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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2018, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (05): 774-782.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2018.00774


Effects of Straw Strip Returning on Spring Maize Yield, Soil Moisture, Nitrogen Contents and Root Distribution in Northeast China

Jun-Peng AN1(), Cong-Feng LI2, Hua QI1,*(), Peng-Xiang SUI1, Wen-Ke ZHANG1, Ping TIAN1, De-Bao YOU1, Nan MEI1, Jing XING1   

  1. 1 Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, Liaoning, China
    2 Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences / Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Ecology, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2017-09-29 Accepted:2018-03-19 Online:2018-05-20 Published:2018-03-19
  • Contact: Hua QI E-mail:anjp812@163.com;qihua10@163.com
  • Supported by:
    The study was supported by the Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest (201503116) and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0300103, 2016YFD0300801).


Field experiments were conducted in 2015 and 2016 at Tieling city, Liaoning province of Northeast China to study the effects of straw stripe returning on yield of spring maize, and the relationships of yield with soil moisture, nitrogen and maize root spatial distribution. The experiments included four treatments: (1) the ridges of the rotary tillage with straw returning (RR+S); (2) the ridges of rotary tillage without straw returning (RR); (3) interlaced ridges of rotary tillage with straw returning (IR+S); (4) interlaced ridges of rotary tillage without straw returning (IR). Compared with no straw returning, under RR+S and IR+S treatments the yield, increased by 6.7% and 8.2%, respectively, with more significant yield-increasing effect in dry year (2015) than in rainy year (2016); their grain number per spike and harvest index increased significantly, but there was no significant difference in 1000-grain weight; their soil moisture content increased by 7.8% and 6.1%, and their soil nitrogen increased by 6.9% and 4.5%, respectively; their root length significantly increased by 29.4% and 22.7%, and the water use efficiency was increased by 7.8% and 7.0%, respectively. We conclude that the straw strip returning (RR+S and IR+S) can improve water use efficiency and grain yield by optimizing distribution of soil structure, moisture and nitrogen. This study provides useful references for improving spring maize yield and straw comprehensive utilization in Northeast of China.

Key words: straw strip returning, yield, root distribution, soil moisture content, nitrogen distribution, water use efficiency

Fig. 1

Precipitation and daily mean temperature during spring maize growing seasons in 2015 and 2016 at the Tieling experimental station"

Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of field design (a), photo of trench excavation (b), and soil sampling (c) RR+S: the ridges of rotary tillage with straw returning; RR: the ridges of rotary tillage without straw returning; IR+S: interlaced ridges of rotary tillage with straw returning; IR: interlaced ridges of rotary tillage without straw returning."

Table 1

Yield and yield components of spring maize in different treatment"

Grain number (per ear)
1000-kernel weight (g)
Yield (kg hm-2)
Harvest index
2015 RR+S 466.83±24.66 b 307.12±16.64 a 7412.99±211.71 a 0.42±0.06 ab
RR 363.85±20.60 c 304.04±42.93 a 6655.35±326.94 b 0.33±0.10 b
IR+S 511.88±13.99 a 275.34±34.27 a 7234.28±103.94 a 0.49±0.02 a
IR 351.53±26.40 c 277.20±20.87 a 6331.27±247.10 b 0.32±0.09 b
2016 RR+S 514.80±38.66 ab 345.90±18.02 ab 12120.94±145.29 a 0.56±0.02 a
RR 465.46±28.88 b 366.07±9.81 a 11655.48±186.20 bc 0.55±0.01 a
IR+S 535.15±34.18 a 321.81±18.58 b 12052.68±351.78 ab 0.49±0.03 b
IR 485.64±2.01 ab 363.13±5.80 a 11494.58±159.99 c 0.55±0.01 a
显著性分析(F值) Interaction analysis of yield and yield components (F-value)
S 41.055** 1.455 28.286** 4.268
M 1.680 2.939 2.103 0.100
S×M 1.036 0.273 0.222 0.100

Fig. 3

Spatial distribution of root length density in 0-60 cm soil layers under different treatments RR+S: the ridges of rotary tillage with straw returning; RR: the ridges of rotary tillage without straw returning; IR+S: interlaced ridges of rotary tillage with straw returning; IR: interlaced ridges of rotary tillage without straw returning."

Fig. 4

Spatial distribution of root surface area in 0-60 cm soil layers under different treatments RR+S: the ridges of rotary tillage with straw returning; RR: the ridges of rotary tillage without straw returning; IR+S: interlaced ridges of rotary tillage with straw returning; IR: interlaced ridges of rotary tillage without straw returning."

Table 2

Effects of different treatments on root dry weight and root shoot ratio at silking stage"

2015 2016
Root biomass (g plant-1)
Root shoot ratio
Root biomass (g plant-1)
Root shoot ratio
RR+S 12.61±0.43 b 0.040±0.001 b 15.71±0.66 b 0.047±0.002 b
RR 17.12±0.30 a 0.063±0.001 a 14.60±0.55 b 0.047±0.002 b
IR+S 11.22±0.82 c 0.038±0.003 b 15.71±0.64 b 0.046±0.002 b
IR 16.89±0.86 a 0.063±0.003 a 18.81±1.07 a 0.061±0.003 a
显著性分析(F值) Interaction analysis of root biomass and root shoot ratio (F-value)
S 184.430** 304.516** 5.135 30.550**
M 4.668 2.037 23.067** 18.690**
S×M 2.410 0.066 23.033** 29.627**

Fig. 5

Spatial distribution of moisture (A) and total nitrogen (B) in different soil layers in 2016 RR+S: the ridges of rotary tillage with straw returning; RR: the ridges of rotary tillage without straw returning; IR+S: interlaced ridges of rotary tillage with straw returning; IR: interlaced ridges of rotary tillage without straw returning."

Table 3

Evapotranspiration of field (ET), grain yield, and water use efficiency (WUE) of spring maize in 2016"

soil water storage(mm)
Soil water storage after harvest (mm)
ET (mm)
WUE (kg hm-2 mm-1)
RR+S 430.7±4.3 b 383.6±12.2 a 876.1±6.2 b 13.8±0.5 a
RR 420.0±3.9 b 340.1±3.7 c 908.9±15.9 a 12.8±0.5 b
IR+S 443.2±11.5 a 397.2±8.9 a 874.9±7.7 b 13.8±0.3 a
IR 424.5±2.2 c 354.0±15.1 b 889.4±3.8 b 12.9±0.4 b
显著性分析(F值) Interaction analysis of ET and WUE (F-value)
S 15.183** 48.006** 18.390** 14.440**
M 5.076 4.830 3.522 0.040
S×M 1.124 0.001 2.753 0.040
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