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Acta Agronomica Sinica ›› 2023, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (10): 2833-2844.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2023.21069

• RESEARCH NOTES • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Yield and dry matter accumulation of wheat in response to spring irrigation water in uniform sowing and strip sowing

YU Hui-Ling1(), KAN Ming-Xi1, XU Zhe-Li2, MA Rui-Qi1, LIU A-Kang1,3, WANG De-Mei1, WANG Yan-Jie1, YANG Yu-Shuang1, ZHAO Guang-Cai1, CHANG Xu-Hong1()   

  1. 1Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences / Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Ecology, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100081, China
    2Shijiazhuang Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Shijiazhuang 051530, Hebei, China
    3National Agro-Tech Extension and Service Center Grain Crop Technology Division, Beijing 100125, China
  • Received:2022-10-30 Accepted:2023-04-18 Online:2023-10-12 Published:2023-04-28
  • Contact: E-mail: changxuhong@caas.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(32071952);China Agriculture Research System of MOF and MARA(CARS-03-16);Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program(CAAS-ZDRW202002)


The objective of this study is to clarify the dry matter accumulation and water use of wheat under the new sowing method of tridimensional uniform sowing and to explore the water saving potential of the sowing method. The experiment was conducted in two pilot sites in Shijiazhuang and Beijing during growing season of winter wheat from 2020 to 2021, using medium gluten and water-saving wheat Lunxuan 103 as the experimental variety. To study the differences of wheat response to spring irrigation under different sowing methods from the perspectives of yield composition, material accumulation and transport, and water utilization, and to provide the theoretical basis and technical support for water-saving wheat, the experiment was conducted with three irrigation rates in the main zone [600 m3 hm-2(W1), 900 m3 hm-2 (W2), and 1200 m3 hm-2 (W3)] and two sowing methods [tridimensional uniform sowing (S1) and conventional strip sowing (S2)] in the secondary zone. The results showed that, under the same irrigation rate, the yield of tridimensional uniform sowing was higher than that of conventional strip sowing, mainly because leaf area index (LAI) was higher and changed more steadily with the advancement of the reproductive process. Meanwhile, the photosynthetic performance of the functional leaves of uniform sowing wheat was better than that of strip sowing, which facilitated the synthesis of more organic matter, resulting in higher dry matter accumulation and post-flowering photosynthetic accumulation of all organs of uniform sowing wheat than that of strip sowing, and improved WUE and IWUE, showing a better yield advantage. When the irrigation rate was 600 m3 hm-2 (W1), compared with the strip sowing, the yield of uniform sowing increased the most by 832.0 kg hm-2 with an increase of 9.89%. The dry matter mass of stem sheath, leaf, and spike increased by 25.15%, 27.64%, and 18.68%, and WUE and IWUE increased by 11.16% and 9.92%, respectively. The maximum relative growth rate of different sowing methods was the highest when the irrigation amount was 900 m3 hm-2 (W2), the maximum relative growth rate of dry matter accumulation (0.021-0.025 g plant-1 day-1) occurred earlier than strip sowing, and the maximum relative growth rate of dry matter accumulation at the irrigation rate appeared earlier (tm), and the duration of the rapid growth period (Δt) was the shortest, and appeared earlier in Shijiazhuang than Beijing. The post-flowering photosynthetic accumulation at 1200 m3 hm-2 (W3) was significantly higher than strip sowing, and the average yield increase was 4.37%. The gray correlation analysis showed that the number of spikes and 1000-grain weight of uniform sowing wheat were closely related to yield, while the net photosynthetic rate of strip sowing wheat was more correlated with yield in both sites. These results revealed that, under the same irrigation amount, compared with the conventional strip sowing, uniformly sown wheat could increase its yield by increasing LAI to prolong the duration of high values, or increasing net photosynthetic rate, or promoting dry matter accumulation. Especially under the condition of lower irrigation amount, the method of uniform sowing could achieve higher yield and increase benefit by efficient water use with the same irrigation input. Therefore, the uniform sowing was more suitable for areas with insufficient irrigation conditions in production, and could give full play to its efficient water-saving function.

Key words: sowing pattern, irrigation, dry matter accumulation, yield

Table 1

Test site overview"

Experimental site
Latitude and longitude
Ecological area
Accumulated temperature (≥10℃) of growth period (℃)
Accumulated temperature (>0℃) of growth period (℃)
Frost-free period
河北石家庄 Shijiazhuang, Hebei 37°27'N, 113°30'E 78 黄淮冬麦区
Huang-Huai winter wheat region
4844 2206 197
39°57'N, 116°19'E 46 北部冬麦区
Northern winter wheat region
4777 2330 211

Table 2

Soil basic nutrient content"

Experimental site
Organic matter
(g kg-1)
Total nitrogen
(g kg-1)
(mg kg-1)
(mg kg-1)
(mg kg-1)
河北石家庄 Shijiazhuang, Hebei 19.2 1.2 109.8 28.8 183.7 8.4
北京Beijing 23.5 1.2 95.3 22.1 206.8 8.3

