Welcome to Acta Agronomica Sinica,

Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (6): 1425-1436.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12029


Difference and molecular mechanism of soluble sugar metabolism and quality of different rice panicle in japonica rice

ZHENG Xiao-Long1,2(), ZHOU Jing-Qing3, BAI Yang4, SHAO Ya-Fang2, ZHANG Lin-Ping2, HU Pei-Song1,2, WEI Xiang-Jin2,*()   

  1. 1College of Agriculture, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, Jiangxi, China
    2China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 311400, Zhejiang, China
    3Zhejiang Ecological and Environmental Monitoring Center, Hangzhou 310000, Zhejiang, China
    4Zhejiang Environmental Monitoring Engineering Co. Ltd., Hangzhou 310015, Zhejiang, China
  • Received:2021-04-26 Accepted:2021-10-19 Online:2022-06-12 Published:2021-11-25
  • Contact: WEI Xiang-Jin E-mail:zhengxiaolonglj@126.com;weixiangjin@caas.cn
  • Supported by:
    Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program of CAAS(CAASZDRW202011)


This study investigated the mechanism of starch and rice quality differences on different parts of spikelet in japonica rice. According to the internodes of the primary stem on main panicle, rice grains on the panicles were divided into top, middle, and the bottom spikelets. The dynamic changes of soluble carbohydrate and starch, starch biosynthesis related enzyme activity, gene expression on different parts of panicles at different filling stage and the starch content, chalkiness degree after harvest of six varieties were measured. The results showed that the amylose content of the five varieties was in an order as top > middle > bottom except Xiushui 134. The chalkiness degree of Jia 58 and Zhongjia 8 was higher than the other varieties, and the chalkiness degree of rice grains on the middle part of panicles was lower than that on the bottom part, and the rice grains on the top part had the highest chalkiness degree. Rice grains of high chalkiness degree had significant difference in starch granules size and shape. We found that the shape of starch granules was semi-ellipsoid or other spherical curved in rice grains with high chalkiness degree and mostly regular polyhedra in rice grains with low chalkiness degree. The contents of sucrose, glucose, and fructose in grains of different varieties and parts were different during grain filling period, but the dynamic changes of sucrose content were first decreased and then slightly increased, while glucose and fructose were basically increased first and then decreased. The contents of invertase and AGPase were significantly different among rice grains on top, middle, and bottom parts of panicles. However, the relative expression levels of AGPase were in an order as top > middle > bottom during the whole filling stage. The relative expression levels of invertase were in an order as top < middle < bottom during the early filling stage, and the rule was completely the opposite at late filling stage. The expression levels of OsCIN2 and OsCIN5 encoding sucrose invertase genes were in an order as middle > bottom > top, and the expression levels of OsAGPL1, OsAGPL2, and OsAGPS1a encoding AGPase genes were in an order as top > middle ≈ bottom. It concluded that the amylose content and chalkiness degree of grains in different panicles had significant difference and also affected by varieties. The content of soluble carbohydrate, starch biosynthesis related enzyme activity, and the gene expression of encoding related enzymes had an effect on starch biosynthesis. The genes of OsCIN2, OsCIN5, OsAGPL1, OsAGPL2, and OsAGPS1a played an important role in the difference of starch content and chalkiness degree in different panicles.

Key words: rice, different spikelet of the grain, chalkiness degree, amylase content, soluble carbohydrate, enzymic activity

Fig. 1

Pattern diagram of conventional japonica rice panicle structure 1-10: the order of branch from top to bottom on rice panicle; TS: all the grains on the three top spikelets; BS: all the grains on the three lower spikelets; MS: all the grains on the remaining middle spikelets."

Table 1

Sequence of special primers used for qRT-PCR amplification of 20 genes of enzymes involving in starch synthesis"

Gene name
Forward sequence (5'-3')
Reserve sequence (5'-3')

Fig. 2

Chalkiness and starch in different parts of panicles TS: top spikelet; MS: middle spikelet; BS: bottom spikelet. J58: Jia 58; J67: Jia 67; Z99: Zhejing 99; X121: Xiushui 121; X134: Xiushui 134; Z8: Zhongjia 8. (a): the chalkiness degree of different parts in six varieties; (b): chalky sample of J58 and X134, (c) and (d) represent the content of amylase and total starch, respectively. Different letters indicate significantly different at the 0.05 probability level."

