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    12 August 2017, Volume 43 Issue 08
    • REVIEW
      Progress and Perspective in Wheat Blast Research
      HE Xin-Yao,HAO Yuan-Feng,ZHOU Yi-Lin,HE Zhong-Hu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(08):  1105-1114.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01105
      Abstract ( 579 )   RICH HTML    PDF (277KB) ( 1255 )   Save
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      Wheat blast is an emerging deadly disease which can cause 10%–100% of yield losses. The disease primarily devastating only in South America, was first identified in Asia in 2016, posing a great potential threat to world wheat production. Here, we reviewed the features of wheat blast pathology and epidemiology, the resistance sources, the resistance mechanisms, and the integrated disease management strategies. The success of international collaboration on fighting the disease is also addressed, which provides proof of concept model that we can follow in our studies. Wheat blast has not been found in China, but we need to be very cautious and highly alert since there is a risk that the disease can outbreak in certain areas of southern China. The unusual weather pattern will put the situation even worse. To keep national wheat production safe, we need collaborate with International Wheat Blast Consortium to carry out necessary researches and build early warning and disaster preparedness systems to facilitate mitigation of the disease of high consequences and importance.

      Progress in Enhancement of Plant Resistance against Fungal Diseases through Host-Induced Gene Silencing
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(08):  1115-1121.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01115
      Abstract ( 482 )   RICH HTML    PDF (923KB) ( 907 )   Save
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      Host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) uses the key genes that are involved in growth and development, sporulation and propagation, and pathogenesis of pathogens as targets, and expresses the RNAi constructs in host plants targeting to the target genes; during infection of plants, pathogens take up dsRNA or siRNA molecules, specifically bind to nucleotide sequences after recognition, and interfere the expression of the target genes, thereby inhibiting infection and spreading of invaded pathogens and thus conferring resistance phenotypes in plants. This technology serves as the solid foundation of plant resistance based on pathogen-specific sequences and has great potential for application in crop improvement against fungal diseases. In this review, recent advances in methodologies, technological routes and application of the HIGS strategy in plants against invading fungal pathogens are summarized; prospects for the future in HIGS-based plant resistance to fungal pathogens were also discussed.

      Characterization and Gene Mapping of sostenuto floret opening 1 (sfo1) Mutant in Rice (Oryza sativaL.)
      SHEN Ya-Lin,ZHUANG Hui,CHEN Huan,ZENG Xiao-Qin,LI Xiang-Ning,ZHANG Jun,ZHENG Hao, LING Ying-Hua,LI Yun-Feng*
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(08):  1122-1127.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01122
      Abstract ( 426 )   RICH HTML    PDF (2577KB) ( 569 )   Save
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      Rice floret opening is one of the most critical physiological processes in its reproductive development, which has a significant influence on the fertilization and subsequent seed development. Rice floret opening and closing are promoted respectively by the lodicules’ expansion and shrink. In recent years, many studies focused on the molecular mechanism of rice lodiculedevelopment.However, few studies focused on the molecular regulation mechanism in physiological process of lodicule opening and closing. In this paper, we reported a floret opening mutant, sostenuto floret opening 1 (sfo1), derived from EMS (ethyl methane sulfonate) mutation groups of Xinong 1B.During the floret opening stage, the florets of sfo1 and wild type were observed directly by both the stereoscope and the scanning electron microscopy at about 1 h before opening, and 10 min, 1.5 h and 48 h after openingrespecting. Compared withthat in the wild type, the sfo1floret showed a delay of lodicules dehydration after floret opening, resulting in its failing to close the lemma and palea. Significant differenceswere not found at1h before opening, showing closed hulls, flat lodicules and well-stackedlodicules surface cells.At 10 min after opening, there were also no obvious differences between wild type and mutants,showing openinghulls, inflated lodicules, and smooth and well-stacked surface cells. At1.5 h after opening, sfo1 hulls were not closed so big as those in the wild type. And sfo1lodicules still inflated, but not dehydrated and atrophied as those in thewild type. At 48 h after opening, sfo1hullswere not closed yet, its lodiculesbegan to dehydrate and atrophy, but were still very full compared with those in the wild type. The F1and F2 of across with sterile lines 56S as female parent and the sfo1 as male parent wereused in genetic analysis and gene mapping, indicating that the sfo1 trait was controlled by a nuclear recessive gene. Using bulked segregation analysis (BSA) method, the SFO1 was located between the SSR marker RM1054 and Insert/Delete marker ZTQ51 on the chromosome 5, with a physical distance of 113kb and including 15 candidate genes in this region. LOC_Os05g50890 and LOC_Os05g50900 were preliminary selected as candidate genes for SFO1. These results laid a foundation for the SFO1 gene cloning and functional research.

