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Welcome to Acta Agronomica Sinica,

Table of Content

    12 January 2015, Volume 41 Issue 01
    • REVIEW
      Protein Elements and Signal Transduction Process of Self-Incompatibility in Brassica oleracea
      ZHU Li-Quan,ZHOU Yan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(01):  1-14.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00001
      Abstract ( 664 )   RICH HTML    PDF (1761KB) ( 846 )   Save
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      The self-incompatibility (SI) system in Brassica oleracea is genetically controlled by asingle polymorphic S-locus that encodes proteins initiating a process of SI signaling transduction. This process involves eight protein elements including SLG, SCR, SRK, MLPK, THL, ARC1, Exo70A1, and MIP-MOD. Here, based on their corresponding gene’s architecture, we summarized these elements on their advances both in structure and function of their genes and proteins, as well as their interaction along the whole SI signal transduction process. Furthermore, we put forward some insights into unknown areas of SI, hoping to provide a few of clues for further exploration of SI mechanism in B.oleracea or other Brassica species.

      CROP GENETICS & BREEDING·GERMPLASM RESOURCES·MOLECULAR GENETICS
      Genetic Analysis of Immunity to Soybean Cyst Nematode Race 3 in Elite Line Zhongpin 03-5373
      LIU Bo, LI Ying-Hui, YU Bai-Shuang, WANG Jia-Jun, LIU Yu-Lin, CHANG Ru-Zhen, QIU Li-Juan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(01):  15-21.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00015
      Abstract ( 690 )   RICH HTML    PDF (1214KB) ( 854 )   Save
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      Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) race 3, one of the eight races identified in China, is widely distributed and severely reduced soybean yield. Zhongpin 03-5373 (ZP03-5373) is an elite line immune to SCN race 3. In this study, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was developed from a cross between ZP03-5373 and Zhonghuang 13 (ZH13). A genetic linkage map was constructed using a total of 506 molecular markers, including SSRs, EST-SSRs, InDel, and SNP. The total length of the genetic map was 2651.9 cM with an average marker spacing of 5.24 cM. Based on the phenotyping data, we detected three QTL intervals to dominate SCN3, including SCN3-7 (Gm07), SCN3-11 (Gm11), and SCN3-18 (Gm11). Main effect QTL, SCN3-18 could explain 29.5% of resistant variation. Two minor effect QTLs, SCN3-7 and SCN3-11, explained 6.2% and 5.5% of resistant variation, respectively. And it further showed there was significant epistatic interaction between SCN3-7 and SCN3-18 for resistance to SCN3. Both SCN3-7 and SCN3-11 were confirmed to be resistant to SCN3 by tracking flanking marker in the ancestors of ZP03-5373. These markers will be helpful for developing SCN resistant cultivars and cloning resistant genes by marker assisted selection.

      Effects of Glu-1 Deletion on Size Distribution of Glutenin Polymeric Protein and Dough Properties in Common Wheat
      ZHANG Ping-Ping,MA Hong-Xiang,YAO Jin-Bao,Joseph M. AWIKA
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(01):  22-30.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00022
      Abstract ( 950 )   RICH HTML    PDF (1726KB) ( 954 )   Save
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      The relationship between the HMW-GS and LMW-GS components and the size distribution of glutenin polymeric protein and dough properties were studied using Glu-1 normal and deletion lines, which provides a foundation for investigating the potential of Glu-1 deletion line in quality improvement of winter wheat. In the 20 hard white winter wheat lines tested, one was Glu-A1 deletion line, five were Glu-D1 deletion lines, and three were Glu-A1 and Glu-D1 double-deletion lines. Flour protein contents of the lines tested ranged from 13.39% to 14.12% with no significant difference between each other and between deletion and non-deletion groups. In Glu-1 deletion lines, the high molecular weight glutenin subunits/low molecular weight glutenin subunits ratio (HMW/LMW), content of SDS unextractable polymeric protein (UPP), and percentage of UPP (%UPP) were significantly lower than those in non-deletion lines. However, the glutenin/gliadin ratio (GLU/GLI) was similar in all genotypes, with no significant difference between deletion and non-deletion groups. Deletion at Glu-1 resulted in a significant decrease of dough elasticity and a significant increase of dough extensibility. Several Glu-1 deletion lines were characterized with medium gluten strength and excellent extensibility, suggesting that the size distribution of glutenin polymeric protein and dough properties were affected by both allelic composition and quantity of glutenin subunits. These results indicate that Glu-1 deletion lines can be used to improve dough extensibility and processing quality of common wheat.

