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    12 December 2014, Volume 40 Issue 12
      Whole-Genome Sequence Isolation, Chromosome Location and Characterization of Primary Auxin-Responsive Aux/IAA Gene Family in Aegilops tauschii
      QIAO Lin-Yi,LI Xin,CHANG Zhi-Jian,ZHANG Xiao-Jun,ZHAN Hai-Xian,GUO Hui-Juan,LI Jian-Bo,CHANG Jian-Zhong,ZHENG Jun
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(12):  2059-2069.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.02059
      Abstract ( 847 )   RICH HTML    PDF (4312KB) ( 1104 )   Save
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      Auxin, as one of the most important hormones, plays a key role in many processes of plant development. The Aux/IAA family contains important early auxin response genes. A genome-wide research of Aux/IAA genes in Aegilops tauschii was carried out using bioinformatic method. In this study, 28 Aux/IAA genes were identified in Ae. tauschii, which were distributed on seven chromosomes of Ae. tauschii genome. Twenty Aux/IAA genes share four conserved amino acid sequence motifs and five were mapped on the same locus with known markers. AetIAA3, AetIAA11, and AetIAA26 were specifically expressed in pistil, seed and root of Ae. tauschii, respectively. Eleven pairs of Ae. tauschiiTriticum urartu and five pairs of Ae. tauschiiHordeum vulgare Aux/IAA proteins were orthologous in the phylogenetic tree. Collinearity analysis indicated Aux/IAA genes showed a higher synteny between Ae. tauschii and two other species (Brachypodium distachyon and Oryza stativa). The Aux/IAA genes isolated can not only be applied in genetic improvement of common wheat but also provide basic information in further research of Aux/IAA genes in wheat.

      Genetic Analysis and Fine Mapping of a Premature Leaf Senescence Mutant in Rice (Orzya sativa L.)
      ZHANG Tao,SUN Yu-Ying,ZHENG Jian-Min,CHENG Zhi-Jun,JIANG Kai-Feng,YANG Li,CAO Ying-Jiang,YOU Shu-Mei,WAN Jian-Min,ZHENG Jia-Kui
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(12):  2070-2080.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.02070
      Abstract ( 662 )   RICH HTML    PDF (635KB) ( 1003 )   Save
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      Leaf senescence induces degradation of chlorophyll and other macromolecules, reducing leaf photosynthetic capacity. This process is accompanied by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the decreasing of cell antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT, and APX) activity, and the increasing of aging related gene (SAG) expression, leading in early maturity and yield reduction. Therefore, studies on the genetic mechanism and gene function of premature senescence in rice, has the important effect and significance.in genetic improvement of rice. PLS2 from space radiation mutation breeding project showed leaf senility, at booting stage. Compared with the wild type, in PLS2 the photosynthetic capacity decreased, the plant height, internode and panicle length shortened, tiller and effective tiller number reduced, number of grains per ear and seed setting rate were significantly lower, 1000-grain weight decreased, main panicle was stunted and grain-filling was not full. CAT activity decreased significantly in leaves, H2O2 accumulated, and the number of dead cell increased, chloroplast structures in leaves were worse, with more starches grains and osmiophilic granules. Dark treatment accelerated mutant leaf senescence, chloroplast ultrastructure was spheroidized. Using implicit localization population derived from PLS2/Shuhui 527 and PLS2/02428 the pls2 was located between markers RM14704 (8 674 283 bp) and SL-I-5 (8 758 394 bp) on chromosome 3, with physical distance of 84.11 kb, including 14 genes in the interval. Sequencing result showed that C was replaced by T in the position of 41 base pair of the ninth extron of LOC_Os03g15840 leading to an exchange of Arg (R) is replaced by Cys(C). LOC_Os03g15840 coding a glycosyl transferase (GTs) may be the candidate gene of pls2. These results provide a foundation for the further gene cloning and functional analysis of pls2.

