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    12 September 2017, Volume 43 Issue 09
      Cloning, Expression and Functional Analysis of Brassinosteroid Receptor Gene (ZmBRI1) from Zea MaysL.
      HAO Ling,ZHANG Yu-Shi,DUAN Liu-Sheng,ZHANG Ming-Cai*,LI Zhao-Hu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(09):  1261-1271.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01261
      Abstract ( 703 )   RICH HTML    PDF (6304KB) ( 1496 )   Save
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      Brassinosteroids (BRs) isone of very important plant steroidal hormones that are essential in a wide variety of physiological processes. In this study, an encoding brassinosteroid receptorhomologous gene was cloned by homology cloning from maizeB73 inbred lines, and designated as ZmBRI1. Sequence analysis revealed that the full length of ZmBRI1 was 3369bp, encoding 1122 amino acids. Moreover,ZmBRI1 protein was localized in cell membrane by the protein subcellular localization analysis and a ubiquitously expressed receptor kinase expressed highly in young tissues. The transformation ofZmBRI1 into the Arabidopsis dwarf mutant bri1-5 restored the phenotype, including plant height, leaf morphology and pod size. Compared to bri1-5, Brassinolide (BL) inhibited significantly the root growth of transgenic lines,and Propiconazole(Pcz) inhibited the hypocotyl growth, and the expression levels of DWF4 and CPD were decreased in the transgenic plants. Furthermore, with ABA treatment, overexpression of ZmBRI1 in wild type increased the germination rate and plant growth, and decreased the expression of ABA downstream genes RD29A, RD29B, ABI5,and RAB18 compared to wild type. Therefore, ZmBRI1 was not only involved in plant morphogenesis and BR signal transduction, but also played a pivotal role in response to ABA signal.

      Effects of Dwarf Gene Rht_NM9 on Contents of Endogenous Hormone RegulatingPlant Height of Common Wheat
      LU Yuan,CUI Chao-Fan,HU Ping,CHEN Pei-Du,SHEN Xue-Fang,HAN Qing,WANG Yi-Fa,XING Li-Ping,CAO Ai-Zhong
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(09):  1272-1279.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01272
      Abstract ( 540 )   RICH HTML    PDF (1044KB) ( 707 )   Save
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      A dwarf wheat mutant (NM9) with additional tillers and elongated spikes was obtained by treating NAU9918 seeds with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). The decreased plant height in NM9 was controlled by a novel dwarf gene Rht_NM9. The endogenous plant hormones play importantroles inregulating plant height of common wheat. To understand the dwarfing mechanism of Rht_NM9 and the relationship between endogenous hormone contents and plant height, measured contents of endogenous gibberellic acid (GA), auxin (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA) and zeatin riboside (ZR) in internodes of NM9 and NAU9918 at different stagesby enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Our study indicated that contents of GA and ABA in NM9 were significantly higher than there in NAU9918, and ZR content in NM9 was significantly lower than that inNAU9918 atboth booting and heading stages. Nevertheless, no difference of IAA content was observed between the mutant and the wild-type. In addition,the GA/ABA ratio in internodes of the mutant was significantly higher than that of the wild-type, however, the ratios of IAA/ABA, (IAA + GA)/ABA and ZR/ABA weresignificantly lower than thereof the wild-type. All these results indicated that plant height in wheat was regulated by multiple hormones. Plant height would be inhibited with increasingcontent of endogenous ABA and decreasingratios of IAA/ABA and ZR/ABA in wheat.

