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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2018, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (8): 1196-1204.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2018.01196


Compensation Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Photosynthetic Characteristics and Yield during Cotton Flowering Boll-setting Stage under Non-sufficient Drip Irrigation

Hong-Liang SHI(),Qing-Qing YAN,Ju-Song ZHANG(),Chun-Yan LI,Hai-Tao DOU   

  1. Agriculture College, Xinjiang Agricultural University / Research Center of Cotton Engineering, Urumqi 830052, Xinjiang, China
  • Received:2017-11-20 Accepted:2018-06-09 Online:2018-08-10 Published:2018-06-11
  • Contact: Ju-Song ZHANG E-mail:xjndshl@163.com;xjndzjs@163.com
  • Supported by:
    the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFD0101605-05)


Cotton cultivar ‘Xinluzhong 54’ was used to study the compensation effect of nitrogen fertilizer on photosynthetic characteristics and yield and its mechanism during cotton flowering boll-setting stage under non-sufficient drip irrigation, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the efficient use of water and fertilizer for cotton in arid area. Split plot experiment design was used, the main area included total drip irrigation amount of 2800 m 3 ha -1 (non-sufficient drip irrigation) and 3800 m 3 ha -1 (conventional drip irrigation), the secondary area had four nitrogen (pure N) levels (0, 150, 300, and 450 kg ha -1). Under the same nitrogen fertilizer treatment, the leaf area index (LAI) of cotton at flowering and boll-setting stage, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), accumulation and allocation of photosynthate, boll number of single plant, single boll weight and seed cotton yield of non-sufficient drip irrigation treatment were lower than those of conventional drip irrigation treatment, while seed cotton yield rate and drip irrigation water productivity were higher. Under the same drip irrigation amount, with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer amount, LAI of cotton at flowering and boll-setting stage and photosynthate accumulation increased first and decreased then, showing a trend of N450>N300>N150>N0, and Tr, Pn, allocation proportion of photosynthate to reproductive organ, boll number of single plant, single boll weight, seed cotton yield, seed cotton yield rate and drip irrigation water productivity showed a trend of N300>N450>N150>N0. The compensation effect of increasing nitrogen fertilizer under non-sufficient drip irrigation condition increased first and decreased then with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer amount, the compensation effect of N300 treatment was most significant, Pn of cotton flowering and boll-setting stage Pn increased by 10.9% averagely, the allocation proportion of photosynthate translocated to reproductive organ increased by 10.7%, boll number of single plant, single boll weight, seed cotton yield rate and drip irrigation water productivity increased by 5.0%, 8.0%, 7.1%, and 7.5%, respectively. The influence of nitrogen fertilizer on photosynthetic characteristics and yield components of cotton at flowering and boll-setting stage was greater than that of water. The compensation effect was the maximum when nitrogen fertilizer increased to 300 kg ha -1 under non-sufficient drip irrigation condition, though the yield decreased by 1.3% compared with conventional drip irrigation treatment. Therefore, in natural ecological conditions of South Xinjiang, 300 kg ha -1 nitrogen application with non-sufficient drip irrigation is suitable for cotton at production with better, LAI, Tr, Pn and photosynthate accumulation and translocated compensation effect to reproductive organ, as well as the maximum yield compensation effect and water conservation of 26.3%.

Key words: cotton, non-sufficient drip irrigation, nitrogen fertilizer, photosynthetic characteristics, drip irrigation water productivity, yield, compensation effect

Table 1

Basic physicochemical properties of soil"

Soil depth
Total N
(g kg-1)
Organic matter
(g kg-1)
Hydrolytic N
(mg kg-1)
Available P
(mg kg-1)
Available K
(mg kg-1)
2015 0-20 0.50 6.90 105.00 32.40 131.00
20-40 0.40 5.60 70.80 21.60 168.00
40-60 0.20 2.20 45.00 2.60 240.00
2016 0-20 0.62 8.00 32.60 24.80 111.00
20-40 0.44 3.00 23.20 6.00 126.00
40-60 0.34 2.00 13.80 1.80 152.00

Table 2

Distribution table of water and nitrogen"

日期 Date (day/month)
灌溉量 Drip irrigation amount
2800 m3 hm-2 168.0 224.0 280.0 336.0 392.0 392.0 336.0 280.0 224.0 168.0
3800 m3 hm-2 228.0 304.0 380.0 456.0 532.0 532.0 456.0 380.0 304.0 228.0
施氮量 Nitrogen application
N0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
N150 30 7.2 9.6 12.0 14.4 16.8 16.8 14.4 12.0 9.6 7.2
N300 60 14.4 19.2 24.0 28.8 33.6 33.6 28.8 24.0 19.2 14.4
N450 90 21.6 28.8 36.0 43.2 50.4 50.4 43.2 36.0 28.8 21.6

Fig. 1

Comparison of LAI during cotton flowering and boll-setting stage FP: flowering period; FF: full flower period; FB: full boll period; OB: opening boll period."

