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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2023, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (7): 2002-2011.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.24179

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Effects of application of nitrogen on seed yield and quality of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

SONG Yi(), LI Jing, GU He-He, LU Zhi-Feng, LIAO Shi-Peng, LI Xiao-Kun, CONG Ri-Huan, REN Tao*(), LU Jian-Wei   

  1. College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University / Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs / Microelement Research Center, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, China
  • Received:2022-08-03 Accepted:2022-11-28 Online:2023-07-12 Published:2022-12-06
  • Contact: *E-mail: rentao@mail.hzau.edu.cn E-mail:songyi2020@webmail.hzau.edu.cn;rentao@mail.hzau.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    The National Natural Science Foundation of China(31872173);The China Agriculture Research System of MOF and MARA(CARS-12);The Hubei Province Agriculture Research System(HBHZD-ZB-2020-005);The Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities(2662020ZHPY005)


To explore the effects of N fertilizer rates on seed yield and quality of winter rapeseed, field experiments were carried out in Wuxue County, Hubei Province during 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 seasons. The experiments were set at five nitrogen application levels of 0, 90, 180, 270, and 360 kg N hm-2. Rapeseed yield, N concentration, and rapeseed quality indexes were measured at maturity stage. The results showed that N application significantly increased rapeseed yield and N content. Compared with the zero N application, the average yield increase after N application was 1548 kg N hm-2, and the average yield increase rate was up to 32.9%. Within the range of N application rate of 0-270 kg N hm-2, rapeseed yield increased significantly with the application of N fertilizer. If N application was continued, rapeseed yield did not change significantly or had a downward trend. N application mainly improved rapeseed yield by increasing the number of pods per plant. N application significantly increased protein content in rapeseed. When the N application rate was 270 kg N hm-2, the protein content was the highest. N application significantly reduced the seed oil content. For every 100 kg N hm-2 increase in nitrogen application, the seed oil content decreased by 1.6%. With the increase of N fertilizer application rate, glucosinolate, oleic acid, linolenic acid, erucic acid, and saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid and stearic acid) increased, while linoleic acid decreased in rapeseed. Rapeseed quality decreased as a whole. In conclusion, to pursue high-quality edible oil and take into account rapeseed yield, the application rate of N fertilizer was 180 kg N hm-2. The optimal application rate of N fertilizer was 270 kg N hm-2 when rapeseed yield and rapeseed cake were taken into account.

Key words: nitrogen fertilizer rate, winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), quality, oil content, protein yield

Table 1

Effects of N fertilizer rates on rapeseed yield during 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 season"

N fertilizer rate
(kg N hm-2)
年份Year 平均
Average (kg hm-2)
2019/2020 2020/2021
0 560±75 d 855±165 d 707
90 2051±240 c 1523±60 c 1787
180 2617±299 b 1889±161 b 2253
270 3077±269 a 2371±62 a 2724
360 3140±182 a 2111±208 b 2626
方差分析 ANOVA F F-value
氮肥 Nitrogen (N) 167.0**
年份 Year (Y) 90.0**
N×Y 15.4**

Table 2

Effects of N application rates on yield components of rapeseed during 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 season"

N fertilizer rate
(kg N hm-2)
Number of pods per plant
(No. plant-1)
Seed number
(No. pod-1)
1000-seed weight
2019/2020 2020/2021 2020/2021 2020/2021 2019/2020 2020/2021
0 126±36 d 125±31 b 21.4±0.7 c 20.0±0.4 c 4.24±0.27 b 4.86±0.52 b
90 244±9 c 201±28 a 21.2±0.3 c 20.0±0.4 c 4.32±0.02 b 4.95±0.47 b
180 341±7 b 274±23 a 21.8±0.4 bc 21.3±0.6 b 4.65±0.18 a 5.29±0.21 a
270 409±12 a 263±64 a 22.5±0.1 b 22.7±0.2 a 4.98±0.05 a 5.94±0.22 a
360 447±35 a 249±3 a 23.3±0.4 a 21.2±0.3 b 4.80±0.17 a 5.87±0.43 a
方差分析ANOVA FF-value
氮肥 Nitrogen (N) 54.9** 24.5** 11.7**
年份Year (Y) 65.2** 39.1** 54.8**
N×Y 10.0** 6.2* 0.8 ns

Fig. 1

Effects of N application rates on nitrogen content in rapeseed seeds in 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 season N0, N90, N180, N270, and N360 indicate that the N application rate are 0, 90, 180, 270, and 360 kg N hm-2, respectively. Lowercase letters in the same year mean no significant differences at P < 0.05 among the different N fertilizer treatments by LSR test. **: P < 0.01; ns: no significant difference. N: N fertilizer rate; Y: year; N×Y: the interaction of N fertilizer rate and year."

