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    12 December 2022, Volume 48 Issue 12
      High throughput identification of cotton gene via screening cotton cDNA library of virus induced gene silencing
      LIANG Xi-Tong, GAO Xian-Yuan, ZHOU Lin, MU Chun, DU Ming-Wei, LI Fang-Jun, TIAN Xiao-Li, LI Zhao-Hu
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(12):  2967-2977.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14210
      Abstract ( 252 )   HTML ( 47 )   PDF (2798KB) ( 171 )   Save
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      To rapidly and efficiently explore functional genes in cotton, we have developed a functional genomic screen based on virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) assays to identify key players controlling cotton seedling growth and salt response with Gossypium hirsutum Xinshi 17 as plant materials and GhCLA1 as a visual marker gene. After 7-14 days of Agrobacterium- mediated transformation of cotton VIGS cDNA library, the phenotype of seedling growth and salt stress response were recorded. A total of eight genes related to seedling growth and four genes related to salt stress response were obtained. In hydroponic conditions, silencing of GhANT17, GhSTP14, GhUSPA, GhFES1, GhS15-4, and GhRBL8 significantly hindered shoot growth, while the silencing of GhOIDO promoted plant growth. GhRBCSC1-silenced plants had albino leaves. Under salt stress, silencing of GhATCYP1 and GhSAC52 improved salt tolerance. GhPSBW- and GhRBCSC2-silenced plants were more sensitive to salt stress compared with the control plants. Here, we established a technical system for high-throughput screening of functional genes in cotton, which provided a feasible tool for rapid mining and research of cotton functional genomic.

      QTL mapping and candidate gene prediction of soybean 100-seed weight based on high-density bin map
      GE Tian-Li, TIAN Yu, ZHANG Hao, LIU Zhang-Xiong, LI Ying-Hui, QIU Li-Juan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(12):  2978-2986.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14226
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      The 100-seed weight is a critical factor for soybean yield. Identifying QTLs/genes related to 100-seed weight paves a way for breeding a new type of high-yielding and large-seed cultivar through modern molecular design. In this study, combined with the high-density Bin map and the phenotype of 100-seed weight, two environmentally stable QTLs were detected on chromosomes 12 and 18 in six environments in a RILs population derived from cross of Zhonghuang 13 × Zhongpin 03-5373 (ZH13 × ZP03-5373), respectively. Among them, qSW12-2, could explain 7.31% to 11.03% the observed phenotypic variation and 0.52 to 0.91 g of the additive effect, and its positive allele was derived from ZH13. The physical interval of qSW12-2 was 0.19 Mb that harbored 20 annotated genes. Among them, Glyma.12G195500 carried a large-effect site involved in the biosynthesis of brassinosteroids. According to the gene expression pattern, Glyma.12G195500 preferentially expressed in the developing seeds, suggesting that Glyma.12G195500 was the candidate gene for qSW12-2. Three haplotypes were observed in Glyma.12G195500 in 385 soybean germplasm resources using re-sequencing data. Among them, there was significantly higher in 100-seed weight of ZH13-type H2 haplotype than H1, which was selected during soybean domestication. These results provide genetic loci for revealing the genetic mechanism controlling soybean seed weight and breeding high-yielding cultivars.

      Establishment of genotype-independent high-efficiency transformation system in maize
      XU Jie-Ting, LIU Xiang-Guo, JIN Min-Liang, PAN Hong, HAN Bao-Zhu, LI Meng-Jiao, YAN Shuo, HU Guo-Qing, YAN Jian-Bing
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(12):  2987-2993.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13068
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      The reliance on receptor genotype of genetic transformation made it difficult for the transformation of commercial maize lines. Expression regulation of two important genes in plant stem cell development, Baby boom (Bbm) and Wuschel2 (Wus2), was revealed to significantly improve transformation efficiency. Several Chinese core maize inbred lines were used as receptor materials to test the transformation efficiency. Although the overexpression of Bbm and Wus2 could significantly improve the transformation efficiency, it had a negative impact on the growth and development of T0 plants. Here, a new assisted transformation technology was developed, in which a lethal gene element was added to the assist vector and the spatial expression of the two genes were regulated. The results revealed that the hybrid transformation of the assist vector and the target vector could not only successfully obtain high-quality transformation seedlings without Bbm and Wus2 assist vector in T0 generation, but also significantly improve the transformation efficiency with an average 19.5%. The application of this improved genotype-independent genetic transformation system promises maize precise improvement with higher efficiency.