      Allelic Variation of Transcription Factor Genes NAC4 in Arachis Species
      LI Wen,WAN Qian,LIU Feng-Zhen*,ZHANG Kun,ZHANG Xiu-Rong,LI Guang-Hui,WAN Yong-Shan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(01):  31-41.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00031
      Abstract ( 662 )   RICH HTML    PDF (1873KB) ( 823 )   Save
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      NAC transcription factors play an important role in response to abiotic stress of plant. In this paper, bioinformatic analysis indicated that transcription factor gene AhNAC4 (accession number HM776131.1) can response to drought signal. The comparison of cDNAs (ShrNAC4-a and ShrNAC4-b) and genomic DNAs (ShNAC4-a and ShNAC4-b) from Shanhua 11 showed that AhNAC4 has a full length of 1244 bp and an ORF of 1050 bp, containing two introns at 182–279 bp and 547–642 bp, and encoding 349 amino acids. Four kinds of AhNAC4 genes, named as AhNAC4-a1, AhNAC4-a2, AhNAC4-b1 and AhNAC4-b2 (abbreviations: a1, a2, b1, and b2), were cloned from 32 cultivars with different drought resistances. Among them a1, with only one locus different between the two genes, leading to the difference of corresponding amino acids at site 174; b1 and b2 were alleles, with 14 SNPs, of which two SNPs led to differences of the corresponding amino acids at sites 174 and 244. There were four genotypes of AhNAC4 in the 32 cultivars, containing 10 a1a1b1b1, 5 a1a1b2b2, 15 a2a2b1b1, and 2 a2a2b2b2. Meanwhile, 11 NAC4 genes (Aw1NAC4Aw11NAC4) were isolated from 19 wild peanut accessions in Arachis. Aw2NAC4 had the highest homology of nucleotide sequence witha1 or a2, and b1 or b2 had the highest homology of nucleotide sequence with Aw1NAC4. It is speculated that the protein encoding a1 plays a key role in responding drought stress, and the function of the proteins encoding a1 and b1 genes is closer with that of wild species. and a2 were alleles
      Cross Infection, Biological Characteristics and Genetic Relationship between Pathogens of Hypertrophy Sorosis Sclerotenisis from Mulberry and Sclerotinia Stem Rot from Oilseed Rape
      Lü Rui-Hua,JIN Xiao-Yun,ZHAO Ai-Chun,JI Jie,LIU Chang-Ying,LI Jun,PU Long,LU Cheng,YU Mao-De
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(01):  42-48.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00042
      Abstract ( 702 )   RICH HTML    PDF (3903KB) ( 837 )   Save
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      Cross infection between ascospores of Ciboria shiraiana causing hypertrophy sorosis sclerotenisis in mulberry and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causing Sclerotinia stem rot in oilseed rap. Inoculation results showed that ascospores of C. shiraiana infected oilseed rape, and ascospores of S. sclerotiorum infected sorosis similarly. Conidia and conidiophores appeared in the infected sorosis by C. shiraiana and S. sclerotiorum, but did not appear in the infected oilseed rape. The cross section showed a structure of capsule ascus round cell in C. shiraiana under microscope, but the texture angularity in S. sclerotiorm. Clustering based on SRAP of isolates from southwest areas showed C. shiraiana isolates from sorosis was classified into one group, and S. sclerotiorm isoplates from oilseed rape into a second group, with an except where one C. shiraiana isolate and one S. sclerotiorm isolate were clustered into an additional group. Cross infection of the two host plants by these two pathogen ascospores suggests that intercropping or interplanting of mulberry and oilseed rape is not feasible where the two pathogens/diseases exist.