Table 3

Effects of N application rates on oil concentration, protein concentration, glucosinolate, water concentration, oil yield and protein yield of rapeseed seeds in 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 season"

N fertilizer
(kg N hm-2)
(μmol g-1)
(kg hm-2)
(kg hm-2)
2019/2020 0 50.3±2.1 a 19.8±2.6 b 20.3±5.0 b 4.52±0.19 a 281±28 c 112±29 c
90 48.9±3.0 a 20.4±1.1 b 26.8±5.4 ab 4.63±0.03 a 998±60 b 419±66 b
180 48.6±0.4 ab 21.0±1.3 b 33.4±2.5 ab 4.28±0.02 a 1272±138 a 551±97 b
270 45.0±0.1 bc 24.5±3.2 a 31.4±9.8 a 4.28±0.27 a 1384±121 a 760±165 a
360 44.7±2.5 c 25.1±1.0 a 36.7±4.0 a 4.58±0.17 a 1408±160 a 788±77 a
2020/2021 0 52.5±1.7 a 21.4±2.4 b 23.7±4.1 a 3.72±0.25 a 447±73 d 185±54 b
90 50.4±2.0 ab 23.4±1.4 b 23.6±4.6 a 3.83±0.07 a 767±48 c 357±31 b
180 48.2±2.5 b 24.3±2.7 ab 25.2±2.0 a 3.93±0.24 a 909±79 b 461±82 b
270 44.7±0.4 c 27.6±0.3 a 29.5±8.8 a 4.1±0.06 a 1060±22 a 654±23 a
360 44.9±0.5 c 27.7±0.6 a 33.7±3.8 a 3.98±0.11 a 947±85 ab 584±62 a
方差分析 ANOVA F F-value
氮肥 Nitrogen (N) 15.4** 39.5* 4.6* 1.1ns 117.4** 58.4**
年份 Year (Y) 0.8ns 55.5** 1.5ns 77.3** 70.0** 8.3*
N×Y 0.6ns 0.7ns 0.8ns 3.9* 14.0** 2.7ns

Table 4

Effects of N application rates on fatty acids concentration inrapeseed seeds during 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 season"

N fertilizer rate
(kg N hm-2)
Stearic acid (%)
Palmitic acid (%)
Oleic acid (%)
Linoleic acid (%)
linolenic acid (%)
Erucic acid (%)
0 2.25 a 1.93 b 3.76 a 4.08 a 57.8bc 72.9 a 16.67 a 18.49 a 8.08 a 6.91 a 1.13 a 1.00 a
90 2.17 a 2.10 ab 3.87 a 4.19 a 55.6 c 83.4 a 15.93 a 18.43 a 8.27 a 7.30 a 1.62 a 2.49 a
180 2.21 a 2.21 ab 3.97 a 4.39 a 67.2 ab 88.5 a 15.23 a 18.70 a 8.24 a 7.64 a 2.21 a 2.48 a
270 2.29 a 2.26 ab 3.96 a 4.33 a 68.8 ab 90.4 a 14.73 a 17.81 a 8.65 a 7.75 a 2.26 a 2.86 a
360 2.33 a 2.65 a 4.12 a 4.40 a 73.7 a 92.6 a 14.94 a 17.55 a 8.69 a 7.95 a 3.46 a 2.93 a
方差分析 ANOVA F F-value
氮肥 Nitrogen (N) 2.6ns 1.3ns 6.2** 1.0ns 0.6ns 3.7*
年份 Year (Y) 0.1ns 10.7** 62.5** 26.3* 5.1* 0.4ns
N×Y 1.4ns 0.1ns 0.6ns 0.3ns 0.1ns 0.5ns

Fig. 2

Correlation between rapeseed yield and quality traits The data used for correlation analysis are nutrient, yield, quality and fatty acid data of all the experiment. *, **, and *** indicate significant difference at the 0.05, 0.01, and 0.001 probability levels, respectively."

Fig. 3

Relationship between N application rates and rapeseed yield, protein content, glucosinolate content, oil content and saturated fatty acid ratio Two years data are used for fitting. The N application rates and yield are fitted by quadratic function. The protein content, oil content, glucosinolate content and saturated fatty acid rate are fitted by linear fitting. 75% and 95% of the highest yield are taken as production targets to determine the nitrogen fertilizer rate."

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