      Correlation Analysis of Sclerotinia Resistance with Lignin Content and Monomer G/S and its QTL Mapping in Brassica napus L.
      CHEN Xue-Ping**,JING Ling-Yun**,WANG Jia,JIAN Hong-Ju,MEI Jia-Qin,XU Xin-Fu,LI Jia-Na,LIU Lie-Zhao*
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(09):  1280-1289.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01280
      Abstract ( 424 )   RICH HTML    PDF (2471KB) ( 621 )   Save
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      Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a fungal pathogen causing disease in a wide range of plants, resulting in serious damage in crop production. The detached stem inoculation assay of RIL and F2 populations at final flowering stage was conducted, near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was used to measure lignin content and monomer G/S in the stem, and correlation analysis and QTL mapping for these traits were performed. The lesion size of the RIL had a significantly negative correlation with lignin content, with a correlation coefficient at –0.348 and –0.286 in 2013 and 2014, respectively. The monomer G/S was significantly correlated with lesion size in the RIL population, and the correlation coefficient at 0.198 and 0.167 in 2013 and 2014, respectively. The lesion size of F2 in 2014 was significantly and negatively correlated with lignin content in the stem, with a correlation coefficient at –0.306. The cross sections of resistant and susceptible plants from F2:3 family were stained with phloroglucinol-HCl, showing that the content of lignin was significantly lower in the less resistant materials than in more resistant plants. According to the high density SNP genetic maps and composite interval mapping, a total of 18 QTLs were identified, which were located on A04, A05, A06, A08, C01, C03, C04, C06, and C07 chromosomes, with the explained phenotypic variation by individual QTL ranging from 2.38% to 12.05% for nine QTLs of lesion size, from 2.03% to 13.75% for three QTLs of lignin content, and from 2.06% to 8.66% for six QTLs of monomer G/S. The research results provide some new insights for the Sclerotinia resistance breeding in B. napus.

      Chromoplast Isolation and Its Proteomic Analysis from Cassava Storage Roots
      DENG Chang-Zhe,YAO Hui,AN Fei-Fei,LI Kai-Mian,CHEN Song-Bi
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(09):  1290-1299.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01290
      Abstract ( 305 )   RICH HTML    PDF (4319KB) ( 1114 )   Save
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      Chromoplasts are the sites to store carotenoids and regulate a variety of physiological and biochemical process in the storage roots of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). In the present study, it was found that Percoll density gradient centrifugation was suitable for isolating the chromoplasts from cassava storage roots. Rich and intact chromoplasts were located in 40% to 50% layer of Percoll and the expression level of Vdac1, a mitochondrial marker, was the lowest and the expression level of RbcL, a plastid marker, was the highest compared with other layers using Western blot. Thirty-four differentially expressed proteins were detected in SC9, in which 17 were up-regulated, and the others were down-regulated. The differential proteins related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism accounted for the highest proportion. The STRING protein-protein interaction network showed that Enolase 2 and Elongation Factor were the hub proteins, which play the key roles in the whole regulatory network. Quantitative analysis by qRT-PCR confirmed the Enolase 2 expression was more significantly up-regulated in the high carotenoid cassava variety than in the low carotenoid cassava SC6068. These two proteins may be the key points for affecting the carotenoid content between SC9 and SC6068.

      Visualization Study for Investigation Data of Crop Germplasm Resources in Guizhou Province
      CHEN Li-Na,SI Hai-Ping,FANG Wei,CHEN Yan-Qing,CAO Yong-Sheng
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(09):  1300-1307.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01300
      Abstract ( 495 )   RICH HTML    PDF (2857KB) ( 964 )   Save
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      The project of “Agro-biological Resources Investigation in Guizhou province” provided large amounts of data which should be analyzed by an effective method to better understand comprehensively the conservation and utilization of agriculture biological resources in Guizhou province, and provide basic information and scientific evidences for constituting conservation policy of biological resources and further scientific research. In view of the fact that previous investigation data research results were not intuitive, this paper used several visualization methods including Microsoft Excel, GIS, and R. The spreadsheet was used to simply analyze data, spatial data visualization method was used to validate data and indicate resources data richness, statistical analysis visualization method integrated different types of data and mined information from resources data. Using several visualization methods can make the data analysis results more intuitive, which is available to understand germplasm resources comprehensively and to promote fully utilization of germplasm resources. The existing problems in crop germplasm resources investigation and some suggestions for further standardizing resources investigation data were discussed.