Fig. 3

Scanning electron microscopic images of rice grain cross-section obtained by breaking treatment (a-c): scanning electron microscopic images of rice grain cross-section obtained by breaking treatment of the top, middle, and bottom spikelets of J58, respectively; (d-f): scanning electron microscopic images of rice grain cross-section obtained by breaking treatment of the top, middle, and bottom spikelets of X134, respectively. Bar: 3 μm."

Fig. 4

Dynamic changes and differences of soluble sucrose in different parts of panicles WAFH: week after full heading; Different letters indicate significantly different at the 0.05 probability level."

Fig. 5

Dynamic changes and differences of soluble glucose and fructose in different parts of panicles WAFH: week after full heading; Different letters indicate significantly different at the 0.05 probability level."

Fig. 6

Differences of amylose and amylopectin in different parts of panicles WAFH: week after full heading. Different letters indicate significantly different at the 0.05 probability level."

Fig. 7

Differences of enzymes activities related to starch synthesis in different parts of panicles TS-2W: the top spikelet in the 2th week of full heading; MS-2W: the middle spikelet in the 2th week of full heading; BS-2W: the bottom spikelet in the 2th week of full heading; TS-5W: the top spikelet in the 5th week of full heading; MS-5W: the middle spikelet in the 5th week of full heading; BS-5W: the bottom spikelet in the 5th week of full heading. Different letters indicate significantly different at the 0.05 probability level."

Fig. 8

Relative expression patterns of rice starch synthesis genes SUSy1, SUSy2, and SUSy3 are amylosynthease genes; OsCIN2, OsCIN5, and OsNIN2 are Starch invertase genes; AGPL1, AGPL2, AGPs1a, and AGPs1b are ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) genes; ISA1 and ISA2 are isoamylase type starch debranching enzyme (DBE) genes; BEI, BEIIa, and BEIIb are starch branching enzyme genes; GBSS1 and GBSS2 are granule-bound starch synthase genes; SSI, SSIIa, and SSIIc are starch synthase genes. All the data are shown as means ± SDs from three replicates. Different letters indicate significantly different at the 0.05 probability level."

