-2277.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.02267
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      It is well evidenced that higher plant density will give higher grain yields, and the ecological situations of precipitation, air temperature and soil conditions are the key factors of plant density decision. Given the great regional variations of precipitation and temperature, to learn the integrated responses of crop growth to plant density and regional ecological situation will play an important role in designing optimal density with higher yield in Northeast China. Field experiments were conducted in Shenyang, Gongzhuling, Harbin, Huadian, and Taonan using spring maize cultivar Zhongdan 909 to determine the comprehensive effects of plant densities and regional ecological conditions on crop agronomic characters and grain yield. The results showed that, higher plant density significantly increased the plant height and ear height, and decreased the stem diameter. Regional ecological conditions had significant effect on plant height but less effect on ear height and stem diameter. With the increase of plant density, the population leaf area index (LAI) increased significantly. Meanwhile, the increment of heat and precipitation increased the LAI. The increase of population dry matter accumulation under higher plant density offset the decrease of dry matter accumulation per plant which ensured the higher grain yield. Under the plant density of 9.00 × 104 plant ha-1, the potential productivity for cultivar Zhongdan 909 was fully developed in the experiments. But regional differences of precipitation, air temperature and soil characters influenced the appropriate plant density. The optimum plant density should be from 8.6 to9.6×104 plant ha-1 under different ecological conditions in Northeast China.

      Effects of Fertilizer and Planting Density on Yield and Yield Components in Foxtail Millet Hybrid Zhangzagu 5
      YANG Yan-Jun,GUO Ping-Yi,CAO Yu-Feng,WANG Hong-Fu,WANG Yu-Guo,YUAN Xiang-Yang,XING Guo-Fang,SHAO Dong-Hong,QI Xiang,XIE Li-Li,NIE Men-En,GUO Jun,NING Na
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(12):  2278-2285.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.02278
      Abstract ( 973 )   RICH HTML    PDF (348KB) ( 1335 )   Save
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      Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is of high nutritious value, which has been mostly used for foods in Africa and Asia or Central and South America. To investigate the effects of fertilizer and density on yield and yield components of Zhangzagu 5, we conducted an experiment based on quadratic general rotary unitized design with three replications. The results demonstrated that the yield was significantly positively correlated with ears per ha and grains per ear, but not with 1000-grain weight. The levels of nitrogen, phosphate and potassium and the row spacing all showed significant effects on grains per ear and yield, and the grains per ear and yield were mainly affected by nitrogen level and row spacing, and less affected by phosphate and potassium levels. Row spacing, plant spacing and nitrogen level had great effects on ears per ha, which was promoted with increasing N and decreasing row spacing and plant spacing. The effect of phosphate level on 1000-grain weight was evident, which had a trend from rising to declining with phosphate increasing. The interactions between nitrogen and potassium levels and plant spacing, and between potassium level and plant spacing showed significant effects on grains per ear and yield, while the interaction between nitrogen level and plant spacing showed great effect on 1000-grains weight. The interaction effects of other factors on the yield and yield components were not so obvious. Multivariate quadratic regression analysis indicated that the regression relationship between the levels of nitrogen, phosphate and potassium, row spacing, plant spacing and the yield of Zhangzagu 5, can be used for production forecasts. Here is the recommended cultivation conditions for Zhangzagu 5: 186 kg ha–1 for nitrogen level, 95 kg ha–1 for P2O5, 60 kg ha–1 for K2O, 23 cm for row spacing, 13 cm for plant spacing, and the expected yield is 6 683 kg ha–1. In conclusion, nitrogen, phosphate and potassium, row spacing, plant spacing and their interactions have certain effects on the ears per ha, grains per ear, 1000-grains weight and yield of Zhangzagu 5. Proper planting density and fertilization can successfully resolve the contradictions of ears per ha with grains per ear and 1000-grain weight, and increase yield.

      RESEARCH NOTES
      Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Germplasm Resources in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) by SSR Markers
      YUE Wen-Di,WEI Li-Bin,ZHANG Ti-De,LI Chun,MIAO Hong-Mei,ZHANG Hai-Yang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(12):  2286-2296.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.02286
      Abstract ( 1063 )   RICH HTML    PDF (439KB) ( 1307 )   Save
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      A total of 545 sesame accessions, including domestic and foreign germplasm resources, were analyzed systematically with 42 SSR primer pairs. The results showed that 106 allele bands were detected among the sesame accessions, and the Shannon’s information index (I) was 0.4092. Analysis results of UPGMA clustering, two-dimension principal components and population structure were basically consistent; 545 varieties were divided into three groups in UPGMA dentrogram or three subgroups in population structure. There were the lower genetic differentiation coefficient and the closer sibship in worldwide sesame. The similarity coefficient of seven ecological groups in China ranged from 0.9811 to 0.5462, and there was no close genetic relationship between varieties from northern regions and other regions in China. The similarity coefficients for foreign varieties were from 0.9726 to 0.7442, and the genetic relationships of varieties from Africa zone was close to those from Japan zone, but not from China. It showed that the genetic basis of varieties from China was relatively narrow, and the genetic diversities of varieties were not completely related to geopraphic distribution, but the genetic diversities of varieties from abroad presented abundance. Therefore, the introduction of foreign resources should be reinforced, and the domestic resources from different regions should be utilized in the future sesame breeding.