      Effects of Different Dehydrating Agents on Seed Quality and Gene Expression inHybrid Rice Seed Production
      SHEN Hang-Qi,HU Wei-Min,LIN Cheng,GUAN Ya-Jing,LIU Hong-You,AN Jian-Yu,HU Jin
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(09):  1308-1318.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01308
      Abstract ( 563 )   RICH HTML    PDF (693KB) ( 374 )   Save
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      In order to accelerate seed dehydration process in hybrid rice seed production, the effects of different dehydrating agents on seed dehydration and quality of cv. Y Liangyou 689 were studied. Different dehydrating agents were sprayed on rice spike at late dough stage inseed production in the field. All the eleven combination treatments could accelerate seed dehydration. Among the treatments, No.7 and No.9 dehydrating agents significantly decreased seed moisture content by 4.6% and 3.6%, respectively as compared with the control, and had no negative effects on 1000-grain weight, seed germination and seedling growth. Moreover, these two agents significantly increased the contents of soluble protein, soluble sugar, ABA and GA3 in seeds. After storage at room temperature for sixmonths, No.7, No.8, and No.9 agents had no negative effects on seed germination and seedling growth as compared with the control. And there were no significant differences in soluble protein content, α-amylase activity and ABA content among No.7, No.9 agents and the control. In addition, No.7 agent treatment had better effect in decreasing seed moisture content than No.9 agent, suggestingthat No.7 agent was a suitable seed dehydrating agent inhybrid rice (cv. Y Liangyou 689) seed production. Further studies showed that No.7, No.8, and No.9 agents could increase the expression of OsNECD1, OsNCED2 and reduce the expression of OsGA2ox1 in the seeds. As compared with the seeds without storage, after the storage for six month the expression of OsNECD1 and OsNCED2 decreased, however the expression of OsCYP707A5 and OsGA2ox1 increased in seeds treated by the three kinds of dehydrating agents. The results showed the effect of dehydrating agents on ABA biosynthesis genes and GA3 catabolism genes in seedswas weakenedby storage, and the high expression of OsCYP707A5 resulted in the decline of ABA content in seeds, which might be the main reason for increasing seed germination.

      Cloning of Gene GsWRKY15 Related to Alkaline Stress and Alkaline Tolerance of Transgenic Plants
      ZHU Ping-Hui**,CHEN Ran-Ran**,YU Yang,SONG Xue-Wei,LI Hui-Qing,DU Jian-Ying,LI Qiang,DING Xiao-Dong,ZHU Yan-Ming*
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(09):  1319-1327.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01319
      Abstract ( 501 )   RICH HTML    PDF (2074KB) ( 930 )   Save
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      WRKY proteins are members of a transcription factor family with Zinc-finger structure in higher plant, which participate in various responses to multiple stresses.In this study,we constructed a gene expression profile under alkaline treatment using RNA-seq data, from which we cloned a gene GsWRKY15.We analyzedtheexpression pattern of GsWRKY15 in roost of Glycine soja under alkaline stress, and found that this gene was up-regulated by alkaline stress,wirh the highest expression at one hour after alkaline treatment. We analyzed theexpression pattern of GsWRKY15 in different tissues of Glycine soja, and found that this gene could express in all tissues, with the highest expression level in flowers.GsWRKY15 was transformed into Zhaodong alfalfa by Agrobacteriumtumefaciens-mediated infection of alfalfa cotyledonary nodes, and 39 resistant plants were obtained. The results of PCR, Southern blot and RT-PCR showed that GsWRKY15 was integrated into the genome of Zhaodong alfalfa and expressed in transgenic plants. Alkaline tolerance analysis showed that the growth of transgenic alfalfa after two weeks of treatment with 150 mmol L–1 NaHCO3 was better than those of non-transgenic alfalfa. MDA content and relative membrane permeability were significantly higher while chlorophyll content was significantly lower in non-transgenic alfalfa than in transgenic alfalfa. And by analyzing t some stress response marker genes , we found that he expression levels of H+-Ppase, NADP-ME, KIN1, RD29A were higher in transgenic alfalfa than in non-transgenic alfalfa.Taken together we suggest that the expression of GsWRKY15 gene can enhance the alkaline-resistant ability of alfalfa.