[1] Kusano M, Yang Z, Okazaki Y, Nakabayashi R, Fukushima A, Saito K. Using metabolomic approaches to explore chemical diversity in rice. Mol Plant, 2015, 8: 58-67.
doi: 10.1016/j.molp.2014.11.010
[2] 王丰, 程方民. 从籽粒灌浆过程上讨论水稻粒间品质差异形成的生理机制. 种子, 2004, 23(1):31-35.
Wang F, Cheng F M. Discussion on the physiological mechanism of quality diversity among different location grains on basis of grain filling process. Seed, 2004, 23(1):31-35 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[3] 张佩莲, 钟旭华, 曾宪江, 徐益群. 穗上不同部位籽粒的稻米垩白度差异的研究. 江西农业大学学报, 1995, 17: 396-399.
Zhang P L, Zhong X H, Zeng X J, Xu Y Q. A study on the difference in the chalk degree of the grains in a panicle. Acta Agric Univ Jiangxiensis, 1995, 17: 396-399 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[4] 董明辉, 桑大志, 王朋, 王学明, 杨建昌. 不同施氮水平下水稻穗上不同部位籽粒的蒸煮与营养品质变化. 中国水稻科学, 2006, 20: 389-395.
Dong M H, Sang D Z, Wang P, Wang X M, Yang J C. Changes in cooking and nutritional qualities of grains at different positions within a rice panicle under different nitrogen levels. Chin J Rice Sci, 2006, 20: 389-395 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[5] Nagato K. Differences in grain weight of spikelets located at different positions within a rice panicle. Jpn J Crop Sci, 1941, 13: 156-169.
doi: 10.1626/jcs.13.156
[6] Kido M, Yanatori S. Studies on positions in panicle of ventral white, basal white, milky white like white core and milky white kernel sand shapes of white opaque parts in these kernels. Jpn J Crop Sci, 2008, 37: 534-538.
doi: 10.1626/jcs.37.534
[7] 张小明, 石春海, 堀内久满, 富田桂, 鲍根良, 冯水英, 叶胜海. 粳稻穗部不同部位米粒直链淀粉含量的差异分析. 作物学报, 2002, 28: 99-103.
Zhang X M, Shi C H, Hisamitsu H, Fu T G, Bao G L, Feng S Y, Ye S H. The differences of grain amylose contents in different panicle parts of japonica rice variety. Acta Agron Sin, 2002, 28: 99-103 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[8] 陈书强, 金峰, 董丹, 刘柏林, 薛菁芳, 张文忠, 徐正进, 陈温福. 两种穗型粳稻穗上不同粒位籽粒几个营养和蒸煮品质性状的比较分析. 作物学报, 2008, 34: 641-652.
doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2008.00641
Chen S Q, Jin F, Dong D, Liu B L, Xue J F, Zhang W Z, Xu Z J, Chen W F. Comparisons of several nutritional and cooking qualities of grains at different grain positions of panicle between two panicle types of japonica rice. Acta Agron Sin, 2008, 34: 641-652 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[9] 俞聪慧, 贾琰, 孙立超, 雷蕾, 杨雅娜, 王晋, 杨亮, 赵宏伟. 优化施肥促进寒地粳稻可溶性糖积累转运、气候资源利用及产量形成. 植物营养与肥料学报, 2021, 27: 231-242.
Yu C H, Jia Y, Sun L C, Lei L, Yang Y N, Wang J, Yang L, Zhao H W. Enhancing accumulation and translocation of soluble sugar and utilization rate of climatic resources in japonica rice in cold region through optimized fertilization. Plant Nutr Fert Sci, 2021, 27: 231-242 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[10] 罗霄, 郑国琦, 王俊. 果实糖代谢及其影响因素的研究进展. 农业科学研究, 2008, 29(2):69-74.
Luo X, Zheng G Q, Wang J. Advances in research on sugar metabolism and its influencing factor in fruits. J Agric Sci, 2008, 29(2):69-74 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[11] 付景, 徐云姬, 陈露, 袁莉民, 王志琴, 杨建昌. 超级稻花后强、弱势粒淀粉合成相关酶活性和激素含量变化及其与籽粒灌浆的关系. 中国水稻科学, 2012, 26: 302-310.
Fu J, Xu Y J, Chen L, Yuan L M, Wang Z Q, Yang J C. Post-anthesis changes in activities of enzymes related to starch synthesis and contents of hormones in superior and inferior spikelets and their relation with grain filling of super rice. Chin J Rice Sci, 2012, 26: 302-310 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[12] Ji X, Ende W, Laere A V, Cheng S, Bennett J. Structure, evolution, and expression of the two invertase gene families of rice. J Mol Evol, 2005, 60: 615-634.
doi: 10.1007/s00239-004-0242-1
[13] Oiestad A J, Martin J M, Giroux M J. Yield increases resulting from AGPase overexpression in rice are reliant on plant nutritional status. Plant Growth Regul, 2019, 89: 179-190.