      Screening of Promoter-Binding Factors of Tobacco PMT Gene Using a Modified Yeast Surface Display System
      CHEN Hong, NIU Hai-Xia, WANG Wen-Jing, MA Hao-Ran,LI Jia-Na,CHAI You-Rong,ZHANG Hong-Bo
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(12):  2081-2089.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.02081
      Abstract ( 621 )   RICH HTML    PDF (2853KB) ( 890 )   Save
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      Yeast surface display system is an important tool for studying molecular interaction of proteins, however, its application in DNA-binding-protein screening is relatively limited. Yeast surface display system secretes exogenous proteins onto cell surface, thus, it could be applied to determine protein interaction under in-vitro-like experiment conditions. Therefore, it may be more efficient than yeast one-hybrid system in screening the DNA-binding proteins whose DNA-binding capability is affected by endogenous yeast factors. In this study, we modified the pYD1 vector in yeast surface display system to make it compatible with the Smart cDNA library construction kit from Clontech, which will be helpful to increase the library construction efficiency. An experimental procedure for DNA-binding protein isolation was established using the modified yeast surface display system. Then, it was successfully applied in screening DNA-binding proteins of a jasmonate (JA) responsive element in the promoter of tobacco PMT (putrescine N-methyltransferase) gene. Among the isolated genes, two encoded ERF transcription factors, which were found to bind the JA responsive element in PMT promoter in vitro but unable to activate the expression of reporters in yeast-one-hybrid system. Our study suggests that yeast surface display system is efficient in screening the DNA-binding proteins whose DNA-binding capability in yeast-one-hybrid system is disrupted by endogenous factors.

      Functional Characterization of the Glycoside Hydrolase Encoding Gene OsBE1 during Chloroplast Development in Oryza sativa
      WANG Xing-Chun,WANG Min,JI Zhi-Juan,CHEN Zhao,LIU Wen-Zhen,HAN Yuan-Huai,YANG Chang-Deng
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(12):  2090-2097.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.02090
      Abstract ( 781 )   RICH HTML    PDF (13916KB) ( 3752 )   Save
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      Chloroplast plays an important role in plant carbohydrate metabolism; however the function of carbohydrate metabolism in the chloroplast development is poorly understood. The Oryza sativa Branching Enzyme 1 (OsBE1) gene, encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 13 protein, was cloned from rice. The identity between OsBE1 and Arabidopsis AtBE1 is 66%, but only 40% between OsBE1 and the classical starch branching enzymes in rice. A T-DNA insertion mutant of OsBE1 gene was identified. The seedlings of the osbe1 mutant were albino, and died at the three-leaf stage. This albino phenotype could not be rescued by exogenous carbohydrate. Starch staining showed no obvious difference in starch content between osbe1 and the wild type. Further studies showed that there were less chloroplasts in osbe1 mutant than in wild type, and there was no obvious stroma lamella in the osbe1 chloroplast. The overexpression vector pCAMBIA1300-35S-OsBE1 was constructed and transformed into rice variety Zhonghua 11. Finally, 108 transgenic lines were obtained and 77 lines of them showed etiolation in different degrees. The work not only sheds a novel insight into the regulation mechanism of carbohydrate metabolism on chloroplast development, but also lays a foundation for further understanding of the OsBE1’s function.

      Identification and Genetic Analysis of Photoperiod Insensitive Materials in Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus)
      ZHANG Li-Wu,HUANG Zhi-Miao,WAN Xue-Bei,LIN Li-Hui,XU Jian-Tang,TAO Ai-Fen,FANG Ping-Ping,QI Jian-Min
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(12):  2098-2103.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.02098
      Abstract ( 525 )   RICH HTML    PDF (272KB) ( 567 )   Save
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      Flowering stage is one of the key factors affecting fiber yield and quality in kenaf. In this study, photoperiod response sensitivity of six newly bred kenaf lines was identified via changing sowing time. The results showed that photoperiod response sensitivity of various lines ranged from 36.0% to 56.2%. Among them, Zanyin 1 was insensitive one to photoperiod response (36.0%) while Fuhong 952B was sensitive (56.2%) one. To uncover the genetic basis of flowering stage under the condition of natural short day, we further used the joint segregation analysis of four populations (P1, P2, F1, and F2) in a cross of Zanyin 1 ´ Fuhong 952B. The analysis of F1 and reciprocal F1 revealed that flowering stage was controlled by nuclear genes instead of cytoplasmic genes, and the photoperiod response sensitivity genotype was almost completely dominant. Flowering stage is best described by the D-1 genetic model, a case of one additive-dominance major gene as well as additive-dominance-epistasis polygenes. The additive effect of the major gene was 8.2 days. And heritability of the major gene was 80.2%. These findings will facilitate breeding strategies for the improvement of photoperiodic insensitive germplasm as well as the major gene mapping in kenaf.