      Combining Ability of Maize Inbred Lines from ShaanA Group and Shaan B Group under Different Density Conditions
      WANG Bo-Xin,WANG Ya-Hui,CHEN Peng-Fei,LIU Xu-Dong-Yu,FENG Zhi-Qian,HAO Yin-Chuan,ZHANG Ren-He,ZHANG Xing-Hua,XUE Ji-Quan*
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(09):  1328-1336.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01328
      Abstract ( 396 )   RICH HTML    PDF (1188KB) ( 604 )   Save
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      The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of high-density breeding strategy through analyzing genetic components and general combining ability (GCA) effectsunder different planting densities. Seventeen maize inbred lines selected under high density were test-crossed with two testers (Zheng 58, Chang 7-2) in the North Carolina Design II. Thirty-four crosses were evaluated under different density conditions (45 000, 67 500, and 90 000 plants ha-1) in 2014 and 2015 at Yangling, Changwu and Yulin in Shaanxi province. The genetic variance components for grain yield and other traits were estimated using PROC VARCOMP method. Frequency distribution was used to analyze the response of GCA for grain yield and other traits under different densities. The stability of maize inbred lines and crosses was evaluated based on AMMI model. The grain yield, stalk lodging rate and rind penetration strength were mostly controlled by additive gene action, while the inheritance of sterile plant rate controlled by non-additive gene action. Also, the contribution of additive gene action to total variance increasedwith increasing planting density. The average of general combining ability for grain yield, sterile plant rate, stalk lodging rate and rind penetration strength increased by 0.28, -0.21, -0.03, and 0.02, respectively, from low density to high density. The correlations between GCA of the inbred lines and their crosses were significant (r=0.877**, r=0.811**, r=0.672**) under different density. As the density increased, the number of stable maize inbred lines and crosses increased. These results indicate that increasing plant density to improve GCA for grain yield and other traits of inbred lines is an effective strategy to enhance tolerance to high plant density and yield stability.

      Analysis of Differential Proteome in Relation to Drought Resistance in Sugarcane
      DO Thanh-Trung, LI Jian, ZHANG Feng-Juan, YANG Li-Tao, LI Yang-Rui,XING Yong-Xiu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(09):  1337-1346.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01337
      Abstract ( 428 )   RICH HTML    PDF (4863KB) ( 776 )   Save
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      Drought stress is a major restraint in sugarcane production in China. Proteomic study in relation to drought stress provides valuable information in drought resistant breeding of sugarcane. In this study, the drought-resistant sugarcane variety, F172, and the drought-sensitive variety, YL6, were used in a pot experiment for differential proteome analysis. Seedlings of both varieties were exposed to severe drought stress for seven days and the leaf proteins were separated and analyzed using 2-DE technique and PDQuest software. From the protein profiles of F172 and YL6, 28 and 20 differential protein spots were detected between normal-irrigation and drought-stress treatments, respectively, including up- and down-regulated proteins and new protein spots. The differential proteins varied across the two varieties. Using MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS, 18 and 14 amino acid sequences were identified from YL6 and F172, respectively, and they were in eight function categories. In YL6, the 18 proteins consist of two participating in oxygen radical scavenging, six participating in photosynthesis, one participating in cell growth and division, six participating in basic metabolisms, two participating in protective response, and one unknown in function. In F172, the 14 proteins consist of one participating in oxygen radical scavenging, two participating in photosynthesis, two participating in cell growth and division, four participating in basic metabolisms, two participating in information transfer, one participating in protein processing, and one unknown in function. A drought-induced protein of 22 kDa was in high level in F172 but absence in YL6. These results indicate that protein compositions under drought stress are highly different in sugarcane varieties with different drought resistance and the differential proteins might give a hint to drought-resistant mechanism.

      Effect of Planting Density on Water Consumption Characteristics of Maize in Oasis Irrigation Area
      WANG Qiao-Mei,FAN Zhi-Long,ZHAO Yan-Hua,YIN Wen,CHAI Qiang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(09):  1347-1356.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01347
      Abstract ( 493 )   RICH HTML    PDF (862KB) ( 451 )   Save
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      In oasis irrigation agricultural region, water resources deficit is one of the most serious constraints for crop production. However, the insufficient academic support for how compact planting affecting crop water consumption has led to a great short slab on increasing yield and water use efficiency (WUE) simultaneously through the regulation of plant density in practices. Under the same fertilization and irrigation level, a field experiment was carried out in 2012-2015 in order to investigate the water consumption characteristics, yield and water use efficiency of maize under different density levels (D1, 75 000 plants ha-1, low; D2, 87 000 plants ha-1, medium; and D3, 99 000 plants ha-1, high). Withincreasing planting density the total water consumption (ET) increased in whole growth stage, but had no significant changes from sowing to jointing stage and from filling to full ripe stage. The total ET in high and medium density treatments significantly increased by 22.8% and 14.4% on average of four years, while by 28.4% and 18.2% on average of four years mainly in big trumpet to silking stage, respectively, compared with low density treatment. Similarly, increasing planting density could reduce invalid water consumption and increase water use efficiency, the high and medium density treatments reduced evaporation (E) in whole growth stage, by 56.5 mm and 27.6 mm, significantly decreased average daily evaporation from jointing to filling, and even greatly from big trumpet to silking stage, with the decreased values of 0.51 mm and 0.27 mm, respectively, compared with low density treatment. For E/ET, it was decreased with planting density increases, and the E/ET under high and medium density was reduced by 34.5% and 18.8%, respectively, especially from jointing to big trumpet, which decreased by 22.1% and 10.7%, respectively. On average, the grain yield under high and medium density was 17.9% and 14.8% greater than that under low density, but the difference was not significant. The water use efficiency (WUE) under high, medium and low density was 18.2, 19.3, and 16.8 kg ha-1 mm-1, respectively. While, the irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) under high and medium density was increased by 34.5% and 19.6%, respectively, compared with low density. Therefore, further increasing planting density is favorable to improve grain yield and IWUE under the condition of traditional water supplement and film mulching in Oasis irrigation region.