Table 3

Comparison of functional leaf (third leaf from the top) Pn during cotton flowering and boll-setting stage (μmol m-2 s-1)"

Drip irrigation amount
2015 2016
2800 m3 hm-2 N0 32.5 e 35.3 f 28.8 d 15.1 f 31.9 f 33.4 f 25.1 d 5.5 d
N150 34.7 d 38.4 d 34.8 c 17.6 de 33.8 de 37.6 de 25.7 d 6.4 cd
N300 40.5 ab 45.9 b 44.8 a 22.7 a 40.5 ab 43.9 ab 42.9 a 9.5 a
N450 38.2 c 43.1 c 41.8 b 19.9 bc 37.8 c 41.3 c 38.0 b 7.3 bc
3800 m3 hm-2 N0 34.1 d 36.6 e 30.1 d 17.1 e 33.5 e 35.8 e 27.1 cd 7.3 bc
N150 35.0 d 38.9 d 35.1 c 18.8 cd 34.8 d 38.8 d 28.1 c 7.7 bc
N300 41.6 a 46.8 a 45.8 a 23.4 a 41.2 a 44.6 a 43.6 a 10.3 a
N450 39.8 b 43.9 c 42.6 b 20.8 b 39.7 b 42.3 bc 38.6 b 8.8 ab

Table 4

Comparison of functional leaf (third leaf from the top) Tr during cotton flowering and boll-setting stage (μmol m-2 s-1)"

Drip irrigation
N treatment
2015 2016
初花期 FP 盛花期 FF 盛铃期 FB 吐絮期 OB 初花期 FP 盛花期 FF 盛铃期 FB 吐絮期 OB
2800 m3 hm-2 N0 5.2 d 5.7 d 5.5 d 3.1 d 4.6 d 5.1 c 4.4 e 1.8 d
N150 5.5 cd 6.1 d 5.9 cd 3.4 cd 5.4 c 5.9 bc 5.2 d 2.2 de
N300 6.2 ab 7.3 ab 7.1 ab 4.8 ab 6.2 ab 7.0 a 6.9 ab 3.2 ab
N450 5.9 abc 6.8 bc 6.8 b 4.5 b 5.6 bc 6.5 ab 6.1 c 2.6 cd
3800 m3 hm-2 N0 5.6 bcd 6.2 d 6.0 c 3.5 cd 5.8 abc 5.9 bc 5.9 cd 2.5 cd
N150 5.9 abc 6.3 cd 6.2 c 3.7 c 6.1 ab 6.3 ab 6.1 c 2.9 cd
N300 6.4 a 7.7 a 7.2 a 5.0 a 6.4 a 7.2 a 7.1 a 3.3 a
N450 6.2 ab 7.3 ab 7.0 ab 5.0 a 5.9 abc 6.9 a 6.4 bc 3.1 ab

Table 5

Comparison of accumulation and distribution of photosynthate in overground of cotton at open bolling"

Drip irrigation
N treatment
2015 2016
PA (g)
VOA (%)
ROA (%)
PA (g)
VOA (%)
ROA (%)
2800 m3 hm-2 N0 52.3 h 72.1 a 27.9 h 42.2 h 63.9 a 36.1 h
N150 58.0 f 68.2 c 31.8 f 49.1 g 60.6 c 39.4 f
N300 84.7 d 60.9 g 39.1 b 76.0 c 52.7 g 47.3 b
N450 85.9 c 64.6 e 35.4 d 74.7 d 55.2 e 44.8 d
3800 m3 hm-2 N0 57.4 g 70.2 b 29.8 g 50.4 f 61.7 b 38.3 g
N150 63.0 e 66.8 d 33.2 e 56.6 e 59.1 d 40.9 e
N300 87.9 b 59.6 h 40.4 a 79.9 a 51.9 h 48.1 a
N450 91.8 a 64.3 f 35.7 c 78.4 b 54.6 f 45.4 c

Table 6

Variance analysis of cotton yield components and drip irrigation water productivity"

Source of variation
单株结铃数BN 单铃重BW 籽棉产量SCY 灌溉水生产力IWP
年份 Year (Y) 18.4 460.2** 2.0 102.7** 160534.9 2.8 0 2.6
灌溉 Drip irrigation (W) 0.2 4.1 0 0.8 146835.9 2.6 2.5 408.4**
氮肥 N fertilizer (N) 24.2 201.5** 6.2 106.7** 32525954.1 190.2** 3.2 176.6**
Y×W 0 0 0 0.1 7971.4 0.1 0.0 0.0
Y×N 1.2 10.3** 0.4 5.9** 1984708.9 11.6** 0.2 11.0**
W×N 0.1 0.3 0 0.6 37744.6 0.2 0.1 5.8
Y×W×N 0 0.2 0 0.3 8937.6 0.1 0 0.4
误差 Error 1.3 0.6 1824487.0 0.2

Table 7

Comparison of cotton yield components and drip irrigation water productivity"

Drip irrigation amount
N treatment
BW (g)
SCY (kg hm-2)
IWP (kg m-3)
SCYR (%)
2015 2800 m3 hm-2 N0 3.8 c 5.2 b 4147.4 c 1.5 c
N150 4.4 b 6.1 a 4796.1 b 1.7 b 13.4 c
N300 5.3 a 6.2 a 5797.5 a 2.1 a 28.2 a
N450 5.1 a 6.2 a 5543.3 a 2.0 a 18.8 abc
3800 m3 hm-2 N0 4.0 c 5.3 b 4321.1 c 1.1 d
N150 4.5 b 6.0 a 4847.5 b 1.3 d 10.7 c
N300 5.4 a 6.2 a 5836.9 a 1.5 c 25.9 a
N450 5.1 a 6.2 a 5618.3 a 1.5 c 22.8 ab
2016 2800 m3 hm-2 N0 4.8 d 5.0 d 3808.4 d 1.4 c
N150 5.3 bc 5.3 c 4479.2 c 1.6 b 14.8 c
N300 6.7 a 5.9 ab 6337.9 ab 2.3 s 39.8 a
N450 6.7 a 5.7 b 6018.3 b 2.2 a 36.6 ab
3800 m3 hm-2 N0 5.0 cd 5.0 d 4041.9 d 1.1 e
N150 5.3 b 5.4 c 4629.7 c 1.2 d 12.6 c
N300 7.0 a 5.9 a 6464.3 a 1.7 b 37.4 ab
N450 6.7 a 5.7 b 6053.6 b 1.6 b 33.2 b
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