      Construction of DNA Fingerprinting and Analysis of Genetic Diversity for Xinluzao Cotton Varieties
      NIE Xin-Hui,OU Chun-Yuan,LI Xiao-Fang,QIN Jiang-Hong,HUANG Cong,GUO Huan-Le,WANG Xia-Qing,ZHAO Wen-Xia,LIN Zhong-Xu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(12):  2104-2117.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.02104
      Abstract ( 580 )   RICH HTML    PDF (683KB) ( 820 )   Save
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      Fifty-one Xinluzao conventional cotton varieties authorized before 2013 were detected with 75 pairs of primers with high polymorphism, good repeatability, and even distribution on 26 chromosomes (2–3 pairs from each chromosome) selected from 5000 pairs of SSR primers. A total of 226 polymorphic loci were obtained, and each marker detected 2–12 polymorphic loci with an average of 3.01; the polymorphism information content ranged from 0.0799 to 0.8752, with an average of 0.6624. The results showed that 21 varieties could be differentiated by characteristic primers, the rest 30 varieties could be identified by primer conbinations. In the end, 40 characteristic primers and combinated primers could completely differentiate the 51 Xinluzao cotton varieties from each other. DNA fingerprinting of the 51 Xinluzao conventional varieties were constructed with the 40 pairs of SSR markers. NTSYS-pcV2.10 software was used to analyze genetic diversity of the 51 conventional varieties, the results indicated that genetic similarity coefficient for the varieties ranged from 0.4269 to 0.9873, with an average of 0.7071, showing the narrow genetic diversity in Xinluzao cotton varieties. The 51 Xinluzao cotton varieties were divided into four types with the genetic similarity coefficient matrix and cluster analysis, which were strongly consistent with their pedigrees.

      Genetic Diversity of Gulin-niupicha (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze) Germplasm Resources
      LIU Shao-Jie,CHI Lin,XIE Wen-Gang,HAN Nan,CHEN Ying-Hui,TANG Qian
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(12):  2118-2127.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.02118
      Abstract ( 627 )   RICH HTML    PDF (298KB) ( 808 )   Save
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      Gulin-niupicha (Camellia sinensis)is an specific tea landrace population grown in Jiaozigou, Gulin County, Sichuan Province, China. To protect and make use of the tea germplasm resources effectively, we conducted a study investigating the morphologic characteristics, biochemical components and genetic diversity of Gulin-niupicha germplasm resources in which a total of 76 individuals from seven populations were used to identify the phenotypic and genetic traits by data collection, samples analysis and inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) analysis. The results showed that: there were various biological characteristics among the seven populations. Importantly, a majority of Gulin-niupicha were shrubs, with semi-tree rescent form. Their mature leaves were medium in size and elliptic or long elliptic in shape, with green or dark green and the color in tender shoot varied including white, light green, green, dark green and violet-blue. Moreover, in that light of determination of biochemical components, free amino acid content was higher in two populations (AA>4.5%), and tea polyphenols (TP>27%, spring; TP>31%, summer) and catechins (>150 mg g-1, spring; > 190 mg g-1, summer) content were both higher in two populations, while the among of TP/AA ratio of these populations was 3.84~16.95, which indicated that the Gulin-niupicha has a high value in tea plant breeding and deep processing. Consistently, 135 DNA fragments among the 76 tea accessions were amplified using 15 ISSR primers, 122 bands of which were polymorphic (PPB=90.4%). Nei’s gene diversity (H) and Shannon’s information index (I) were 0.254 and 0.392, respectively, indicating that the diversity of the tested tea germplasm is relatively low.