      Molecular Mapping of Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene PmCH7124 in a Putative Wheat–Thinopyrum intermedium Introgression Line
      LI Jian-Bo,QIAO Lin-Yi,LI Xin,ZHANG Xiao-Jun,ZHAN Hai-Xian,GUO Hui-Juan,REN Yong-Kang,CHANG Zhi-Jian
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(01):  49-56.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00049
      Abstract ( 565 )   RICH HTML    PDF (746KB) ( 865 )   Save
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      Wheat introgression line CH7124 derived from a cross between wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium line TAI8335 (resistant to powdery mildew) and common wheat variety “Jinmai 33” (susceptible to powdery mildew) exhibits immunity to Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) pathotypes E09, E20, E21, E23, E26, Bg1, and Bg2 at the seedling stage. The Bgt resistance in CH7124 is similar to that in TAI8335 and its wild parent Th. intermedium. However, no Th. intermedium chromatinhas been detected according to genome in situ hybridization (GISH) assay. In this study, we determined the single dominant Bgt resistance gene in CH7124, tentatively designated PmCH7124, using populations derived from SY95-71/CH7124 (F6) and CH7124/Mianyang 11 (F1 and F2). Five SSR markers (Xgwm47, Xgwm120, Xwmc332, Xgwm501, and Xbarc101) were identified to be codominant with PmCH7124 according to bulked segregant analysis, and the closely flanking markers were Xgwm501 and Xbacr101 with genetic distances of 1.7 cM and 4.5 cM, respectively. The target resistance gene was chromosomally located on 2BL with Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomicand ditelosomic lines. We primarily consider that PmCH7124 is a new Bgt resistance gene because its resistance spectrum, origin, chromosomal location, and linked markers are different from those of the known Bgt resistance genes, such as Pm6, Pm33, PmJM22, MlZec1, MlAB10, and MlLX99

      QTL Mapping and Analysis Based on Embryo and Maternal Genetic Systems for Semi-Essential Amino Acid Contents in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)
      WEN Juan,XU Jian-Feng,LONG Yan,XU Hai-Ming,MENG Jin-Ling,WU Jian-Guo,SHI Chun-Hai
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(01):  57-65.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00057
      Abstract ( 560 )   RICH HTML    PDF (1066KB) ( 788 )   Save
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      Rapeseed meal is an important feed protein source, and the amino acid composition has a close relationship with the processing quality of feed, of which, serine, cystine and tyrosine are the semi-essential amino acids for most animals. By using newly developed two-genetic-system QTL mapping software and method for analyzing seed quality traits of dicotyledonous plants, two backcross populations from a set of doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from an elite hybrid cross between Tapidor and Ningyou 7 were used to detect the QTLs simultaneously located in the amphidiploid embryo and maternal plant nuclear genomes for the semi-essential amino acid contents of rapeseed across environments. The results showed that five QTLs for serine content, two QTLs for cystine content and five QTLs for tyrosine content were identified, which were subsequently mapped on chromosomes A1, A4, A7, A8, A9, C2, C3, or C9 and could respectively explain 59.34%, 29.66%, and 59.26% of phenotypic variation in total. Five QTLs were major effect QTLs which could explain more than 10% of phenotypic variation for each. All of these QTLs had both notable embryo and maternal additive main effects, among which three QTLs were also found to have significant QE interaction effects. One QTL cluster on chromosome A4 was discovered to contain three QTLs related to serine, cystine and tyrosine contents. Some important QTLs and the tightly linked markers will have an important application value in the later map-based cloning and marker-assisted selection.

      Cloning and Expression Analysis of Ubiquitin-Related Protein Gene BrRUB1 in Brassica rapa ssp. rapifera Tsuda
      YAN Hai-Fang*,WANG Fei,LI Qiao, I Hong-Chang,YANG Hu-Cheng
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(01):  66-71.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00066
      Abstract ( 524 )   RICH HTML    PDF (1199KB) ( 796 )   Save
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      RUB1 [related to ubiquitin 1) is a ubiquitin-like protein in plant and yeast, belong to Cullin family. To elucidate the expression feature of RUB1 in Tsuda, we isolated cDNA of RUB1 gene from this plant and named BrRUB1 [GenBank accession No. KF501173). cDNA of BrRUBI was 670 bp in full length and its open reading frame [ORF) was 471 bp in full length, encoding 157 amino acids. BrRUB1-GFP was localized to nucleus, indicating that BrRUB1 may play an important role in the nucleus. Quantitative-PCR analysis showed that BrRUB1 expressed highly in bud and less in petal, showing tissue specificity. Furthermore, the expression of BrRUB1 was induced by UV-A light in the swollen hypocotyls.