doi: 10.1007/s10725-019-00525-y
[14] Subbian S, Narayanan S. Replacement of the endogenous starch debranching enzymes ISA1 and ISA2 of Arabidopsis with the rice orthologs reveals a degree of functional conservation during starch synthesis. Can J Microbiol, 2007, 53: 599.
doi: 10.1139/W06-147
[15] 陈新红, 叶玉秀, 孟庆东. 不同氮肥与密度下水稻穗上籽粒垩白度的差异. 中国农学通报, 2010, 26(6):110-114.
Chen X H, Ye Y X, Meng Q D. Difference in chalkiness degree of the grains within a rice panicle under different nitrogens and densities. Chin Agric Sci Bull, 2010, 26(6):110-114 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[16] Liu Q, Wu X, Ma J, Xin C. Effects of cultivars, transplanting patterns, environment, and their interactions on grain quality of japonica rice. Cereal Chem, 2015, 92: 284-292.
doi: 10.1094/CCHEM-09-14-0194-R
[17] 吴艳珍. 高CO2浓度对超级稻稻穗不同位置籽粒结实能力和品质性状的影响. 扬州大学博士学位论文, 江苏扬州, 2017. pp 38-44.
Wu Y Z. Effects of Elevated CO2 Concentration on Grain Filling Capacity and Quality Traits of Grains at Different Positions on the Panicle of Super Rice. PhD Dissertation of Graduate School of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China, 2017. pp 38-44 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[18] Okada M, Iizumi T, Hayashi Y, Yokozawa M. Modeling the multiple effects of temperature and radiation on rice quality. Environ Res Lett, 2011, 6: 1-8.
[19] Vandeputte G E, Delcour J A. From sucrose to starch granule to starch physical behavior: a focus on rice starch. Carbohyd Polym, 2004, 58: 245-266.
doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2004.06.003
[20] 朱庆森, 曹显祖, 骆亦其. 水稻籽粒灌浆的生长分析. 作物学报, 1988, 14: 182-192.
Zhu Q S, Cao X Z, Luo Y Q. Growth analysis of rice grain filling. Acta Agron Sin, 1988, 14: 182-192 (in Chinese).
[21] 陈孙禄, 詹成芳, 蒋红, 李琳涵, 张红生. 水稻籽粒灌浆速率的分子机制与遗传调控研究进展. 植物学报, 2021, 56: 80-89.
Chen S L, Zhan C F, Jiang H, Li L H, Zhang H S. Advances in the molecular mechanism and genetic regulation of grain-filling rate in rice. Chin Bull Bot, 2021, 56: 80-89 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[22] Pandey M K, Rani N S, Madhav M S, Sundaram R M, Varaprasad G S, Sivaranjani A K P, Bohra A, Kumar G R, Kumar A. Different isoforms of starch-synthesizing enzymes controlling amylose and amylopectin content in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Biotechnol Adv, 2012, 30: 1697-1706.
doi: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2012.08.011
[23] 张青, 孟杉杉, 陈梓春, 王远江, 韦存虚, 王娟. 谷物胚乳淀粉合成相关酶的调控机制研究进展. 植物生理学报, 2021, 57: 1-11.
Zhang Q, Meng S S, Chen Z C, Wang Y J, Wei C X, Wang J. Progress of regulation mechanism of starch biosynthesis related enzymes in cereal endosperm. Acta Phytophysiol Sin, 2021, 57: 1-11 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[24] 陈雅玲, 包劲松. 水稻胚乳淀粉合成相关酶的结构、功能及其互作研究进展. 中国水稻科学, 2017, 31: 1-12.
Chen Y L, Bao J S. Progress in structures, functions and interactions of starch synthesis related enzymes in rice endosperm. Chin J Rice Sci, 2017, 31: 1-12 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[25] 王志琴, 叶玉秀, 杨建昌, 袁莉民, 王学明, 朱庆森. 水稻灌浆期籽粒中蔗糖合成酶活性的变化与调节. 作物学报, 2004, 30: 634-643.
Wang Z Q, Ye Y X, Yang J C, Yuan L M, Wang X M, Zhu Q S. Changes and regulations of sucrose synthase activity in rice grains during grain filling. Acta Agron Sin, 2004, 30: 634-643 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[26] 王志东, 周少川, 王重荣, 陈宜波, 李宏, 黄道强, 周德贵, 龚蓉, 赵雷, 吴玉坤, 潘阳阳, 杨义强. 不同直链淀粉含量籼稻食味品质与其他品质性状的关系. 中国稻米, 2021, 27(1):38-44.
Wang Z D, Zhou S C, Wang C R, Chen Y B, Li H, Huang D Q, Zhou D G, Gong R, Zhao L, Wu Y K, Pan Y Y, Yang Y Q. Relationship between eating quality and other quality traits of indica rice with different amylose content. China Rice, 27(1):38-44 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[27] 李培德, 朴钟泽, 张建明, 王士梅. 稻穗不同部位籽粒垩白程度变异分析. 中国农学通报, 2006, 22(9):130-133.