      Construction of SSR-DNA fingerprints and genetic diversity analysis of 290 maize varieties approved in Jilin province, China
      TIAN Hong-Li, ZHAO Zi-Wei, YANG Yang, FAN Ya-Ming, BAN Xiu-Li, YI Hong-Mei, YANG Hong-Ming, LIU Shao-Rong, GAO Yu-Qian, LIU Ya-Wei, WANG Feng-Ge
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(12):  2994-3003.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13076
      Abstract ( 150 )   HTML ( 18 )   PDF (2022KB) ( 76 )   Save
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      The standard fingerprint construction and genetic diversity analysis of maize varieties approved in Jilin province can provide data support for variety approval, protection, and market monitoring. It is also of great significance for variety breeding and germplasm innovation. In this study, 40 pairs of SSR markers were used to construct the standard SSR-DNA fingerprints of 290 maize varieties approved in Jilin province from 2010 to 2017, and the genetic diversity was analyzed. The results showed that the average number of alleles detected by 40 SSRs was 11.85 and the average PIC was 0.64. The average frequency of heterozygous genotypes of varieties was 0.66. The different loci number among varieties was ≥ 2. The genetic diversity analysis of six maturity groups revealed that there were more varieties with middle and late maturity, accounting for 71.72%, and fewer varieties with extremely early maturity, early maturity, and late maturity. The early maturity group had the highest gene diversity parameter of 0.69, and the mid-late maturity group with the largest number of varieties had a relatively low gene diversity value. Clustering results indicated that the varieties approved and popularized in Jilin province were divided into three categories: sweet waxy and popcorn, extremely early and early middle, medium or late maturity. The middle or late maturing varieties had two major trends, representing the differences in the selection of heterozygous groups, the different breeding units, the differences in variety types and so on. This study provides an important theoretical and data basis for maize variety management, variety breeding, and germplasm innovation in Jilin province.

      Response of maize transcriptional factor ZmbHLH91 to abiotic stress
      YUE Man-Fang, ZHANG Chun, ZHENG Deng-Yu, ZOU Hua-Wen, WU Zhong-Yi
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(12):  3004-3017.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13060
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      bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) is an important transcription factor family in plants and play an important role in regulating plant growth and development, adversity stress, and signal transduction. At present, most bHLH transcription factor function in animals is clear, but there are few studies reported in plants, especially in maize. In the early work, we carried out root phenotype identification and transcriptome sequencing analysis in the four key periods of maize growth and development. There was significantly differentially expressed in ZmbHLH91 during the adjacent periods of the sixth leaf stage (V6), the twelfth leaf stage (V12), and the tasseling stage (VT). The relative expression levels of ZmbHLH91 were higher in V6, V12, and VT, which were the active periods of root growth and development. We speculated that ZmbHLH91 may have important regulatory effect on the growth and development of maize root system. To study the function of ZmbHLH91 in root growth and response to stress, in this study, we cloned ZmbHLH91 (AC:NC_AQL05369) gene. This gene was 2112 bp in full-length with a unique conserved domain of the bHLH transcription factor family. The RT-qPCR analysis showed that ZmbHLH91 had a higher expression in roots, whereas, the expression in the third leaf young root was higher than that in the tasseling mature root. While under different adversity stress, ZmbHLH91 was up-regulated. There was no significant difference in root length between ZmbHLH91 transgenic Arabidopsis strains and wild type on a 1/2 MS medium without stress treatment, but the root length of ZmbHLH91 transgenic Arabidopsis lines was longer than that of wild type on the medium treated with gradient concentrations NaCl and mannitol, and the difference was significant. Compared to the wild type, transgenic Arabidopsis lines revealed better growth status, higher peroxidase (POD) activity, higher green leaf rate after drought, and higher salt treatment in the soil. It is speculated that the ZmbHLH91 gene may be involved in responding to high salt, drought, and osmotic stress. The ZmbHLH91 was also up-regulated under jasmonic acid (JA), abscisic acid (ABA), and other hormone treatments. On the medium treated with gradient concentration JA, the root length of ZmbHLH91 transgenic Arabidopsis lines was longer than that of wild type, and the difference was significant. ZmbHLH91 interacted with the ZmMYC2 proved by yeast two hybrid system, speculating that it may be involved in the JA signaling pathway. In conclusion, ZmbHLH91 may be involved in high salt, drought, and osmosis stress response and JA signal transduction pathways. This study provides an important reference for further analysis of the biological functions of ZmbHLH91 in maize.