      Analysis of QTLs for Plant Type Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa)
      ZHANG Ling,LI Xiao-Nan,WANG Wei,YANG Sheng-Long,LI Qing,WANG Jia-Yu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(12):  2128-2135.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.02128
      Abstract ( 467 )   RICH HTML    PDF (673KB) ( 858 )   Save
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      A recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the across between indica restorer line Luhui 99 and super japonica cultivar Shennong 265, was used to analyze the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for plant height, panicle length, tillers, and leaf traits in 2012 and 2013. A total of 39 QTLs were detected on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, and 9 with LOD score ranging from 2.50 to 16.90. Eleven of them were detected in both 2012 and 2013. Moreover, QTL clusters were detected on chromosomes 1, 6 and 9, which may be related to significant or highly significant correlations between plant type traits. Among them, the QTL cluster on chromosome 9 contained four QTLs, qPH9, qPL9, qFLL9, and qSLL9 in the interval between RM3700 and RM7424, and the four QTLs were detected in both years. In addition, five major QTLs were first reported, among which three QTLs (qPH8, qFLW6, and qSLW6) had the larger effect. The results facilitate further understanding of the genetic basis for plant height, panicle length, tillers and leaf traits.

      Effect of Strip Subsoiling on Population Root Spatial Distribution of Maize under Different Planting Densities
      WANG Xin-Bing,HOU Hai-Peng,ZHOU Bao-Yuan,SUN Xue-Fang,MA Wei*,ZHAO Ming
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(12):  2136-2148.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.02136
      Abstract ( 651 )   RICH HTML    PDF (4968KB) ( 1383 )   Save
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      For exploring the regulation effect of strip subsoiling (SS) on spatial distribution and amount of maize population root system, a field experiment was conducted with three planting densities (LD: 45 000 plants ha-1, MD: 67 500 plants ha-1, 90 000 plants ha-1) and two soil tillage practices (SS: strip subsoiling tillage, NT: no tillage). The spatial distribution of maize individual and population roots and its response to planting density and soil tillage were studied using small cubic root soil sampler through the 3D monolith” root space sampling method. The result indicated that individual root length was significantly affected by planting density. In 0–50 cm soil layers (each layer was 10 cm), individual roots length was decreased by 110.31, 43.18, 15.73, 10.49, and 17.45 m under high planting density compared with under low planting density. Under the condition of high planting density, strip subsoiling increased individual roots length by 13.32%, 19.80%, 47.20% in 20–30 cm, 30–40 cm, 40–50 cm soil layers compared with no tillage. The effects of planting density were not significant on population total root length, while significant on spatial distribution of population root system. The root length density around single plant centre was decreased by 3.82 cm cm-3, 0.62 cm cm-3 in 0–10 cm, 10–20 cm soil layers, while root length density between two plants was increased by 1.13 cm cm-3, 0.18 cm cm-3, 0.06 cm cm-3, 0.05 cm cm-3 in 0–10 cm, 10–20 cm, 20–30 cm, 30–40 cm soil layers under high planting density compared with under low planting density. Under the condition of high planting density, compared with no tillage, strip subsoiling decreased root length density around single plant centre by 16.10% in 0–10 cm soil layer, while increased it by 47.45%, 13.37% in 10–20 cm, 20–30 cm soil layers. Meanwhile, strip subsoiling increased root length density between two plants by 50.26%, 30.72%, 106.15% in 20–30 cm, 30–40 cm, 40–50 cm soil layers respectively. The significant change of spatial distribution of population root system increased the index of root surface area and root dry matter in high planting density and strip subsoiling tillage treatment. The increments in leaf area and shoot dry matter resulted in an increment of maize final yield. The results of this study suggest that the distribution of root between two plants is improved with the increment of planting density. The treatment of high planting density and strip subsoiling regulates the spatial distribution of population root system by increasing the root quantity in deep soil layer and between two plants, and weakening the crowding of roots in up soil layer, which promotes the increment of maize yield.