      Effects of Psy-A1, Ppo-A1, Ppo-D1, and TaLox-B1 Alleles on Flour Color of Xinjiang Wheats
      XIANG Ji-Shan,MU Pei-Yuan,SANG Wei,NIE Ying-Bin,XU Hong-Jun,ZHUANG Li,CUI Feng-Juan,HAN Xin-Nian,ZOU Bo
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(01):  72-79.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00072
      Abstract ( 862 )   RICH HTML    PDF (446KB) ( 835 )   Save
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      The allelic variations on Psy-A1, Ppo-A1, Ppo-D1, and TaLox-B1 loci in 182 Xinjiang wheat varieties (lines) were tested using developed molecular markers that are associated with flour color. The effects of these alleles were analyzed in combination with phenotypes with the L*, a*, and b* values as well as the Wht data. On the view of a single gene, the allelic variation showed diverse effects on flour color. For L* value, the allelic effect was not significant. For a* value, the effect was Psy-A1a > Psy-A1b (P < 0.01), Ppo-A1b > Ppo-A1a (P < 0.05), and TaLox-B1a > TaLox-B1b (P < 0.05). For b* value, the effect of Psy-A1a was higher than that of Psy-A1b (P < 0.01). As a result, the Wht value of Psy-A1a was signlificantly lower than that of Psy-A1b (P < 0.01). These results suggest that Psy-A1 significantly affects flour redness, yellowness and whiteness, whereas Ppo-A1 and TaLox-B1 only have significant effects on flour redness. A total of 12 allelic combinations were found on the four gene loci, with significant effect on a*, b* and Wht values (P < 0.01) and slight effect on L* value (P > 0.05). The combination Psy-A1b/PPO-A1a/PPO-D1b/TaLox-B1b had the highest Wht value and the lowest a* and b* values, and combination Psy-A1a/PPO-A1a/PPO-D1b/TaLox-B1a had the lowest Wht value and the highest a* and b* values. The average Wht value of total varieties (lines) tested was 86.86, and that of the released, winter, and spring varieties (lines) was 86.87, 86.42, and 87.32, respectively. Qingchun 5 should be used frequently as a promising parent in breeding programs for its excellent genotype and high flour whiteness. Our results indicate that Psy-A1 is a key gene for improving flour whiteness and its use frequency should be promoted in Xinjiang wheat.

      TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY
      Effect of Nitrogen Application Amounts on Uptake and Utilization of Potassium in Cotton Grown in Improved Coastal Saline Land Regions
      ZOU Fang-Gang,ZHANG Guo-Wei,WANG You-Hua,ZHAO Wen-Qing,ZHOU Zhi-Guo
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(01):  80-88.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00080
      Abstract ( 474 )   RICH HTML    PDF (503KB) ( 803 )   Save
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      A field experiment using transgenic cotton cultivar Xiangzamian 8 with different nitrogen application amounts(0, 150, 300, 375, 450, and 600 kg N ha1)was carried out in the coastal improved saline land region of Dafeng city in 2010 and 2012. Results showed that the nitrogen application increased potassium uptake of cotton at different growth stages, with the highest increment at the peak flowering-boll opening stage, and the percentages of potassium uptake decreased from seedling to peak flowering stages, but increased from peak flowering to boll maturing stages. In addition, nitrogen application lowered the decreasing speed of potassium concentration in middle and upper fruiting branches at later growth stages, but had less influence on lower fruiting branches. The marginal effect of potassium uptake (promoted amount of potassium uptake due to 1 kg increase of N application) showed an upward-downward trend with the increase of nitrogen application rate. The higher the position of fruiting branches grown, the more the nitrogen amount demanded to meet the highest marginal effect of potassium uptake. Under the nitrogen application of 300–375 kg ha–1, the economic coefficient of biomass and potassium was relatively high, eigenvalues of dynamic model of potassium content and potassium accumulation were relatively coordinate, and the marginal effect of potassium uptake and lint production efficiency of potassium were relatively high in middle and upper fruiting branches. Excessively high nitrogen application resulted in a relatively narrow rise of yield, and the marginal effect of potassium uptake and lint production efficiency of potassium were relatively low; excessively low nitrogen application, however, also resulted in a lower yield, as economic coefficient of biomass and potassium was relatively low.