      Genetic Variations and Drought Tolerance of SNAC Genes in Common Maize Inbred Lines of China
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(08):  1128-1138.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01128
      Abstract ( 394 )   RICH HTML    PDF (3053KB) ( 721 )   Save
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      The coding regions and their upstream 800 bp promoter regions of SNAC genes (Sress-responsive NAM, ATAF1/2, CUC2) were sequenced in 16 maize inbred lines commonly used in China. Among 12 SNAC genes, genetic variations in promoter region were only identified in four SNAC genes, and more than 30 variations were identified in four SNAC genes, showing higher polymorphism in the four genes than other in SNAC genes. Although most of the SNAC genes were mainly SNP (Single nucleotide polymorphism) mutations, more insertion/deletion mutations were detected in ZmNAC031467 gene, reaching 63.3% of the total genetic variations. The PLACE software was used to predict three kinds of stress-tolerant binding elements in SNAC gene, but little effect was found to be related with the variations. Additionally,high nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in seven SNAC genes, especially with the highest π value of 0.00962 in ZmNAC030308, which suggested that they were greatly influenced by natural selection in the genetic drift. With the T-test, two mutations of ZmNAC070395 and ZmNAC080398 genes were associated with drought-tolerant traits,whichprovides references for further analysing the relationship between nucleotide variation in SNAC and drought tolerance traits.