      Population Characteristics for Super-High Yielding Hybrid Rice Yongyou 12 (>13.5 t ha-1)
      WANG Xiao-Yan,WEI Huan-He,ZHANG Hong-Cheng,SUN Jian,ZHANG Jian-Min,LI Chao,LU Hui-Bin,YANG Jun-Wen,MA Rong-Rong,XU Jiu-Fu,WANG Jue,XU Yue-Jin,SUN Yu-Hai
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(12):  2149-2159.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.02149
      Abstract ( 664 )   RICH HTML    PDF (642KB) ( 759 )   Save
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      Using indica-japonica super rice Yongyou 12, by transplanting seedlings with tillers at the age of four leaves with one leaf bud and applying super sparse cultivation technology, we compared and studied grain yield and its components, tiller dynamic, leaf area dynamic and accumulation dynamic of dry matter in three types of populations (High yield: 10.5–12.0 t ha-1; Higher yield: 12.0–13.5 t ha-1; Super-high yield: >13.5 t ha-1). The results showed that super-high yielding rice had more population spikelets, and slightly lower seed-setting rate and 1000-grain weight than high yielding and higher yielding rice. Compared with high yielding and higher yielding rice, super-high yielding rice showed more number of stems and tillers at transplanting stage and achieved the expected number of stems and tillers at the critical leaf-age for productive tillers. During jointing stage the number of stems and tillers increased steadily and up to the maximum with a panicle rate of nearly 60%. The leaf area index of super-high yielding rice was relatively smaller at the early stage and the maximum of 9.17 at booting stage, and then slowly declined to more than 4.0 at maturity; The dry matter weight was relatively smaller at jointing stage and then the highest at each phase of the super-high yielding rice, which was 14.38 t ha-1 at heading stage, 9.73 t ha-1 from heading to maturity stage, and 24.11 t ha-1 at maturity stage. The root dry weight, ratio of root to shoot and root bleeding intensity per stem of the super-high yielding rice population were all the highest from heading to maturity stages.

      Plant-type Characteristics in Populations with Different Yield of Yongyou 12
      WEI Huan-He,LI Chao,ZHANG Hong-Cheng,SUN Yu-Hai,MA Rong-Rong,WANG Xiao-Yan,YANG Jun-Wen,DAI Qi-Gen,HUO Zhong-Yang,XU Ke,WEI Hai-Yan,GUO Bao-Wei
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(12):  2160-2168.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.02160
      Abstract ( 694 )   RICH HTML    PDF (372KB) ( 841 )   Save
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      Using indica-japonica super rice Yongyou 12, we compared the plant-type characteristics among three types of populations (high yield: 10.5–12.0 t ha-1; higher yield: 12.0–13.5 t ha-1; super-high yield: >13.5 t ha-1). The main results indicated that in super-high yield population, the mean values of panicle length, total grains per spike, number of the primary and secondary rachises were 21.56, 356.34, 20.46, and 73.98, respectively, being higher than those in the high and higher yield populations. However, the seed-setting rate in the primary and secondary rachises showed slight reduction. Super-high yield population had longer length, larger width and higher rolling rate, smaller leaf basic angle and dropping angle, more green leaves after heading for the top-most three leaves in comparison with the other two populations. Compared with the other two populations, super-high yield population had higher plant height, longer length of top three internodes, higher ratio of sum of panicle and neck internode to plant height 39.84% and ratio of neck internode to stalk length 37.75%. The decreased length of basal three internodes, increased culm diameter, culm wall thickness and dry weight of culm and sheath made higher anti-broken strength and lower lodging index in super-high yield population.