      Root System Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Indica-japonica Hybrid Rice of Yongyou Series
      JIANG Yuan-Hua,XU Jun-Wei,ZHAO Ke,WEI Huan-He,SUN Jian-Jun,ZHANG Hong-Cheng*,DAI Qi-Gen,HUO Zhong-Yang,XU Ke,WEI Hai-Yan,GUO Bao-Wei
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(01):  89-99.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00089
      Abstract ( 652 )   RICH HTML    PDF (694KB) ( 1073 )   Save
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      A field experiment was conducted to compare the root system morphological and physiological characteristics of four types of rice populations including indica-japonica hybrid rice of Yongyou series (A), japonica hybrid rice (B), conventional japonica rice (C), and indica hybrid rice (D) under high-yielding cultivation condition in the rice-wheat cropping system. Results were as follows: (1) The root dry weight, aboveground dry weight, number of root tips, root length, root surface area, root-shoot ratio and root volume of A were obviously higher than those of B, C, and D at the middle and late growth stage. (2) The proportion of number, length, surface area and volume of the adventitious roots(root diameter > 0.3 mm) to the whole roots of A were higher than those of B and C, while lower than those of D at heading; the proportion of number, length, surface area and volume of the fine branches (root diameter ≤ 0.1 mm) and coarse branches (0.1 mm < root diameter ≤ 0.3 mm) to total roots of A were higher than those of D, while lower than those of B and C at heading. The proportions of root weight in 0–5 cm, 5–10 cm, and 10–15 cm soil layers to total roots weight of A were higher than those of B and C, while lower than those of D; however, the proportions of root weight in 15–25 cm, 25–35 cm, 35–45 cm, and 45–55 cm soil layers to the total root weight where lower than those of B and C, while higher than these of D at heading. (3) The total absorbing surface area, active absorbing surface area, bleeding intensity, root oxidation activity, and root reducing activity of A were higher than those of B, C, and D. Compared with B, C, and D, the indica-japonica hybrid rice of Yongyou series had significant advantage in root-shoot coordination level, root amount. branch structure, root distribution in soil and biological activity in the middle and late growth stage. This peculiarity of A provides an important guarantee to realize the super-high-yield.

      Effects of Drip Irrigation on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Leaves and Bracts in Cotton at Late Growth Stage
      ZHANG Chao,ZHAN Dong-Xia,ZHANG Ya-Li,LUO Hong-Hai,GOU Ling,ZHANG Wang-Feng*
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(01):  100-108.  doi:10.3734/SP.J.1006.2015.00100
      Abstract ( 558 )   RICH HTML    PDF (715KB) ( 797 )   Save
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      Themajority of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) photosynthetic products comes from leaves, but non-foliar green organs of cotton such as bracts also contain chlorophyll and may contribute to the yield. We selected Xinluzao 33 and Xinluzao 46 with two irrigation treatments (normal drip irrigation and water-saving drip irrigation) to determine physiological indices including response curves of net photosynthetic rate (Pn), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), fluorescence parameters, and water content of cotton bracts and leaves and to explore the difference of photosynthetic capacity between bracts and leaves under drip irrigation conditions. The results showed that bracts showed greater RuBP regeneration/RuBP carboxylation capacity ratio (Jmax/Vc,max) and lower stomatal conductance under high irradiance and temperature conditions. Photosynthetic area per plant, chlorophyll content, water content, Pn, the actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII), and Rubisco content were less in bracts than in leaves, but the decline of the indices showed a significantly faster in leaves than in bracts at the late growth stage. Compared with normal drip irrigation, the decreased degree of water content under water-saving drip irrigation was significantly higher in leaves than in bracts of cotton plants, and chlorophyll content, Pn, and Rubisco content decreased in leaves under water-saving drip irrigation, but there was no significant changed in bracts. The stabilities of bracts area, water content, chlorophyll content, Pn, ΦPSII, rubisco content in bracts were higher than those in leaves. It indicated the photosynthetic activity of leaves decreased rapidly. The bracts contributed approximate 7.22%–8.83% of the total photosynthate at the late growth stage under normal drip irrigation, and 10.24%–12.53% under water-saving drip irrigation. We concluded that bracts can increase the photosynthate of plant at the late growth stage under water-saving drip irrigation.