      Establishment of 20 PCR DetectionSystem with InDel Molecular Markers in Maize
      FENG Bo,XU Li-Wen,WANG Feng-Ge,XUE Ning-Ning,LIU Wen-Bin,YI Hong-Mei,TIAN Hong-Li,LV Yuan-Da,ZHAO Han,JIN Shi-Qiao,ZHANG Li-Ke,YU Rong-Hai,ZHAO Jiu-Ran
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(08):  1139-1148.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01139
      Abstract ( 496 )   RICH HTML    PDF (776KB) ( 885 )   Save
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      In order to improve the detection efficiency with molecular marker , the multiple PCR detection system was constructed. In this study, 10 major materials were used to evaluate the single pair PCR with 238 pairs of InDel primers. According to the software quality evaluation results, product range, and the principle of chromosome uniform distribution, 30 pairs of primers were selected from 192 primers with better performance to form two groups of core primer combinations with amplified products in the range of 80-200 bp and 200-400 bp, There were10 pairs of primers distributing in different chromosomes for each primer combination. Based on core primer combination and comprehensive consideration on chromosome distribution, base fragment, and primers fluorescent color, we established two groups of corn test 20 PCR system and a group of 40 fluorescent capillary electrophoresis.
      QTL Mapping for Seed Size and Shape in Common Bean
      GENG Qing-He,WANG Lan-Fen,WU Jing,WANG Shu-Min
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(08):  1149-1160.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01149
      Abstract ( 400 )   RICH HTML    PDF (827KB) ( 450 )   Save
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      Common bean is one of the most important food legumes worldwide. Seed size and shape have a great effect on yield and seed quality. This research used a F2 population derived from a cross of Andean cultivar Long 270709 ? Mesoamerican cultivar F5910 planted in Harbin, Heilongjiang and Beijing respectively to analyze the correlation among seed weight, seed length, seed width, seed height, seed length-to-width ratio and seed length-to-height ratio, and to detect QTL related to these traits. The correlation analysis showed that seed weight had a significant correlation with other traits related to seed size and shape. Software IciMapping 4.1 based on inclusive composite interval mapping was used to identify the additive QTL for seed size and shape. A total of 38 QTL were detected on 10 chromosomes except the first chromosome in Harbin environment with the PVE between 2.39% and 17.37%. A total of 21 QTL were detected on seven chromosomes (Chr.1, Chr.3, Chr.6, Chr.7, Chr.8, Chr.9, Chr.11) in Beijing environment with the PVE between 5.92% and 22.53%. Among them, four pairs of QTL were detected on the same marker interval, including seed weight QTL SW7 and SW7’, seed weight QTL SW6.1 and SW6’, seed length QTL SL6.1 and SL6.1’, and seed height QTL SH11 and SH11’. The PVE of SW7, SW6.1, SL6.1, SW6’, and SL6.1’ was larger than 10%.
      Soybean Transcription Factor Gene GmNF-YCa Enhances Osmotic Stress Tolerance of Transgenic Arabidopsis
      LI Min,YU Tai-Fei,XU Zhao-Shi,ZHANG Shuang-Xi,MIN Dong-Hong,CHEN Ming,MA You-Zhi,CHAI Shou-Cheng,ZHENG Wei-Jun
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(08):  1161-1169.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01161
      Abstract ( 418 )   RICH HTML    PDF (3651KB) ( 658 )   Save
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      Biotic stresses, like plant diseases and insect pests, and abiotic stresses, such as drought and salt, heavily threaten plant growth and influence crop yield and quality. Osmotic stress resulting from water deficiency in the soil is one of major hurdles. Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) is a heterotrimeric protein, consisting of NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC in plant. NF-Y plays significant roles in the pathway responding to osmotic stresses in plants. We acquired a gene GmNF-YCa, a member of regulatory subunit NF-YC family in soybean (Glycine max L.), by screening a soybean cDNA library using yeast two-hybrid system. The full sequence of GmNF-YCa is 864 bp, encoding 287 amino acids and having a NF-YC motif, belonging to NF-YC subfamily. GmNF-YCa is a hydrophilic protein with a molecular weight of 31.6 kD and isoelectric point of 5.07, and containing a transmembrane domain and no any signal peptides. Sequence analysis showed that NF-YC subfamily was highly conserved among various species. Promoters of GmNF-YCa contained various abiotic stresses and light responsive elements, such as ARE, Box 4, GATA-motif, Box I, ACE, ABRE,CAT-Box. According to tissue-specific analysis, GmNF-YCa had the highest expression level in germination stage. Quantitative Real-time PCR suggested that GmNF-YCa was induced by sucrose stress and mannitol treatment. GmNF-YCa was transformated to Arabidopsis successfully by Agrobacterim-mediated method and the overexpressed Arabidopsis was prepared for the function characterization analysis. Overexpression of GmNF-YCacould improve tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis to osmotic stress in the germination stage, and enhance root development with more lateral roots in sucrose and mannitol treatments.

      Development and Polymorphism Evaluation of EST-SSR Markers in Kenaf
      WAN Xue-Bei,LI Dong-Xu,XU Yi,XUJian-Tang,ZHANG Li-Lan,ZHANGLie-Mei,LINLi-Hui,QI Jian-Min,ZHANG Li-Wu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(08):  1170-1180.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01170
      Abstract ( 489 )   RICH HTML    PDF (1980KB) ( 683 )   Save
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       In this study, 94 SSR primers were developed on the basis of the sequences containing transcription factors from 90175 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in kenaf. A total of 24 kenaf accessions were used to evaluate the polymorphism of these developed SSRs using 9% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Eighty-five SSR primers (90.4%) were successfully amplified and (ATG)n were the dominant motif. Genetic diversity analysis showed that the genetic similarity coefficient varied from 0.62 to 0.92, indicating an abundant genetic basis among these accessions. These developed EST-SSRs not only enrich molecular markers, but also facilitate genetics and breeding research in kenaf.