Fig. 1

Precipitation and temperature during wheat growth period in two experimental sites"

Table 3

Effects of different treatments on yield and yield components"

Experimental site
Irrigation amount
(kg hm-2)
Grain per spike
(×104 hm-2)
1000-grain weight (g)
河北石家庄 Shijiazhuang, Hebei W1 S1 9292.6 c 42.5 b 613.6 a 46.61 c 0.48 b
S2 8556.7 d 46.2 a 480.4 b 46.59 c 0.50 a
W2 S1 9311.8 c 42.3 b 619.2 a 47.65 bc 0.50 a
S2 9264.9 c 46.7 a 487.4 b 47.54 bc 0.50 a
W3 S1 9898.0 a 40.9 c 654.4 a 48.12 b 0.50 a
S2 9500.9 b 46.8 a 509.3 b 49.99 a 0.51 a
W1 S1 9188.2 ab 43.6 c 576.0 b 48.24 ab 0.53 c
S2 8260.1 c 47.5 b 531.0 d 44.87 c 0.55 b
W2 S1 9480.2 a 44.0 c 585.6 b 48.86 ab 0.54 c
S2 8823.9 b 47.8 b 578.1 bcd 46.30 bc 0.56 ab
W3 S1 9679.6 a 44.4 c 629.9 a 49.84 a 0.54 c
S2 9256.3 ab 49.2 a 606.1 cd 47.12 abc 0.56 a

Fig. 2

Changes in leaf area index and net photosynthetic rate of different treatments JS: jointing stage; AS: anthesis stage; FS: filling stage. Treatments are the same as those given in Table 3."

Fig. 3

Changes in dry matter accumulation of each organ in different treatments JS: jointing stage; AS: anthesis stage; FS: filling stage; MS: maturity stage. Treatments are the same as those given in Table 3."

Fig. 4

Proportion of dry matter allocated to each organ in different treatments at maturity stage Different lowercase letters of the same organ in the same pilot indicate significant differences between treatments at the 0.05 probability level. Treatments are the same as those given in Table 3."

Table 4

Logistic equations and their eigenvalues of dry matter accumulation of winter wheat shoot after jointing stage"

Logistic equation
(g plant-1 d-1)
持续时间Duration (d) R2
t1 t2 tm Δt
河北石家庄 Shijiazhuang, Hebei W1S1 y = 7.7773/[1+e(2.2386−0.110050t)] 0.214 8.4 32.3 20.3 23.9 0.99529
W1S2 y = 7.7246/[1+e(2.3212−0.106414t)] 0.206 9.4 34.2 21.8 24.8 0.99413
W2S1 y = 8.2821/[1+e(2.3029−0.118371t)] 0.245 8.3 30.6 19.5 22.3 0.99686
W2S2 y = 8.1885/[1+e(2.3087−0.109060t)] 0.223 9.1 33.2 21.2 24.2 0.99151
W3S1 y = 8.9725/[1+e(1.8837−0.098018t)] 0.220 5.8 32.7 19.2 26.9 1.00000
W3S2 y = 8.5896/[1+e(1.9501−0.098988t)] 0.213 6.4 33.0 19.7 26.6 0.98269
W1S1 y = 9.4237/[1+e(2.2775 −0.079217t)] 0.187 12.1 45.4 28.8 33.3 0.97068
W1S2 y = 8.9926/[1+e(2.1281−0.074001t)] 0.166 11.0 46.6 28.8 35.6 0.99002
W2S1 y = 9.6812/[1+e(2.1887−0.084410t)] 0.204 10.3 41.5 25.9 31.2 0.99465
W2S2 y = 9.2403/[1+e(2.1876−0.079164t)] 0.183 11.0 44.3 27.6 33.3 0.98808
W3S1 y = 10.2497/[1+e(2.3078−0.087897t)] 0.225 11.3 41.2 26.3 30.0 0.99057
W3S2 y = 9.7650/[1+e(2.3659−0.090817t)] 0.222 11.5 40.6 26.1 29.0 0.98864

Table 5

Differences in pre-flowering dry matter transport of each organ in different treatments"