      Biological Effects of Biochar and Fertilizer Interaction in Soybean Plant
      ZHANG Wei-Ming,GUAN Xue-Chao,HUANG Yu-Wei,SUN Da-Quan,MENG Jun,CHEN-Wen-Fu*
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(01):  109-122.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00109
      Abstract ( 796 )   RICH HTML    PDF (11059KB) ( 4125 )   Save
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      The effect of biochar, as a soil amendment, in combination with different concentrations of a chemical fertilizer on the agronomic traits and physiological characteristics was investigated using the soybean cultivation Tiefeng 40 during 2010 and 2011. The results revealed that the application of biochar mixed with fertilizer increased the plant height, net photosynthetic rate, and leaf transpiration rate, and also improved the leaf and stem dry matter accumulation. Although the effect of biochar mixed with fertilizer on N (nitrogen) and P (phosphorus) uptake in soybean was not obvious during the early growth stage, both leaf and stem N and P uptake gradually increased in the late stage, and the accumulation per plant for both N and P was also significantly improved. Moreover, biochar mixed with fertilizer increased the pod number, seed number, and seed size per plant, resulting in an average yield increase of 13.2%, compared with the treatment of applying chemical fertilize alone. As the fertilizer application was reduced by 15%, 30%, and 60%, the yield increased by 11.20%, 11.00%, and 8.17% respectively, with a yield increase of 10.6% on an average of two years. Meanwhile, the increase in total protein and fat contents was also dependent on the concentration of biochar mixed with fertilizer, the greater the biochar concentration, the greater the increase. Taken together, our results support the theory of “less fertilizer, but positive effects” for both yield and quality in Tiefeng 40. This approach can be applied in soybean production.