      Identification and validation of miRNA involved in mercury stress response in maize seedling roots
      QIN Yong-Tian, CHEN Li-Xia, TANG Ji-Hua, CHEN Jian-Hui, MA Shuan-Hong, ZHANG Xue-Hai, DING Dong, FU Zhi-Yuan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(12):  3018-3028.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13074
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      Mercury is one of the most important sources of heavy mental pollution to crop production in the worldwide. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a critical regulator in plant development and abiotic stress responses. However, its function on mercury stress response is still unknown in monocots. To identify the critical miRNA in response to mercury, we analyzed phenotype changes and differentially expressed miRNA in seedlings of two maize inbred lines B73 and Zheng 58 (Z58) under HgCl2 stress. The results showed that B73 was more sensitive to mercury than Z58 and miRNA166l was down-regulated in both B73 and Z58 under HgCl2 stress. miRNA165/166 knock-out stable lines of Arabidopsis were created using STTM technology to validate its role in mercury stress response. These lines showed wilted and etiolated leaf and shorten root, which were similar with maize seedlings after mercury treatment. This study verified that miRNA166 was important for mercury stress modulation, which promoted us to explore the molecular mechanism of miRNA166 in heavy metal response in the following experiments.

      Genome-wide analysis of terpene synthase (TPS) gene family and its expression under biological stress in Saccharum spontaneum
      LIN Huan-Tai, ZHANG Tian-Jie, SHI Meng-Ting, GUO Yan-Fang, GAO San-Ji, WANG Jin-Da
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(12):  3029-3044.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14237
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      Terpenoids produced by the action of terpene synthase (TPS) enzymes play important roles in plant biotic and abiotic stress. Saccharum spontaneum, an important parent material of modern sugarcane cultivars, contains a large number of stress resistance genes. To investigate the characteristics and functions of the TPS gene family in S. spontaneum, 39 SsTPS genes were identified in S. spontaneum genome that encoded proteins with two conserved domains (PF01397 and PF03936) by using an HMMER search. The SsTPS proteins were divided into TPS-a, b, e/f, and g subfamilies. The SsTPS gene family had mainly expanded through segmental duplications, and a total of 12 SsTPS genes involved in segmental duplication events. In addition, qRT-PCR showed that the expression patterns of some SsTPS genes differed in S. spontaneum between Spodoptera frugiperda-stressed and Xanthomonas albilineans-infected plants, whereas the relative expression levels of seven SsTPS genes were strongly up-regulated. Notably, SsTPS15 were up-regulated in response to Spodoptera frugiperda-stressed but were down-regulated by X. albilineans infection, while SsTPS26, SsTPS37, and SsTPS39 had the opposite results. These results will be of great significance to further understanding the biological roles of terpene synthases and to develop resistant breeding in S. spontaneum.

      Development of functional markers and genotype screening for nitrogen use efficiency genes in rice
      TAO Ya-Jun, ZHU Jing-Yan, WANG Jun, FAN Fang-Jun, XU Yang, LI Wen-Qi, WANG Fang-Quan, CHEN Zhi-Hui, JIANG Yan-Jie, ZHU Jian-Ping, LI Xia, YANG Jie
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(12):  3045-3056.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12080
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      Nitrogen is an essential mineral element that affects plants biomass and yield formation, and its efficient and reasonable utilization is an important guarantee for sustainable agricultural. Breeding rice varieties containing high nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) genes is an effective way to increase NUE and reduce the amount of nitrogen fertilizer. In this study, five genes, OsNR2, OsNPF6.1, OsTCP19, OsLHT1, and OsGRF4, were selected from the aspects of nitrogen absorption, transportation, and assimilation. Based on the reported functional haplotype, co-segregated markers were designed. Using six pairs of allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) markers and one pair of InDel marker, 70 indica rice, 34 japonica rice, and 84 Taihu rice resources were identified. The results showed that OsNR2 was widely distributed in indica rice, while OsNPF6.1, OsTCP19, and OsGRF4 were less distributed. All 34 japonica rice and 84 Taihu rice resources only contained OsLHT1. We also successfully obtained two indica germplasms, which contained OsNR2, OsNPF6.1, and OsGRF4. The functional markers developed in this research and two materials provide technical support for breeding new rice varieties with high NUE through molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) methods.