Li P D, Piao Z Z, Zhang J M, Wang S M. Genetic variance of chalkiness of different grain positions in a panicle. Chin Agric Sci Bull, 2006, 22(9):130-133 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[28] 赵杰堂. 蔗糖转化酶在高等植物生长发育及胁迫响应中的功能研究进展. 热带亚热带植物学报, 2016, 24: 352-358.
Zhao J T. Advances in research on invertase in plant development and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. J Trop Subtrop Bot, 2016, 24: 352-358 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[29] 邓舒雅, 麦贻婷, 陈惠萍, 钮俊. 无籽蜜柚蔗糖合成酶(SUS)和蔗糖转化酶(INV)基因家族生物信息学及表达分析. 植物生理学报, 2018, 54: 1576-1586.
Deng S Y, Mai Y T, Chen H P, Niu J. Bioinformatics and expression analysis of the sucrose synthase (SUS) and invertase (INV) gene families in citrus grandis “Seedless”. J Plant Physiol, 2018, 54: 1576-1586 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[30] 章燕柳, 穆海蓉, 邵在胜, 王云霞, 景立权, 王余龙, 杨连新. 臭氧胁迫对稻穗不同部位糙米直链淀粉含量和RVA谱特征值的影响. 应用生态学报, 2019, 30: 4211-4221.
Zhang L Y, Mu H R, Shao Z S, Wang Y X, Jing L Q, Wang Y L, Yang L X. Effects of ozone stress on amylose content and starch RVA profile in grains located at different positions on a panicle. Chin J Appl Ecol, 2019, 30: 4211-4221 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[31] 陆艳婷, 张小明, 叶胜海, 祁永斌, 金庆生. 密穗型和散穗型粳稻穗部不同部位直链淀粉含量的差异分析. 中国水稻科学, 2007, 21: 391-395.
Lu Y T, Zhang X M, Ye S H, Qi Y B, Jin Q S. Differences of grain amylose contents at different positions within a panicle between the compact- and loose-panicle rice varieties. Chin J Rice Sci, 2007, 21: 391-395 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[32] 谢光辉, 杨建昌, 王志琴, 朱庆生. 水稻籽粒灌浆特性及其与籽粒生理活性的关系. 作物学报, 2001, 27: 557-565.
Xie G H, Yang J C, Wang Z Q, Zhu Q S. Grain filling characteristics of rice and their relationships to physiological activities of grains. Acta Agron Sin, 2001, 27: 557-565 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[33] 陆彦, 张晓敏, 祁琰, 张昌泉, 凌裕平, 刘巧泉. 不同透明度水稻籽粒横断面扫描电镜分析. 中国水稻科学, 2018, 32: 189-199.
Lu Y, Zhang X M, Qi Y, Zhang C Q, Ling Y P, Liu Q Q. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of grain cross-section from rice with different transparency. Chin J Rice Sci, 2018, 32: 189-199 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[34] 常红叶, 康海岐, 傅华龙, 唐薇薇, 邓禹, 刘佳, 兰利琼. 不同水稻品种(系)的垩白差异及胚乳细胞学结构研究. 四川大学学报(自然科学版), 2006, 43: 927-932.
Chang H Y, Kang H Q, Fu H L, Tang W W, Deng Y, Liu J, Lan L Q. Studies on chalkiness variance and endosperm cytological structures of rice kernel in different rice varieties (lines). J Sichuan Univ (Nat Sci Edn), 2006, 43: 927-932 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[35] Nakamura Y, Yuki K. Changes in enzyme activities associated with carbohydrate metabolism during the development of rice endosperm. Plant Sci, 1992, 82: 15-20.
doi: 10.1016/0168-9452(92)90003-5
[36] 赵颖, 朱高倩, 孙朝华, 金寿林, 谭学林. 水稻AGPase小亚基基因的克隆测序及种质间遗传分化的研究. 分子植物育种, 2012, 10: 559-567.
Zhao Y, Zhu G Q, Sun C H, Jin S L, Tan X L. Cloning and sequencing of rice ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small subunit gene and study on genetic transformation among germplasm. Mol Plant Breed, 2012, 10: 559-567 (in Chinese with English abstract).
[1] TIAN Tian, CHEN Li-Juan, HE Hua-Qin. Identification of rice blast resistance candidate genes based on integrating Meta-QTL and RNA-seq analysis [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(6): 1372-1388.
[2] ZHENG Chong-Ke, ZHOU Guan-Hua, NIU Shu-Lin, HE Ya-Nan, SUN wei, XIE Xian-Zhi. Phenotypic characterization and gene mapping of an early senescence leaf H5(esl-H5) mutant in rice (Oryza sativa L.) [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(6): 1389-1400.