      Effects of Wheat Straw Returning and K Fertilizer Application on Yield and Nutrients Uptake of Cotton
      ZHANG Fan,SUI Ning,YU Chao-Ran,LIU Rui-Xian,YANG Chang-Qin,SONG Guang-Lei,MENG Ya-Li,ZHOU Zhi-Guo
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(12):  2169-2175.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.02169
      Abstract ( 556 )   RICH HTML    PDF (512KB) ( 906 )   Save
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      A three-year stationary experiment with treatments of wheat straw (4500 and 9000 kg ha–1) mulching and K fertilizer (150 and 300 kg K2O ha–1) application was conducted using insect-resistant cotton under wheat-cotton double cropping system in the Lower Reaches of Yangtze River (Nanjing). The results showed that compared with control (without K fertilizer and wheat straw returning), total wheat straw returning significantly increased boll number, boll weight and lint yield of cotton with lint yield increasing rate of 143.5% and 93.7% in the second and third years after straw returning, respectively. Biomass and nutrients absorption at different growth stages were significantly improved by total wheat straw returning, especially in the boll opening stage, and the senescence of vegetative organs was delayed. Wheat straw returning promoted K absorption much greater than N and P absorption. Compared with control, total K uptake by cotton plant and K uptake per 100 kg lint increased by 335.1% and 112.1% respectively in the third year after straw returning. The treatment of total wheat straw returning much promoted nutrients uptake, yield, and delaying premature senescence than the treatment of half wheat straw returning, while significantly less than the treatment of 300 kg K2O ha–1. The yield-increasing effect was equal but the nutrients uptake per 100 kg lint was less in the treatment of total wheat straw returning than in the treatment of 150 kg K2O ha–1.

      Constitution and Spatiotemporal Expression of Starch Branching Enzyme in Developing Wheat Grain
      LIU Zheng-Shuai,LIU Gui-Fen,YANG Ming-Yu,JIA Xiao,LI Yun-Xiang,ZHAO Fa-Mao
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(12):  2176-2182.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.02176
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      This study aimed at disclosing the enzymatic mechanism in amylopectin synthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The isozyme forms, organ localization, spatiotemporal expression profile and subunits constitution of starch branching enzyme (SBE) were identified in eight wheat cultivars from different provenances using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native-PAGE) and SDS-PAGE. Four SBE isozymes were detected in wheat endosperm, in which isozymes B and SBEIIa were localized in endosperm and leaf, whereas isozymes A and Di were exclusively present in endosperm. In the process of grain filling, Di and SBEIIa expressed first, followed by isozyme B, and isozyme A expressed finally. However, B and SBEIIa terminated to express at late filling stage. All SBE isozymes were composed of one subunit of 86–92 kD, and their spatial localization exhibited organ specificity. According to the expression level, Di, B, and SBEIIa are considered as dominant isozymes for grain endosperm development. They probably determinate the total SBE activity and serve as key factors in amylpectin biosynthesis in wheat grain and leaf.

      Common Characteristics of Balanced Yield Increase in a Large Area of Mechanical Transplanted Rice in Jiangsu Province
      DU Yong-Lin,MIAO Xue-Kuan,LI Gang-Hua,ZHANG Jun,WANG Shao-Hua,LIU Zheng-Hui,TANG She,DING Yan-Feng
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(12):  2183-2191.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.02183
      Abstract ( 484 )   RICH HTML    PDF (259KB) ( 659 )   Save
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      An experiment was conducted in a large area of representative fields in 26 high-yielding rice demonstration counties of Jiangsu Province with mechanical transplanting in 2009 and 2010. Fields planted with the same site, cultivar, sowing date and management were divided into three types based on the grain yield, including high grain yield fields (I, > 10.5 t ha-1), middle grain yield fields (II, 9.0-10.5 t ha-1) and low grain yield fields (III, < 9.0 t ha-1). Characteristics of yield components and the balance of rice space distribution were compared among the three types. The result showed that high-yielding fields had significantly higher spikelets per m2, panicles per m2, spikelets per panicle than the other types. There were no significant differences in spacing characteristics, which mainly includes row spacing, holes spacing and panicles per hole. There was significant difference in the uniformity of panicles per hole among different types. There was significantly positive correlation between the uniformity of panicles per hole and grain yield (r=0.436**, 2009; r=0.441**, 2010). Lengths of the top leaves were beneficial to the spikelets per panicle, but  could decrease the grain-filling. These results suggested that it is an effective way to resolve the contradiction among rice yield components by improving the uniformity of panicle per m2 and spikelets per panicle. It is also a right way to improve grain yield of rice transplanted by machine in a large area of Jiangsu Province.