      Cloning and Analysis of Structure and Expression of MeHDZ14 Gene in Cassava
      YU Xiao-Ling,RUAN Meng-Bin,WANG Bin,YANG Yi-Ling,WANG Shu-Chang*,PENG Ming*
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(08):  1181-1189.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01181
      Abstract ( 351 )   RICH HTML    PDF (2718KB) ( 421 )   Save
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      HD-Zip family genes play an important role in plant growth and stress response. To reveal the role of MeHDZ14 gene in abiotic stresses (e.g. drought) in cassava, we cloned MeHDZ14 gene by using RT-PCR from cassava cultivar SC124, which was relatively more resistant to drought stress. Bioinformatics methods were used to analyze its structural characteristics, and semi-RT-PCR/qRT-PCR was used to explore its expression patterns in response to abiotic stresses in different plant tissues and varieties. MeHDZ14 has a 726 bp open reading frame, encoding 241 amino acids, and contains the typical HD and ZIP domain. Blastp analysis showed that MeHDZ14 has close genetic relationship with ATHB-7, which is a member of the family I HD-Zip gene. Yeast and subcellular localization test showed that the MeHDZ14 gene is a transcription factor and specifically expresses in the nucleus. Genetic structural variation analysis revealed a total of four mis-sense mutations in eight tested varieties. However, amino acid mutations were not found between wild and cultivated cassavas. This indicates the MeHDZ14 proteins are highly conserved. Semi-RT PCR analysis revealed that MeHDZ14 was specifically expressed in petioles, and induced by drought stress in root and leaf, suggesting that MeHDZ14 plays an important role in the early drought stage. Analysis by qRT-PCR showed that MeHDZ14 gene had different expression levels in different cassava varieties, but the same mode under drought stress and ABA treatment. These data indicate that MeHDZ14 is a member of the ABA pathway responding to drought. Our results showed that MeHDZ14 plays an important role in the molecular pathways of cassava drought resistance, underlining its potential in genetic improvement of cassava drought tolerance.

      Analysis of High Efficiency Resource Utilization Pattern of Corn Straw
      MA Qiu-Ying,WANG Zhi,XU Dao-Qing,WANG Xiu-Dong,DUN Bao-Qing,LU Ming
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(08):  1190-1195.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01190
      Abstract ( 511 )   RICH HTML    PDF (2482KB) ( 473 )   Save
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      Actively developing low-cost high-quality utilization of corn straw, and effectively enhancing corn straw resource utilization rate is very important to promote the use of crop straw in agricultural and comprehensive processing. This study armed at the corn straw juicestorage and utilization pattern in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and analyzed the cost-benefit of corn strawproducts based on the actual cost of storage and utilization. The processing and utilization model could effectively reduce the dry matter, sugar and water losses in corn straw, with good economic benefits. The ratio of profits to cost was about 6.70% and the sales margin was about 6.30%. Combined with the advantages and disadvantages of the collection and storage mode in the utilization of resources and the status quo of the utilization of corn straw in Northeast China, we suggest that the corn straw resource utilization model is feasible in northeast region.

