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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2019, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (5): 728-739.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.83040


Responses of photosynthetic characteristics to low light stress in ear leaves of high photosynthetic efficiency maize at narrow row of maize-soybean strip intercropping system

Yong-Fu REN,Guo-Peng CHEN,Tian PU,Cheng CHEN,Jin-Xi ZENG,Xiao PENG,Yan-Wei MA,Wen-Yu YANG,Xiao-Chun WANG()   

  1. College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University / Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest China, Ministry of Agriculture / Crop Ecophysiology and Cultivation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan, China
  • Received:2018-05-01 Accepted:2019-01-12 Online:2019-05-12 Published:2019-02-19
  • Contact: Xiao-Chun WANG E-mail:xchwang@sicau.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2016YFD0300109);the Breeding Research Project of Sichuan(2016NYZ0051-2);the Agricultural Technology Achievement Demonstration Project of Chengdu(2015-NY01-00100-NC)


The photosynthesis of maize is inhibited in narrow row under maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system. In order to explore the internal mechanisms of photosynthesis characteristics responding to low light stress in ear leaf of intercropped maize cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency, the low (A1: Zhongwangyu 18), middle (A2: Chuandan 418), and high (A3: Rongyu 1210) photosynthetic efficiency maize varieties were grown in maize-soybean strip intercropping system (two rows of maize intercropped with two rows of soybean) with different narrow spaces (B1: 20 cm; B2: 40 cm; B3: monoculture). The photosynthetic rate and PEPCase activity of “Rongyu 1210” were significantly higher than those of “Zhongwangyu 18” and “Chuandan 418”, respectively under the conventional row spacing (40 cm) and low light intensity conditions (before 10 a.m., after 4 p.m.). Additionally, “Rongyu 1210” had more complete chloroplast structure, which might result in lower initial fluorescence (Fo) and maximum fluorescence (Fm) of chlorophyll compared with “Zhongwangyu 18” and “Chuandan 418”. The Pn and activities of key enzymes decreased, but the initial fluorescence (Fo), maximum fluorescence (Fm) and effective photochemical quantum yield (Fv'/Fm') of chlorophyll increased with the decreasing narrow row spacing, Interestingly, the above indexes of “Rongyu 1210” were stable under the variable light environment. The photosynthetic rate, photosynthetic key enzyme activities, and yield of “Rongyu 1210” between monoculture and intercropping were not significantly different. However, the photosynthetic rate and PEPCase activity of “Zhongwangyu 18” and “Chuandan 418” in intercropping decreased by 28.9%, 24.2% and 7.4%, 5.5% compared with that in monoculture, respectively. In conclusion, the response of maize varieties to shade conditions in narrow row under intercropping system is different. Rongyu 1210, with a positive responding, that has better physiological indexes in photosynthesis than the other two maize varieties in the intercropping system. These results provide a theoretical explanation for excellent adaptability to the lower light environment and high yield in Rongyu 1210 under maize-soybean intercropping strip system.

Key words: maize-soybean strip intercropping, high photosynthetic efficiency, ear leaves, low light stress, photosynthetic characteristics

Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of field planting and light distribution MM stands for monoculture."

Fig. 2

Effects of different treatments on photosynthesis parameter in ear leaves of maize at narrow row MM stands for monoculture. Values within a group followed by different letters are significantly different at P < 0.05."

Fig. 3

Effects of different treatments on daily variation of photosynthetic rate in ear leaves of maize at narrow row MM stands for monoculture."

Fig. 4

Effects of different treatments on key enzyme activities in photosynthesis in ear leaves of maize at narrow row MM stands for monoculture. Treatments described as in Fig. 2. Values within a group superscripted by different letters are significantly different at P < 0.05."