      Effects of Supplemental Irrigation on Water Consumption Characteristics, Grain Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat under Different Soil Moisture Conditions at Seeding Stage
      LIN Xiang,WANG Dong*
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(09):  1357-1369.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01272
      Abstract ( 279 )   RICH HTML    PDF (868KB) ( 732 )   Save
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      Water shortage and unbalanced precipitation distribution are major problems threatening agricultural sustainability, especially winter wheat production, in the Huang-Huai Plain of China and water-saving cultivation with limited irrigation is a promising technique in this area. It is important to understand the regulation effect and physiological basis of supplemental irrigation on grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat under different soil moisture conditions at seeding stage. In the 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 winter wheat growing seasons, we designed three soil (0–100 cm) moisture conditions at seeding stage (201.5 mm for A, 266.3 mm for B, and 317.0 mm for C) by supplemental irrigation and four irrigation treatments under each soil moisture condition (no-irrigation; irrigated twice at jointing and anthesis stages; irrigated thrice at over-wintering, jointing and anthesis stages; and irrigated thrice at seeding, jointing and anthesis stages). The water consumption characteristics, photosynthesis of flag leaves, dry matter accumulation and distribution, grain yield and WUE of winter wheat were investigated. The soil water consumption and the total water consumption during wheat growth increased when more soil water was available at seeding stage. Wheat mainly consumed precipitation and irrigation water under condition A and B. Supplemental irrigation at seeding or over-wintering stage resulted in significant increase of soil water consumption under condition A, but decrease of soil water consumption under condition B. Under condition C, wheat mainly consumed soil water, followed by precipitation and irrigation water. In this situation, supplemental irrigation at seeding and over-wintering stages resulted in significant increase of total water consumption but no significant effect on soil water consumption. Our results showed high yield but low WUE under condition A and high yield and high WUE under condition B, when watering at seeding, jointing and anthesis stages. Under condition C, high yield and high WUE were obtained only when watering at jointing and anthesis stages, whereas, supplemental irrigations at seeding and over-wintering stages were unnecessary. We conclude that available soil water at seeding stage is the basis and important to reasonable supplemental irrigation during wheat growth.