      Relationship of Sink Activity with Endogenous Hormones and Polyamine Contents in Inferior Kernels of Maize
      WANG Zhi-Gang,LIANG Hong-Wei,GAO Ju-Lin,YU Xiao-Fang,SUN Ji-Ying,SU Zhi-Jun,HU Shu-Ping,YU Shao-Bo,LI Ya-Jian,WEI Shu-Li,YANG Zhe
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(08):  1196-1204.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01196
      Abstract ( 300 )   RICH HTML    PDF (1123KB) ( 351 )   Save
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      Sink activity at blister stage of maize is the primary limiting factor of the abortion and/or filling stagnation of inferior kernels. Clarifying the effect of endogenous hormone and polyamine contents on sink activity of inferior kernels in maize is of great importance for regulating inferior kernels in crowding maize colony. In this present study, two typical commercial maize hybrids Zhengdan 958 and Xianyu 335 were planted in 2014 and 2015. At silking stage, two pollination treatments, incomplete pollination (IcP) and complete pollination (CP), were imposed to each cultivar. The objective of incomplete pollination, in which the pollinated filaments within the basal region of ear was decreased by hand-cutting, was to stimulate the inferior kernel setting in the apical region of ear, where the inferior kernels should be aborted or filling-stagnated in complete pollination. The endogenous hormone and polyamine contents were compared between IcP and CP treatments during blister stage, and the relationship of sink activity with endogenous hormone and/or polyamine contents was analyzed. There was no remarkable effect of hybrids and years on sink activity, endogenous hormone and polyamine of kernels. The soluble acid invertase activity of IcP was significantly higher than that of CP, by 13.5% on an average and 21.8% at the maximum. There was no significant difference in contents of Z+ZR, IAA, GA3, and ABA of the inferior kernels between IcP and CP treatments during blister stage. The polyamine content of IcP was significantly higher than that of CP, but the ethylene producing rate was just the opposite. SAI activity correlated with polyamine content positively, but with ethylene release rate negatively, moreover, ethylene release rate showed negative correlation with polyamine content. The results suggested that, during the blister stage of maize, the contents of Z+ZR, IAA, GA3, and ABA of inferior kernels have nothing to do with SAI activity. SAI activity of inferior kernels is mainly affected by polyamine and ethylene, which is promoted by polyamine content and inhibited by ethylene release rate. The balance between polyamine and ethylene determines the result of inferior kernel development, which is radically regulated by assimilate supply of maize plant.

      Screening FagopyrumtararicumGenotypes Tolerant to Low Nitrogen Stress at Seedling Stageand Its Evaluating Indices
      ZHANG Chu,ZHANG Yong-Qing,LU Zhi-Juan,LIU Li-Qin
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(08):  1205-1215.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01205
      Abstract ( 352 )   RICH HTML    PDF (528KB) ( 576 )   Save
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      Nitrogen (N) deficiency is a major problem for agricultural production in the cold area of Loess Plateau. In this, multiple indices of seedlings, including agronomic traits, physiological characteristics, and N utilization parameters, were measured in a hydroponics experiment with nine F. genotypes. The low-N tolerance was assessedby: calculating subordinatefunction values, and making the comprehensive evaluation after principal component and clustering analyses. Under low-N stress, the restraintdegree was greater forshoots than for roots.Compared with normal-N supply, low-N stress resulted in decreases of plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, shoot dry weight, root average diameter, root volume and root surface area and increases of main root length and root-to-shoot ratio. In addition, the root activity, nitrate reductase (NR) activity and soluble protein content decreased under low-N stress, whereas the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD)and peroxidase (POD) as well as the contents of malonaldehyde (MDA), soluble sugar and free prolineincreased. The photosynthesis-related indices also changed under low-N stress, showing the decreases of leaf chlorophyll content, Fm and Fv/Fm and the increase ofFo. Theplant N contentand plant N accumulation decreased under low-N condition, however, the plant N utilization efficiency showed obvious increase, owing to the greater decline of N accumulation than that of plant biomass.The 25 single indices were converted intofour independent comprehensive indices (accumulative contribution of 87.44%), with which the nine F.genotypes were classified into high-, medium- and low-tolerance groups.An optimal equation was also set up to evaluate and predict low-N tolerance of F. genotypesthrough stepwise regression with D value as the dependent variable and low-N tolerance index as the independent variable. Finally, eight indices, plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, root-shoot ratio, chlorophyll content, Fm, root activity and plant N utilization efficiency,were selected due to their significant impacts on low-N tolerance. These indices are recommended in quick by screening low-N tolerant F.genotypes.tararicumtararicumtararicumtararicum