      Adaptability Evaluation of GECROS Simulateing Summer Maize Growth in the Yellow-Huaihe-Haihe Rivers
      WU Wei,MA Yu-Ping,E You-Hao,SUN Lin-Li,JING Yuan-Shu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(01):  123-135.  doi:10.3734/SP.J.1006.2015.00123
      Abstract ( 823 )   RICH HTML    PDF (599KB) ( 1048 )   Save
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      The evaluation of crop model is a key process for its application. GECROS model had been developed by Wageningen in recent years. GECROS uses stronger mechanism and more concise algorithms to summarize the current knowledge of individual physiological processes and their interactions and feedback mechanisms. To provide a foundation for the future localization and regional application of GECROS model, in this study, the field observations of summer maize from several agrometeorological stations in Yellow-Huaihe-Haihe Rivers were used to conduct the adaptability evaluation of GECROS model. The results showed that GECROS model could basically reflect the growing process of summer maize in Yellow-Huaihe-Haihe Rivers. The absolute deviations at the period from emergence to tasseling simulated by GECROS were less than 6.0 d, with an average of 2.1 d. The absolute deviations at the period from tasseling to mature were less than 8.0 d, with an average of 3.4 d. The dry matter accumulation and leaf area expansion process of summer maize were accurately described by GECROS. The normalized mean square root errors (%) of total ear weight simulated by GECROS were 7.8%–33.8%, with an average of 18.6%, and these of total plant weight were 11.2%–32.6%, with an average of 20.7%. The absolute deviations of LAI were 0.28–0.55, with an average of 0.41. The relative evaluation on crop growth and impact of environmental conditions was basically feasible. But the developmental process of summer maize simulated by GECROS had the phenomenon of low values tengding to higher and high values tengding to lower. When the soil water stress was severe, GECROS gave a lower value for the biomass accumulation process, and the overall effect of description for the LAI expansion was inferior to that for biomass accumulation. GECROS still needs to be further improved.
      Effect of High Temperature on Photosynthetic Capability and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity of Flag Leaf and Non-leaf Organs in Wheat
      ZHANG Ying-Hua,YANG You-Ming,CAO Lian,HAO Yang-Fan,HUANG Jing,LI Jin-Peng,YAO De-Xiu,WANG Zhi-Min*
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(01):  136-144.  doi:10.3734/SP.J.1006.2015.00136
      Abstract ( 645 )   RICH HTML    PDF (627KB) ( 1109 )   Save
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      Winter wheat in North China has been subject to high temperature stress during grain filling. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of high temperature on the photosynthetic capability of flag leaf and the antioxidant system of flag leaf and non-leaf organs in winter wheat cultivars Henong 341 (tolerant to high temperature) and Shijiazhuang 8 (sensitive to high temperature). High temperature (HT) stress was imposed with a plastic shed from the 8th to the 22nd day after anthesis, and normal temperature was used as the control. Under HT, the photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content of flag leaf decreased by 18.7%–24.9% and 5.7%–6.2%, respectively; whereas the malodialdehyde (MDA) and proline (Pro) contents in flag leaf blade, sheath, peduncle, glume and grain increased in different levels. The increased percentage of MDA was higher in flag leaf than in non-leaf organs and that of Pro was higher in non-leaf organs than in flag leaf. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) in flag leaf, glume and grain, catalase (CAT) in flag leaf, sheath and grain, and peroxidases (POD) in flag leaf, sheath and glume were induced at early stage (4 d after treatment) by HT treatment, while the activities of antioxidant enzymes in other organs increased at later stage (7 d after treatment). Thereafter, the activities of antioxidant enzymes in various organs maintained lower levels compared with those of the control. At the 26th day after anthesis when HT stress was relieved for four days, the SOD activity in sheath, peduncle and glume and the POD activity in flag leaf, glume and grain began to increase, but the effects of HT on the SOD and POD activities in other organs and the CAT activity in all organs seemed irreversible. In general, the non-leaf organs exhibited higher antioxidant capability and heat tolerance than flag leaf. Compared with Henong 341, Shijiazhuang 8 exhibited higher cell membrane stability and antioxidant activity in leaf and non-leaf organs, leading to a tolerance to HT stress of the whole plant. This might be the physiological basis of smaller percentage of yield loss in Shijiazhuang 8 than in Henong 341 under HT stress. Our results indicate that non-leaf organs of wheat play an important role in adaptability to climate warming.

      Drought Resistance Identification of Mungbean Germplasm Resources at Seedlings Stage
      WANG Lan-Fen,WU Jing,JING Rui-Lian,CHENG Xu-Zhen,WANG Shu-Min?
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(01):  145-153.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00145
      Abstract ( 606 )   RICH HTML    PDF (563KB) ( 775 )   Save
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      It is significant to identify and screen drought resistant mungbean germplasm resources at seedling stage for mungbean cultivar improvement and production in China, at the same time, which could provide some reference methods and basic information for developing “the technical specification of identification and evaluation for drought resistance in mungbean”. The indices including survival rate of seedlings, wilt index, plant height, weight of fresh and dry leaf, relative water content, biomass weight and stress index were measured with the method of repeat drought stress in 70 accessions of mungbean resources. The survival rate of seedlings had significantly positive correlation between the first and the second drought stress, both wilt index and plant height had significantly negative correlation with survival rate. The survival rate of seedling under the first drought stress, wilt index and plant height were selected as suitable indices for drought resistance identification and evaluation based on correlation analysis. The various resistant accessions of mungbean germplasm resources screened by subordinative function analysis included 16 highly resistant, 20 resistant, 23 moderately resistant, eight susceptible and three highly susceptible. The drought resistance was evaluated based on the survival rate of seedling under the first drought stress, wilt index and plant height with the concordance rate of 70.0%, 58.6%, and 51.4% respectively as compared to the comprehensive evaluation. The survival rate of seedling under the first drought stress was recommended as a drought resistance index in screening a large number of germplasm resources ofmungbean.