      Interaction of Irrigation and Nitrogen on Water Consumption Characteristics and Yield in Oat Variety Longyan 3 in Northwest Oasis Irrigation Area
      FENG Fu-Xue,MU Ping,ZHAO Gui-Qin,CHAI Ji-Kuan,LIU Huan,CHEN Guo-Dong
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(09):  1370-1380.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01370
      Abstract ( 352 )   RICH HTML    PDF (486KB) ( 360 )   Save
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      Irrigation and fertilization, particularly nitrogen (N) fertilization, are principal field practices to stimulate crop growth and increase yield,and their interaction plays an important role in high-yield and high-efficiency cultivation of oat. In the 2014–2015 oat growing seasons, a field experiment was conducted with three irrigation amounts and three nitrogen application rates to study the effects of water-nitrogen interaction on 0–150 cm soil water consumption, soil evaporation, grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of oat variety “Longyan 3”. The three irrigation amounts were 270 (I1), 337.5 (I2), and 405 mm (I3), and the three N application rates were 90 (N1), 120(N2), and 150 kg ha-1 (N3). From sowing to maturity, the diurnal water consumption amount showed an increase–decrease trend, and the maximum consumption appeared at the duration of heading–filling. Under the same N application rate, the diurnal water consumption amount obviously increased with increasing irrigation amount. The soil evaporation (E) and the proportion of soil evaporation to evapotranspiration (E/ET) showed the decrease–increase tread in the whole growing period. Under the same N application rate, E and E/ET were enhanced with the increase of irrigation amount from jointing to filling stage, but declined from filling to harvest stage. The oat yield under a fixed N application rate had a positive relation to the irrigation amount, whereas, the WUE had the negative relation to the irrigation amount. For grain yield of oat, N3I3 ranked the top with yield of 5466.0–5727.5 kg ha-1, followed by N3I2 with yield of 5428.5–5678.5 kg ha-1, and N1I1 ranked the last with yield of 4504.5–4804.3 kg ha-1. For WUE, N3I2 was the best treatment with WUE of 12.11–12.82 kg mm-1 ha-1, followed by N3I1 with WUE of 12.04–12.63 kg mm-1 ha-1, and N1I3 was the worst treatment with WUE of 9.79–10.58 kg mm-1 ha-1. Obviously, water–nitrogen interaction had significant effects on WUE and yield of oat. Our results suggest that N application at 150 kg ha-1 coupling with irrigation amount of 337.5 mm is applicable in water-saving and high-yield production of oat in Northwest oasis area.

      Identification and Indices Screening of Drought Resistance at Adult Plant Stage in Job’s Tears Germplasm Resources
      WANG Can,ZHOU Ling-Bo,ZHANG Guo-Bing,ZHANG Li-Yi,XU Yan,GAO Xu,JIANG Ne,SHAO Ming-Bo
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(09):  1381-1394.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01381
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      Drought is one of the major problems for Job’s tears production. The plant height, culm diameter, branch number, culm node number, tiller number, grain number per plant, grain weight per plant, 1000-grain weight, and yield of 50 accessions of Job’s tears germplasm were measured in normal irrigation and drought stress treatments. Drought resistance comprehensive evaluation value (D value), comprehensive drought resistance coefficient (CDC value), and weight drought resistance coefficient (WDC value) were used in correlation analysis, frequency analysis, principal component analysis, grey relational analysis, subordinate function analysis, clustering analysis, and stepwise regression analysis to identify and screen drought resistance indices at adult plant stage of tested Job’s tears germplasm. There were differences in response to drought stress and correlations between all indices. Six common factors could represent 90.80% of the original information of Job’s tears drought resistance data. The ranks of drought resistance of tested Job’s tears germplasm based on D value, CDC value, and WDC value were similar. The yield drought resistance coefficient (Y value) of tested Job’s tears germplasm had significant and positive correlation with D value, CDC value, and WDC value. Liangfengyi 14-2, yy03-8, and yy18-1 were identified as drought resistant Job’s tears germplasm at adult plant stage. Tiller number, grain weight per plant, and 1000-grain weight could be used as the intuitive identification indices for drought resistance in Job’s tears germplasm resources at adult plant stage.

      Structural Equation Model for Analyzing Relationshipbetween Yield and Agronomic Traits in Winter Wheat
      ZHENG Li-Fei,SHANG Yi-Fei,LI Xue-Jun,FENG Hao,WEI Yong-Sheng
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(09):  1395-1400.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01395
      Abstract ( 494 )   RICH HTML    PDF (387KB) ( 716 )   Save
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      This study aimed at understanding the relationshipbetween winterwheat yield andmajor agronomic traits using structural equation model. The parameters collected from the 2010–2011 National Winter Wheat Region Trail for Upper Yangtze River Group (19 varieties in 19 locations) were grain yield (GY), grain number per spike (GNP), density of basic seedlings (BS), spike number per ha (SN), growth duration (GD), thousand-grain weight (TGW), and plant height (PH). The variance coefficient in structural equation model showed a trend ofGY > GNP > SN > BS > PH > TGW > GD. According toPearson correlation, the correlation levels with yield was GNP > BS > SN > GD > TGW > PH. The effect of a single trait on yield was SN > GNP > TGW > BS > GD > PH according to multiple regression analysis and BS > GNP > TGW > SN > PH > GD according to the sum of direct and indirect effects in structural equation model. Both direct and indirect effects of agronomic traits in winter wheat on yield can be explained by structural equation model. As a prior experimental model, structural equation model can be used to analysis the complex relationship between crop physiological properties and wheat yield.. Our results suggest that large- and multi-spikes need to be considered simultaneously in winter wheat breeding.