      Differences of Yield and Major Quality Characters between Four Late Double-Harvest Rice Varieties
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(08):  1216-1225.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01216
      Abstract ( 553 )   RICH HTML    PDF (263KB) ( 519 )   Save
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      The study was conducted to clarify the discrepancy of different-types of late rice in yield and rice quality in Jiangxi province, which provides ground and reference for scientific selection of suitable late japonica rice varieties in Jiangxi. A comparative study of late rice in yield and rice quality using four kinds of rice varieties from indica-japonica hybrid rice, japonica hybrid rice, japonica conventional rice and indica hybrid rice was carried out in Shanggao (28°31′N, 115°09′E) of Jiangxi province. Compared with indica hybrid rice, indica-japonica hybrid rice, japonica hybrid rice and japonica conventional rice had improved processing and cooking/eating qualities, then appearance and nutritional qualities. The yield showed a trend of indica-japonica hybrid rice > japonica hybrid rice > japonica conventional rice > indica hybrid rice. The suitable late varieties for the project of “education of japonica rice replacing indica rice” in Shanggao should be from indica-japonica hybrid rice, japonica hybrid rice and japonica conventional rice.

      Optimum Amount of Potassium Fertilizer Applied under Continuous Rice-rapeseed Rotation
      XIAO Ke,TANG Jing,LI Ji-Fu,ZOU Jia-Long,ZHU Jian-Qiang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(08):  1226-1233.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01226
      Abstract ( 419 )   RICH HTML    PDF (650KB) ( 693 )   Save
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      In order to provide a scientific basis for K fertilization in paddy-upland rotation, effects of K fertilizer rate on crop production, K efficiency, and soil K status were studied. A long-term (2011–2016) field experiment was conducted in the Jianghan Plain, Hubei province, China. Five treatments were applied with three replications each: 0 kg hm-2 (K0), 45 kg hm-2 (K1), 90 kg hm-2 (K2), 135 kg hm-2 (K3) and 180 kg hm-2 (K4), where K2 treatment was the recommended amount of K fertilizer (90 kg ha-1). The yields of rice and rapeseed were 6.87 t ha-1 and 2.25 t ha-1 respectively, in the condition without K fertilizer and with higher soil available K content. Application of K fertilizer could significantly increase the yield after one crop rotation; the increase in rapeseed season was higher than that in the rice season, accounting for 16.9% and 63.8%, respectively. With the application of the recommended amount of K fertilizer, the agronomic K efficiency (KAE) of rice and rapeseed was 5.1 kg kg-1 and 3.2 kg kg-1, respectively; however, the K recovery efficiency (KRE) and K contribution rate (KCR) of rice were lower than those of rapeseed, which indicated that K absorbed by rice was mainly from the soil, and more external supply of K fertilizer was needed to meet the nutrient demand of rapeseed. According to the fertilizer efficiency model, the optimum annual amounts of K fertilizer (K2O) were 70.5–100.9 kg ha-1 for rice, with an average of 96.6 kg ha-1, and 75.6–118.2 kg ha-1 for rapeseed, with an average of 107.0 kg ha-1, which were 7.3% and 18.9% higher, respectively, than the recommended amount in this region. Under the soil K condition in this study, long-term application of recommended K fertilizer rate (180 kg ha-1 per year) could not only affect yield stability, but also decrease crop system K balance and soil available K content. Therefore, K fertilizer should be preferentially applied in the rapeseed season rather than the rice season and straw returning to field should also be taken into consideration to maintain the soil K balance and sustainable high-yield production in the crop rotation system.

      Correlation between Hardness and Dry-matter Content of Storage Root in Sweetpotato[Ipomoea batatas (L.)Lam.]
      TANG Dao-Bin,AN Jian-Gang,DING Yi,BAI Hui,ZHANG Kai, LYU Chang-Wen,FUTi-Hua,WANG Ji-Chun
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(08):  1234-1244.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01234
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      To explore the correlation and to discuss the classification standard of hardness and dry-matter contentof sweetpotato, collectedand determined 129 sweetpotato varieties (lines) by using sclerometer and drying method, respectively, and the linear regression equation was established based on the correlation between hardness and dry-matter content values. The dry-matter content and hardness of storage root in the 129 sweetpotato varieties (lines) could be divided into five grades with normal distribution, which proportions were 10.00%, 19.12%, 40.88%, 20.88%, and 9.12%, respectively. There were significant differences in hardness among different parts of storage root,ranking as: the core site of radial cuttingsurface>the middle site of radial cutting surface >the tail site of axial cutting surface>the head site of axial cutting surface>the core site of axial cutting surface >the middle site of axial cutting surface. There was significant positive correlation between hardness and dry-matter content of storage root. By using the mean value of hardness at core and middle parts of storage root after radial cutting, the dry matter content could be well predicted by using the regression equation y=0.6743x+3.6184 (20≤x≤60,R2=0.712192).This equation was validated in evaluation of the dry matter content in 20 sweet potato varieties (lines), and the relative error between estimated value and measured value was 0.2%. This result demonstrated that the equation obtained in this study could be used for accurate, fast and low cost measurement of dry matter content insweetpotato production and breeding.