      RESEARCH NOTES
      Effects of Drought Stress on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Maize Hybrids to at Seedling Stage
      ZHANG Xing-Hua,GAO Jie,DU Wei-Li,ZHANG Ren-He*,XUE Ji-Quan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(01):  154-159.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00154
      Abstract ( 638 )   RICH HTML    PDF (636KB) ( 1137 )   Save
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      Maintaining active photosynthesis is very important for crops to adapt drought stress. The electron transport chain and stomatal conductance are important in photosynthesis. Limited data are available on their combined responses to drought stress in maize. In this paper, the effects of drought stress on photosynthetic characteristics in maize hybrids Shaandan 609 and Zhengdan 958 at seedling stage were investigated. The results showed that the CO2 assimilation (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) decreased during drought stress, showing the decreased photosynthesis due to stomatal factor. During moderate and severe drought stress, down-regulation in net CO2 fixation (Pn) was primarily mediated through non-stomatal limitation. The OJIP transients and other associated biophysical parameters elucidated the events of photoacclimatory changes in photosystem II (PSII) with progressive increase of drought stress, and the K-bands appeared in the stage of extreme drought severity indicating the imbalance between the electrons at the acceptor and donor sides of PSII, which suggested the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) and electron transport were inhibited. In conclusion, the moderate and severedrought stress mainly damages the electron transfer from the plastoquinone (PQ) pool to the PSI terminal acceptors; this, along with constraints to both stomatal and non-stomatal components of photosynthesis, limits carbon assimilation. There are differences in cultivars with the response of PSII activity to drought stress.

      Effects of Straw Returning Plus Nitrogen Fertilizer on Nitrogen Utilization and Grain Yield in Winter Wheat
      CHEN Jin,TANG Yu-Hai,YIN Yan-Ping,PANG Dang-Wei,CUI Zheng-Yong,ZHENG Meng-Jing,PENG Dian-Liang,YANG Wei-Bing,YANG Dong-Qing,LI Yan-Xia,WANG Zhen-Lin,LI Yong
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(01):  160-167.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00160
      Abstract ( 662 )   RICH HTML    PDF (313KB) ( 1046 )   Save
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      A field experiment was conducted in 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 growing seasons to assess the effects of straw returning plus nitrogen (N) fertilizer on wheat yield and N use efficiency. Compared to only N fertilizer applied (control), straw returning resulted in the increase of dry matter accumulation during the whole growing period and the decrease of the proportion of dry matter accumulation before anthesis to that in whole growing period. The partial factor productivity of applied N, N use efficiency, and N harvest index increased by 7.5%, 6.4%, and 5.2%, respectively, in the straw returning plus pure N 225 kg ha-1 treatment compared with the control. Under straw returning condition, the nitrate N accumulation in soil decreased significantly, especially in 0–30 and 30–60 cm layer. The grain yield of straw returning plus pure N 225 kg ha-1 treatment was significantly higher than that of other treatments, showing the largest increment over the control. Therefore, it is a suitable technique in local cropping patterns.

      Stability of Six Soybean Isoflavones Solution
      LIANG Xiao-Fang,WANG Bu-Jun
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(01):  168-173.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00168
      Abstract ( 1007 )   RICH HTML    PDF (433KB) ( 1326 )   Save
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      Six chromatographic grade soybean isoflavones solutions daidzin, glycitin, genistin, daidzein, glycitein, and genistein were prepared with a preparative high performance liquid chromatography (Shimadzu LC-20AP). The solution stabilities were monitored in changes of concentrations and purities during a one-month period under temperatures of –20°C, 4°C, 25°C, and 60°C, respectively, and during a six-month period under a temperature of 4°C. Variance analysis of the one-month period experimental results indicated that the concentrations of five soybean isoflavones solutions showed no obvious change under 4°C and 25°C except for genistin solution. No obvious changes in purities for all soybean isoflavones solutions under –20°C, 4°C, and 25°C were observed. Temperatures of 4°C and 25°C were suggested for short-term storage of soybean isoflavones solutions. The t-test of the six-month period experimental results indicated that the concentrations of six chromatographic grade soybean isoflavones solutions increased significantly, but the purities of those did not change after 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, and 24 weeks preservation at 4°C. Leakage of methanol from containers of isoflavones solutions was considered to be the course of concentration increment. This research provided technical helps for the production of the soybean isoflavones standard solutions.

Co-sponsored:
the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

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  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/the-crop-journal
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E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
Tel: 8610-82108548

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