[3] ZHOU Wen-Qi, QIANG Xiao-Xia, WANG Sen, JIANG Jing-Wen, WEI Wan-Rong. Mechanism of drought and salt tolerance of OsLPL2/PIR gene in rice [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(6): 1401-1415.
[4] YAN Jia-Qian, GU Yi-Biao, XUE Zhang-Yi, ZHOU Tian-Yang, GE Qian-Qian, ZHANG Hao, LIU Li-Jun, WANG Zhi-Qin, GU Jun-Fei, YANG Jian-Chang, ZHOU Zhen-Ling, XU Da-Yong. Different responses of rice cultivars to salt stress and the underlying mechanisms [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(6): 1463-1475.
[5] YANG Jian-Chang, LI Chao-Qing, JIANG Yi. Contents and compositions of amino acids in rice grains and their regulation: a review [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(5): 1037-1050.
[6] DENG Zhao, JIANG Nan, FU Chen-Jian, YAN Tian-Zhe, FU Xing-Xue, HU Xiao-Chun, QIN Peng, LIU Shan-Shan, WANG Kai, YANG Yuan-Zhu. Analysis of blast resistance genes in Longliangyou and Jingliangyou hybrid rice varieties [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(5): 1071-1080.
[7] YANG De-Wei, WANG Xun, ZHENG Xing-Xing, XIANG Xin-Quan, CUI Hai-Tao, LI Sheng-Ping, TANG Ding-Zhong. Functional studies of rice blast resistance related gene OsSAMS1 [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(5): 1119-1128.
[8] ZHU Zheng, WANG Tian-Xing-Zi, CHEN Yue, LIU Yu-Qing, YAN Gao-Wei, XU Shan, MA Jin-Jiao, DOU Shi-Juan, LI Li-Yun, LIU Guo-Zhen. Rice transcription factor WRKY68 plays a positive role in Xa21-mediated resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(5): 1129-1140.
[9] WANG Xiao-Lei, LI Wei-Xing, OU-YANG Lin-Juan, XU Jie, CHEN Xiao-Rong, BIAN Jian-Min, HU Li-Fang, PENG Xiao-Song, HE Xiao-Peng, FU Jun-Ru, ZHOU Da-Hu, HE Hao-Hua, SUN Xiao-Tang, ZHU Chang-Lan. QTL mapping for plant architecture in rice based on chromosome segment substitution lines [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(5): 1141-1151.
[10] WANG Ze, ZHOU Qin-Yang, LIU Cong, MU Yue, GUO Wei, DING Yan-Feng, NINOMIYA Seishi. Estimation and evaluation of paddy rice canopy characteristics based on images from UAV and ground camera [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(5): 1248-1261.
[11] KE Jian, CHEN Ting-Ting, WU Zhou, ZHU Tie-Zhong, SUN Jie, HE Hai-Bing, YOU Cui-Cui, ZHU De-Quan, WU Li-Quan. Suitable varieties and high-yielding population characteristics of late season rice in the northern margin area of double-cropping rice along the Yangtze River [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(4): 1005-1016.
[12] CHEN Yue, SUN Ming-Zhe, JIA Bo-Wei, LENG Yue, SUN Xiao-Li. Research progress regarding the function and mechanism of rice AP2/ERF transcription factor in stress response [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(4): 781-790.
[13] WANG Lyu, CUI Yue-Zhen, WU Yu-Hong, HAO Xing-Shun, ZHANG Chun-Hui, WANG Jun-Yi, LIU Yi-Xin, LI Xiao-Gang, QIN Yu-Hang. Effects of rice stalks mulching combined with green manure (Astragalus smicus L.) incorporated into soil and reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate on rice yield and soil fertility [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(4): 952-961.
[14] QIN Qin, TAO You-Feng, HUANG Bang-Chao, LI Hui, GAO Yun-Tian, ZHONG Xiao-Yuan, ZHOU Zhong-Lin, ZHU Li, LEI Xiao-Long, FENG Sheng-Qiang, WANG Xu, REN Wan-Jun. Characteristics of panicle stem growth and flowering period of the parents of hybrid rice in machine-transplanted seed production [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(4): 988-1004.
[15] WU Yan-Fei, HU Qin, ZHOU Qi, DU Xue-Zhu, SHENG Feng. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of Elongator complex family genes in response to abiotic stresses in rice [J]. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2022, 48(3): 644-655.
Full text



No Suggested Reading articles found!