      Effects of Tillage Patterns on Soil Biological Activity, Availability of Soil Nutrients and Grain Yield of Winter Wheat
      CHEN Jin,PANG Dang-Wei,HAN Ming-Ming,YIN Yan-Ping,ZHENG Meng-Jing,LUO Yong-Li,WANG Zhen-Lin*,LI Yong*
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(08):  1245-1253.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01245
      Abstract ( 618 )   RICH HTML    PDF (905KB) ( 633 )   Save
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      To determine the effects of different tillage practices on soil biochemical properties and grain yield of winter wheat under continuous maize straw return, we conducted a five-year field experiment from October 2011 to June 2016. Four treatments were compared, which were continuously rotary tillage with total maize straw removed (RT), continuously rotary tillage with maize straw return (RS), continuously deep-plowing tillage with maize straw return (DS), and two-year rotary tillage followed by one-year deep-plowing tillage with maize straw return (TS). Compared with RT, treatments with straw return significantly improved the soil fertility in the 0–10, 10–20, and 20–30 cm depths, increasing contents of soil organic carbon, mineral nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium. In addition, the activities of urease, protease, nitratase, and invertase, as well as soil microbial diversity in the 0–30 cm depth increased by 23.1%–59.3%, 13.2%–40.7%, 14.1%–28.8%, 10.9%–19.5%, and 31.9%–42.5%, respectively. Straw return resulted in significant increases in relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Actinobacteria and significant decrease in that of Acidobacteria. In the three treatments with straw return, vertical distribution of soil fertility was affected by tillage practice. For example, the soil fertility and bioactivity in the 0–10 cm depth were significantly higher in RS than in DS and TS, whereas those in the 10–30 cm depth were significantly lower in RS than in DS and TS. Consecutively rotary tillage for three years resulted in yield decrease of wheat, whether straw returned to the field or not. In contrast, DS and TS with deep-plowing practice showed continuous yield increase during the five years with the average annual increase of 3.2% and 3.9%, respectively. The present study indicates that under straw return condition, two-year rotary tillage followed by one-year deep-plowing tillage is a promising pattern in the eastern part of Huang–Huai–Hai Plain to improve soil quality and wheat productivity.

      Application of Pisum sativum Terminator rbc-T in Wheat Transformation
      WANG Xiao-Ting,HUANG Suo,XU Zhao-Shi,LI Lian-Cheng,MA You-Zhi,CHEN-Ming,MIN Dong-Hong
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(08):  1254-1258.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01254
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      The fungal- or bacterial-origin vector elements are commonly used in transgenic crops, which raise great concerns about the safety of GM foods. In the study, we isolated the pea (Pisum sativum) terminator, rbc-T, and constructed a transformation vector by replacing the Agrobacterium terminator nos-T with rbc-T. The minimum transformation fragment consisting of Ubiquitin promoter, GUS reporter gene and terminator rbc-T was transformed into common wheat by particle bombardment method. Meanwhile a minimum transformation fragment with ?the Agrobacterium terminator nos-T was used as the control. The T2 transgenic lines were regenerated after PCR validation of the transformation. In the transgenic lines carrying both kinds of terminators, GUS gene expression was detected by GUS histochemical staining and enzyme activity analysis, indicating that the pea terminator rbc-T is applicable as an alternative of the Agrobacterium terminator nos-T in transgenic wheat research.

the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

  • Started in 2013
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Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
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