      Sequence Characteristics and Expression of NAD-malic enzyme in Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.
      BAI Yun-Feng,NIE Jiang-Ting,ZHANG Zhong-Liang,LI Ping,ZHANG Wei-Feng,YAN Jian-Jun,FENG Rui-Yun,ZHANG Yao
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(12):  2192-2197.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.02192
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      The NAD(P)-malic enzyme (NAD(P)-ME) found in many metabolic pathways catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate, which results in producing pyruvate, CO2 and NAD(P)H. In C4 plants, NAD(P)-ME plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon fixation. This study was aimed to characterize the AhNAD-ME in dicotyledonous C4 Amaranthus hypochondriacus by sequence analysis, examine the expression patterns of AhNAD-ME gene in different tissues and different durations of illumination time, and construct a recombinant plasmid pEASY-E1 harboring the AhNAD-ME cDNA and then transform the plasmid into E. coli Transette (DE3) for prokaryotic expression after IPTG induction. The result showed that AhNAD-ME contains all of the motifs required for a complete and functional malic enzyme and is localized specifically to the mitochondrial matrix.Semi-quantitative RT-PCR results showed that AhNAD-ME was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues, with different expression levels, and strongly up-regulated under light in the leaf and stem. Results of SDS-PAGE demonstrated that the specific fusion protein with an expected molecular weight was successfully expressed in E. coli transette (DE3) induced by IPTG

      Genome-wide Association Analysis of Flour Color (Whiteness) Using DArT Markers in Common Wheat
      YU Hai-Xia,XIAO Jing,TIAN Ji-Chun
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(12):  2198-2202.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.02198
      Abstract ( 558 )   RICH HTML    PDF (211KB) ( 694 )   Save
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      Flour color (whiteness) is an important index to evaluate wheat quality. Parameters for flour color (L*, a*, and b*) and whiteness of 109 lines derived from wheat variety Aimengniu were evaluated in four environments, and association analysis was carried out using 971 DArT (Diversity Array Technology) markers under the mixed linear model. Twenty-seven DArT markers were found to be associated with flour color (P ≤ 0.001), while seven markers with whiteness. Markers wPt-1196 and wPt-669693 were associated with color a* and b* in multi-environments, and the percentages of phenotypic variation explained were high. These results provide important information for marker-assisted selection of wheat flour color (whiteness).

      Screening of Germplasm with Resistance to Pod Shattering in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)
      DONG Jun-Gang,DONG Zhen-Sheng,MENG Qian,ZHANG Bo
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(12):  2203-2209.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.02203
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      Shattering resistance is an important trait for rapeseed varieties suitable for mechanical harvesting, therefore screening of germplasm with pod shattering resistance is the basic work for the breeding of shattering resistance. In the present paper, we employed two methods, including random impact test (RIT) and shattering percentage test in the field, to evaluate pod shattering resistance of 75 accessions of B. napus. These accessions displayed wide variation in shattering resistance index (SRI) and shattering percentage (SP) in the field, which ranged from 0.01 to 0.70 with the variance coefficient (CV) of 70.70% for SRI, and from 1.58% to 55.51% with CV of 62.53% for SP in the field. The simple correlation analysis showed there was no correlation between pod SRI and SP in the field when all accessions included. However, for the accessions with strong or weak shattering resistance, there was no different between two methods, except for the accessions with the shattering resistance between strong and weak ones. The SP and the wall thickness of pod had significantly negative correlation (r = −0.429), pod SRI and the wall thickness of pod had significantly positive correlation (r = 0.687). Thus, the pod wall thickness can be used as an auxiliary index to screen shatter resistant germplasm. A germplasm Ny with high pod shattering resistance was identified in this study. Ny has thicker wall and smoother surface of pod. The shattering percentage of Ny was 7.74% under adverse condition (two weeks after the maturity), and 1.58% under normal condition (one week after maturity). The pod SRI of Ny was 0.70 in 2011 and 0.48 in 2013, higher than that of rest materials. Ny will be a valuable resource for rapeseed breeding for pod shattering resistance in the future.

the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
Submission: https://www.editorialmanager.com/cj/
E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
Tel: 8610-82108548