      Effects of Low Temperature on PSI and PSII Photoinhibition in Cotton Leaf at Boll Stage
      XIAO Fei,YANG Yan-Long,WANG Ya-Ting,MA Hui,ZHANG Wang-Feng
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(09):  1401-1409.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01401
      Abstract ( 366 )   RICH HTML    PDF (774KB) ( 591 )   Save
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      Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) variety Xinluzao 45 was grown in pots under low temperature until bolling stage and the seedings were moved in phytotron in northern Xinjiang. Chl fluorescence and P700+ absorbance signal were determined simultaneously by Dual-PAM-100. The treatment was day/night temperature of 16°C/10°C with a suitable temperature condition (30°C/18°C) as control. The light-adapted maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv¢/Fm¢), photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) and effective quantum yield of PSII [Y(II)] decreased significantly under low temperature stress. Low temperature significantly increased non-photochemical quantum yield of PSI caused by donor side limitation [Y(ND)]. The yield of regulated energy dissipation [Y(NPQ)] and non-regulated energy dissipation of PSII [Y(NO)] were significantly increased, including reversible photoinhibition in cotton leaf. Compared with control, low temperature stress significantly decreased the acceptor side limitation of PSI [Y(NA)] and increased donor side limitation of PSI[Y(ND)], while effective PSI complex content (Pm) was not significantly decreased, suggesting that PSI in cotton leaf is insensitive to low temperature compared with PSII. The quantum yield of cyclic electron flow [Y(CEF)] and the ratio of [Y(CEF)] to the effective quantum yield of PSII[Y(CEF)/Y(II)] were enhanced by low temperature stress in cotton suggesting that stimulation of cyclic electron flow plays an important role in protecting PSI and PSII from photoinhibition caused by low temperature stress in cotton. Furthermore, the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and regulated heat dissipation [Y(NPQ)] had significantly positive correlation with the quantum yield of cyclic electron flow [Y(CEF)], indicating that the strong excess excitation energy due to the overclosure of PSII reaction center results in reversible photoinhibition of PSII under low temperature stress. In conclusion, the strong stimulation of cyclic electron flow and regulated heat dissipation powerfully prevent PSII and PSI of cotton from photoinhibition and photodamage induced by low temperature stress, which may be the main mechanism of the insusceptibility of PSI in cotton to low temperature stress.

      Differential Expression and Assembly Mode of Glutamine Synthetase Isoen-zymes in Different Tissues and Organs of Maize
      WANG Xiao-Chun,ZHANG Hao-Ran,WEI Yi-Hao,JIA Xi-Ting,GU Ming-Xin,MA Xin-Ming
      Acta Agron Sin. 2017, 43(09):  1410-1414.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01410
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      Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a key enzyme in nitrogen assimilation and recycling in cereals. In this study, the expression characteristics of GS isoenzymes in different tissues and organs of maize in grain-filling period were analyzed, and the assembly of GS isoenzymes were indentified. The GS isoforms expressed differentially in different organs were shown by Western-blot obviously; GS1 with a molecular weight of about 40 kD expressed highly in all tissues, and GS1 with a molecular weight of about 39 kD was merely expressed in the node of ear position and pedical, and GS2 with a molecular weight of about 44 kD was weakly expressed in the photosynthtic tissue such as leaf. With a modified blue naive PAGE (BNE) technique and in-gel activity analysis, the size of GS holoenzyme was calibrated; combined the 2-D gel with western-blot analysis, the subunits composition of GS isoenzymes were identified. Three GS isoenzymes with different sizes were identified in maize. GS2 holoenzyme was about 460 kD and likely a decamer, GS1 holoenzyme existed two kinds of assembly state, one was about 410 kD and likely a decamer, another was about 240 kD and more likely a pentamer; therefore, the expression of GS isoenzymes exists diversity in maize.

the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
Submission: https://www.editorialmanager.com/cj/
E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
Tel: 8610-82108548