      Development of Soybean Lines with α'-Subunit or (α'+α)-Subunits Deficiency in 7S Globulin by Backcrossing
      SONG Bo,LAN Lan,TIAN Fu-Dong,TUO Yun,BAI Yue,JIANG Zi-Qin,SHEN Li-Wei,LI Wen-Bin,LIU Shan-Shan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(12):  2297-2305.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.02297
      Abstract ( 872 )   RICH HTML    PDF (421KB) ( 746 )   Save
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      Theα'- and α-subunits of 7S globulin, the components of soybean storage protein as well as the main allergens, are important factors affecting the nutritional and processing quality of soybean. It is currently focused to improve the quality of soybean variety by reducing the contents of α' and α-subunits in soybean breeding. In the experiment, we successfully recombined the character of allergenic proteins deficiency into Chinese soybean, using a Japanese variety “Ri B” with (α'+α)-subunits deficiency of 7S globulin (β-conglycinin) as the donor parent, and soybean variety Dongnong 47 with high oil content, wildly planted in Heilongjiang Province of China, as the recurrent parent. The results showed that the plants of α'-subunit-deficient lines (Cc) and (α'+α)-subunit-deficient lines (Cd) could normally grow, set seeds, and stably inherited. The average values of the yield traits in the two lines (Cc, Cd) increased compared with those in the recurrent parent Dongnong47. The average protein contents in the two lines were higher than those in the parents. The protein content reached to 46.7% in the Cd lines. The average oil content in Cc and Cd lines was ranged between that of both parents and a bit more than that of “Ri B”. Fat content in part lines was 20% more than that in Cc and Cd lines, respectively. Total Amino acid contents were increased by introducing a'-subunit and (a'+α)-subunit, amount of arginine (Arg) and asparagine (Asp) in two lines markedly increased. The sulfur-containing amino acid (Met and Cys) contents and the total amino acid content in Cd lines were 0.11% and 0.56% more than those in Dongnong 47, respectively. So the recombined lines have a great potential to enhance food safety and quality, and could be used in soybean breeding for quality.

      Cloning and Characterization of ACC Synthase Gene (BnACS1) from Ramie (Boehmeria nivea)
      ZHOU Jing-Hua,YU Wei-Lin,XING Hu-Cheng,JIE Yu-Cheng,ZHONG Ying-Li,JING Li-Heng
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(12):  2306-2311.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.02306
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      According to the ACS gene sequence from ramie transcriptome, we designed primers and cloned a full-length sequence of ACS gene cDNA from Xiangzhu 3 by RT-PCR and RACE methods, named as BnACS1, with the accession number of JQ970520 in GenBank. The full length sequence and the ORF of the BnACS1 gene were 1 674 bp and 1 470 bp, respectively, which encoded 489 amino acids. The molecule weight was 54.55 kD and the pI was 6.37. The similarity comparison revealed that the gene nucleotide sequence shared 74%, 74%, 72%, 71%, 70%, and 70% of homology with the Malus × domestica (AB034993), Eriobotrya japonica (GQ370520), Momordica charantia (AF248734), Paeonia suffruticosa (DQ337250), Nicotiana attenuate (AY426755), and Populus euphratica (AB033502) ACS gene, and the similarity of the amino acid sequences with that of those species was 75%, 74%, 71%, 71%, 70%, and 74%, respectively. The results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that the BnACS1 expressed in root, stem, shoot tip, blade, female flower andmale flower, with the higher expression level in root and male flower, while the lowest expression level in stem. The results of real-time PCR showed that the BnACS1 was induced by dehydration and ABA, but not by high salt.

      Genetic Diversity in 30 Tobacco Varieties Analyzed by IMP Markers
      XIE He,GAO Yu-Long,SONG Zhong-Bang,GUI Yi-Jie,FAN Long-Jiang,XIAO Bing-Guang,LU Xiu-Ping
      Acta Agron Sin. 2012, 38(12):  2312-2319.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.02312
      Abstract ( 908 )   RICH HTML    PDF (311KB) ( 1084 )   Save
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      Miniature Inverted repeat Transposable Element (MITEs) is a high copy number transposon family in plants. Molecular markers based on closely located MITEs are termed Inter MITE polymorphisms or IMP. We conducted the genetic distance evaluation and cluster analyses of 30 tobacco cultivars using IMP markers. Among 133 primers screened, 32 primers had steady polymorphism bands. A total of 185 polymorphic bands were detected out of 30 cultivars, with 5.78 polymorphism bands per IMP primer. The genetic distance among cultivars ranged from 0.02 to 0.81, with an average of 0.33. According to cluster analyses, 30 tobacco cultivars could be classified into three groups. Group I included sun-cured tobacco, oriental tobacco and flue-cured tobacco of northern China; group II included USA NC series, Coker series and China Yunyan series; group III included two burley tobacco cultivars. The cluster analysis result closely matched the classic relationship among the cultivars. The result showed that the IMP markers, successfully amplified in tobacco, generated fairly polymorphism and could be applied in genetic diversity analysis. Thus, IMP markers establish a foundation for Tobacco genetic study and marker-assisted selection. The genetic diversity is very low among 30 tobacco cultivars investigated in this study, indicating that a strategy to enrich tobacco germplasm for further breeding should be developed.

Co-sponsored:
the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

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  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/the-crop-journal
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E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
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