Table 1

Effects of different treatments on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in ear leaves of maize at narrow row"

Fo Fm Fv/Fm Fv′/Fm
Tasseling stage
Filling stage
Tasseling stage
Tasseling stage
Filling stage
Tasseling stage
Filling stage
众望玉18 20 cm 3788.00 a 3438.00 b 19501.00 a 16201.00 a 0.76 c 0.77 c 0.13 a 0.14 b
Zhongwangyu 18 40 cm 2595.00 d 3370.00 c 13788.00 e 15819.00 b 0.78 ab 0.79 b 0.12 ab 0.13 bc
单作MM 2161.00 e 2600.00 e 12092.00 f 13566.00 d 0.79 a 0.81 a 0.10 c 0.12 c
川单418 20 cm 3527.00 b 3635.00 a 17138.00 b 15016.00 b 0.76 c 0.75 d 0.13 a 0.12 c
Chuandan 418 40 cm 3085.00 d 3326.00 c 16187.00 c 14527.00 c 0.77 b 0.76 cd 0.12 ab 0.12 c
单作MM 2345.00 e 2578.00 e 12284.00 f 12310.00 e 0.78 ab 0.79 b 0.12 ab 0.11 d
荣玉1210 20 cm 3481.00 b 2986.00 d 17400.00 b 14413.00 c 0.76 c 0.78 bc 0.11 bc 0.15 a
Rongyu 1210 40 cm 3272.00 c 2775.00 e 16816.00 c 13380.00 d 0.77 b 0.79 b 0.11 bc 0.14 b
单作MM 2964.00 d 1888.00 f 15585.00 d 10094.00 f 0.77 b 0.80 ab 0.10 c 0.12 c
众望玉18-avg. Zhongwangyu 18-avg. 2848.00 c 3136.00 a 15127.00 b 15195.33 a 0.78 a 0.79 a 0.12 a 0.13 a
川单418-avg. Chuandan 418-avg. 3052.33 b 3179.66 a 15203.00 b 13951.00 b 0.77 b 0.77 b 0.12 a 0.12 b
荣玉1210-avg. Rongyu 1210-avg. 3239.00 a 2549.66 b 16600.33 a 12629.00 b 0.77 b 0.79 a 0.11 b 0.13 a
20 cm-avg. 3598.66 a 3353.00 a 18013.00 a 15210.00 a 0.77 c 0.77 c 0.12 a 0.14 a
40 cm-avg. 3050.66 b 3157.00 b 15597.00 b 14575.33 b 0.78 b 0.78 b 0.12 a 0.13 b
MM-avg. 2490.00 c 2355.33 c 13320.33 c 11990.00 c 0.79 a 0.80 a 0.11 b 0.11 c
品种 Varieties (V) 1.43* 2.02 0.99 2.36 5.21 4.14 2.23 4.02*
行距 Row spacing (RS) 4.07* 1.14 3.69 1.81 5.96* 0.88* 2.12 0.37*
品种×行距 V×RS 3.01* 1.50 2.61 1.65 4.70 2.18 2.17 1.83*

Table 2

Effects of different treatments on chloroplast ultrastructure in ear leaves of maize at narrow row"

Row spacing
叶绿体长度Chloroplast length (μm) 叶绿体宽度Chloroplast width (μm) 基粒厚度
Grains thickness (μm)
Starch granule
众望玉18 20 cm 7.12 bc 3.33 a 0.73 a 3.33 a 3.67 a
Zhongwangyu 18 40 cm 7.12 bc 3.10 b 0.72 ab 2.67 ab 3.33 a
单作MM 7.00 d 3.09 bc 0.69 b 2.00 b 1.33 bc
川单418 20 cm 7.13 b 3.26 ab 0.73 a 2.33 ab 2.33 b
Chuandan 418 40 cm 7.03 c 3.06 bc 0.68 bc 1.67 bc 1.33 bc
单作MM 6.98 e 3.06 bc 0.63 cd 1.33 bc 0.33 c
荣玉1210 20 cm 7.34 a 3.06 bc 0.65 c 1.00 c 1.00 cd
Rongyu 1210 40 cm 7.28 ab 2.99 d 0.61 d 0 d 0 d
单作MM 7.25 ab 2.98 d 0.61 d 0 d 0 d
品种 Varieties (V) 55.28** 8.97* 16.44* 133.42** 16.66*
行距 Row pacing (RS) 11.48* 12.23* 7.18* 31.18** 8.79*
品种×行距 V×RS 0.07 0.11 0.95 0.59 9.09**

Fig. 5

Chloroplast ultrastructure under transmission electron microscope CHL: chloroplast; GT: grana cyst; CCHL: disturbed grana cyst; SG: starch granule; OG: osmiophilic particles; GL: grana lamella; SL: stroma lamella."