河北石家庄 Shijiazhuang, Hebei 北京Beijing
T (kg hm-2) TE (%) TC (%) T (kg hm-2) TE (%) TC (%)
茎秆+叶鞘 W1S1 2480.33 b 22.89 b 23.33 cd 1190.14 b 11.45 c 11.16 c
Stem + Leaf sheath W1S2 1830.17 c 22.51 b 21.98 d 1487.92 b 15.66 bc 16.20 bc
W2S1 4009.69 a 31.26 a 35.59 a 3100.64 a 23.27 ab 26.86 a
W2S2 2492.18 b 27.24 ab 27.62 bc 2094.88 b 18.79 abc 20.49 ab
W3S1 3715.23 a 25.79 b 29.08 b 3878.56 a 25.91 a 28.96 a
W3S2 2584.30 b 25.97 b 27.32 bcd 3555.99 a 26.02 a 28.15 a
叶片 W1S1 1440.37 a 38.41 a 13.49 a 1908.97 a 49.97 ab 17.81 a
Leaf W1S2 783.01 a 29.32 a 8.98 a 1850.48 a 55.08 ab 20.25 a
W2S1 1384.25 a 30.96 a 12.02 a 1938.08 a 47.78 ab 16.81 a
W2S2 733.50 a 27.26 a 8.30 a 2101.66 a 55.68 a 19.68 a
W3S1 1236.14 a 28.82 a 9.58 a 2111.02 a 44.10 b 15.78 a
W3S2 869.68 a 28.14 a 9.20 a 2228.60 a 50.30 ab 17.63 a
颖壳+穗轴 W1S1 533.18 a 19.20 a 5.10 a 630.97 ab 24.87 ab 5.90 a
Glume + Spike axis W1S2 391.59 a 19.15 a 4.71 a 237.94 ab 9.60 bc 2.62 ab
W2S1 236.26 a 8.55 a 2.06 a 435.55 ab 16.24 abc 3.73 ab
W2S2 186.01 a 8.83 a 2.12 a 137.04 b 4.61 c 1.32 b
W3S1 349.33 a 12.36 a 2.76 a 437.61 ab 16.09 abc 3.26 ab
W3S2 222.93 a 9.87 a 2.34 a 707.35 a 28.39 a 5.60 ab
总量 W1S1 4453.88 bc 25.78 a 41.92 ab 3730.08 c 20.82 c 34.87 c
Total W1S2 3004.78 d 23.53 a 35.67 b 3576.35 c 22.15 bc 39.07 bc
W2S1 5630.20 a 28.55 a 49.67 a 5474.27 ab 25.81 abc 47.40 ab
W2S2 3411.69 cd 24.53 a 38.03 b 4333.58 bc 23.25 bc 42.36 abc
W3S1 5300.70 ab 24.54 a 41.42 ab 6427.19 a 26.89 ab 48.00 ab
W3S2 3676.91 cd 24.08 a 38.87 b 6491.95 a 29.40 a 51.37 a

Table 6

Differences in post-flowering dry matter accumulation among the treatments"

Irrigation amount
河北石家庄 Shijiazhuang, Hebei 北京Beijing
accumulation (kg hm-2)
Contribution rate
accumulation (kg hm-2)
Contribution rate
W1 S1 6215.76 ab 58.08 ab 6956.28 a 65.14 a
S2 5393.83 b 64.33 a 5570.03 b 60.93 a
W2 S1 5647.64 b 50.33 b 6375.93 ab 55.12 ab
S2 5560.77 b 61.97 a 5910.61 ab 54.77 ab
W3 S1 7512.80 a 58.58 ab 6390.22 ab 48.07 b
S2 5848.15 b 61.13 a 5642.73 ab 44.42 b

Fig. 5

Changes in soil water content before sowing and after harvest in two experimental sites Treatments are the same as those given in Table 3."

Table 7

Characteristics of water use in different treatments"

Irrigation amount
Sowing pattern
河北石家庄 Shijiazhuang, Hebei 北京 Beijing
(kg hm-2 mm-1)
(kg hm-2 mm-1)
(kg hm-2 mm-1)
(kg hm-2 mm-1)
W1 S1 337.4 c 27.54 a 61.95 a 277.5 c 33.12 a 61.25 a
S2 338.6 c 25.27 c 57.04 b 282.8 c 29.22 bc 55.07 b
W2 S1 361.4 b 25.77 b 51.73 c 311.9 b 30.40 b 52.67 bc
S2 365.6 b 25.34 bc 51.47 c 318.7 b 27.69 c 49.02 cd
W3 S1 396.1 a 24.99 c 47.13 d 339.9 a 28.48 bc 46.09 d
S2 400.7 a 23.71 d 45.24 e 345.2 a 26.87 c 44.08 d

Fig. 6

Correlation analysis between water use efficiency and yield of winter wheat with different sowing methods"

Table 8

Gray correlation analysis of characters and yield of wheat with different sowing patterns"

匀播Uniforming 条播Drilling
Correlation degree
Relevance ranking
关联度Correlation degree 关联度排序Relevance ranking
Shijiazhuang, Hebei
穗粒数Grain per spike 0.8371 3 0.5790 6
穗数Spikes 0.9796 1 0.6363 4
千粒重1000-grain weight 0.8887 2 0.6680 3
花前干物质转运量Pre-flowering dry matter transfer 0.6150 6 0.6323 5
花后干物质积累量Post-flowering dry matter accumulation 0.6870 5 0.7117 2
净光合速率Photosynthetic rate 0.7640 4 0.7590 1
穗粒数Grain per spike 0.9473 3 0.8841 5
穗数Spikes 0.9500 2 0.9626 1
千粒重1000-grain weight 0.9631 1 0.9122 4
花前干物质转运量Pre-flowering dry matter transfer 0.5893 6 0.6803 6
花后干物质积累量Post-flowering dry matter accumulation 0.8189 5 0.9145 3
净光合速率Photosynthetic rate 0.8901 4 0.9481 2
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