Fig. 6

Effects of different treatments on maize yield MM stands for monoculture. Values within a group superscripted by different letters are significantly different at P < 0.05."

Table 3

Effects of different treatments on yield components of maize"

2015年 2016年
Grain number
per ear
weight (g)
Ear number
(×104 hm-2)
Grain number
per ear
weight (g)
Ear number
(×104 hm-2)
众望玉18 20 cm 406.20 e 290.00 b 49764.30 b 429.12 d 324.04 a 50330.00 e
Zhongwangyu 18 40 cm 449.30 d 294.30 b 50357.10 b 420.80 d 316.20 b 54000.00 d
单作MM 507.20 b 289.10 b 57142.90 a 519.66 b 309.64 c 56000.00 c
川单418 20 cm 347.60 f 300.50 b 49521.40 b 459.47 c 263.06 e 54000.00 d
Chuandan 418 40 cm 468.70 c 292.60 b 57732.12 a 527.37 b 256.00 e 57330.00 b
单作MM 479.00 c 308.00 a 58992.90 a 588.85 a 255.46 e 59330.00 a
荣玉1210 20 cm 452.00 d 295.70 b 49764.30 b 394.54 e 294.60 d 56660.00 c
Rongyu 1210 40 cm 563.80 a 294.00 b 55512.25 ab 442.91 d 305.86 c 57660.00 b
单作MM 588.10 a 295.40 b 56664.30 a 472.68 c 310.20 c 57660.00 b
众望玉18-avg. Zhongwangyu 18-avg. 454.23 b 291.13 a 52421.43 b 456.52 b 316.62 a 53443.33 c
川单418-avg. Chuandan 418-avg. 431.76 b 300.36 a 55415.47 a 525.23 a 258.17 c 56886.66 b
荣玉1210-avg. Rongyu 1210-avg. 534.63 a 295.03 a 53980.28 a 436.71 c 303.55 b 57326.66 a
20 cm-avg. 401.93 c 295.40 a 49683.33 c 427.71 c 293.90 a 53663.33 c
40 cm-avg. 493.93 b 293.63 a 54533.82 b 463.69 b 292.68 a 56330.00 b
MM-avg. 524.76 a 297.50 a 57600.03 a 527.06 a 291.76 a 57663.33 a
品种 Varieties (V) 25.78** 185.89** 1.32** 16.72** 66.00** 5.51**
行距 Row spacing (RS) 24.35** 3.49** 38.66* 27.18** 3.55 4.59*
品种×行距 V×RS 24.92** 76.45* 23.72** 1.63 2.00 0.72

Table 4

Correlation between photosynthetic parameters and yield"

thetic rate
Intercellular CO2 concentration
Transpiration rate
Grain number per ear
1000-kernel weight
Ear number
(×104 hm-2)
Photosynthetic rate 1.00 0.99** -0.80** 0.90** 0.54* 0.39 0.53* 0.62**
Stomatal conductance 1.00 -0.82** 0.92** 0.58* 0.37 0.54* 0.65**
Intercellular CO2 concentration 1.00 -0.97** -0.74** -0.24 -0.47 -0.73**
Transpiration rate 1.00 0.65** 0.27 0.51* 0.69**
Grain number per ear 1.00 -0.15 0.67** 0.95**
1000-kernel weight 1.00 0.18 0.05
Ear number (×104 hm-2) 1.00 0.85**
Yield 1.00
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