      Transcription abundances of PHYA, PHYB, and PHYC genes in response to different light treatments in Secale cereale
      YANG Lu-Hao, WANG Li-Jian, SUN Guang-Hua, WANG Shao-Ci, CUI Lian-Hua, CHEN Chang, SONG Mei-Fang, ZHANG Yan-Pei, JIANG Liang-Liang, YANG Jian-Ping, WANG Chen-Yang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(12):  3057-3070.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11115
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      Cultivated rye (Secale cereal L.), belonging to the rye genus of the poaceae family, is a valuable food and feed crop that is highly resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses. The 1BL/1RS translocation line has improved wheat resistance to powdery mildew and stripe rust worldwide. Phytochromes are an red/far-red receptors that regulate seed germination, plant height, shade avoidance response, flowering, and other adaptive responses in plants. In this study, three phytochrome genes, ScPHYA, ScPHYB, and ScPHYC were cloned. The transcriptional abundance of ScPHYs in different tissues and light treatments was analyzed by qRT-PCR. The results showed that phys of rye had similar domains with those of Arabidopsis, rice, and wheat, and had higher amino acid sequence consistency with those of wheat and rice, suggesting that they might have similar function. The transcriptional abundances of ScPHYs were the highest in roots, and higher under dark and far-red light than other continuous light conditions, while the relative expression patterns of the three genes were slightly different in the transformation from dark to red light, far-red light, blue light, and white light. In photoperiodic response, the relative expression patterns of the three genes were similar under long-day conditions, but different under short-day conditions. These results indicated that ScPHYs may play an important role in the photomorphogenesis of rye. The transcriptional analysis of three rye phytochrome genes provides a reference for the study of rye optical signal system and a basis for exploring the application of phytochrome in rye genetic improvement and molecular breeding.

      Functional identification of Bna-miR171g on improving tolerance to osmotic stress in Brassica napus
      YANG Wen-Jing, LU Hai-Qin, CHEN Wu-Jun, ZENG Lei, XIE Tao, JIANG Jin-Jin, WANG You-Ping
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(12):  3071-3079.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14227
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      MicroRNA171 (miR171) as a conserved miRNA family in plants, plays important roles in regulating plant growth and development. Functional researches of miR171 are mainly reported in Arabidopsis, rice, and tomato. However, the function of miR171 in Brassica napus is unclear. In the present study, we found that the seven members of Bna-miR171 were highly conserved, of which, miR171g was strongly up-regulated by osmotic stress. Under the osmotic stress of 150 mmol L-1 mannitol, the root length of rapeseed overexpressing Bna-miR171g (OE-miR171g) was significantly longer than the control (J9712). The diaminobenzidine staining revealed less H2O2 accumulation in OE-miR171g than that of J9712 after osmotic stress, indicating OE-miR171g had higher reactive oxygen species-scavenging ability than the control. The proline content, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activity in OE-miR171g were higher than the control, while the malondialdehyde content in OE-miR171g was lower than the control. Besides, the relative expression level of stress responsive genes (ABI5, ERD10, RAB18, OSR1, RD20, and RD29B) in OE-miR171g were higher than the control. Generally, the overexpression of Bna-miR171g improved the rapeseed tolerance to osmotic stress, and could be helpful to the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance in B. napus.

      Interaction of sugarcane main facilitator superfamily member ScZIFL1 with 6K2 in response to Sugarcane mosaic virus infection
      LIU Shu-Xian, YANG Zong-Tao, CHENG Guang-Yuan, ZHANG Hai, ZHOU Ying-Shuan, SHANG He-Yang, HUANG Guo-Qiang, XU Jing-Sheng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(12):  3080-3090.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14244
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      The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) members are extensively distributed in the organisms. The zinc induced facilitator like proteins (ZIFL), members of the MFS, are involved in the transport of small organic molecules. In our previous study, the ZIFL homologue was screened from sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) and identified to interact with Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) coding protein 6K2 by yeast two-hybrid (Y2H), then named as ScZIFL1. In the present study, the interaction of ScZIFL1 with SCMV-6K2 was further confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays. Bioinformatics analysis showed that ScZIFL1 coded 484 aa, and was an unstable hydrophobic protein without signal peptide but 12 transmembrane domains. Sequences alignment revealed the conserved cysteine-containing motif, canonical MFS signature, and anti-porter signatures in ScZIFLl. Phylogenetic tree indicated that ZIFLl was divergent between monocotyledons and dicotyledons, as well as C3 and C4 plants. Subcellular localization referred that ScZIFL1 was localized in tonoplast but partially co-localized with SCMV-6K2. ScZIFL1 gene had obvious tissue specificity in sugarcane by RT-qPCR. The relative expression levels of ScZIFL1 genes were the highest in stems, followed by leaves, and the lowest in roots. Specifically, the relative expression levels of ScZIFL1 genes in the established morphogenesis and fully functional tissues such as the leaf +1 and the 8th internode were significantly higher than those in the immature tissues, i.e., leaf roll and the 3rd internode, or the fading tissues, i.e., leaf +7. Upon the infection of SCMV, ScZIFL1 was significantly up-regulated at the early stage and remained higher expression with time going on.

      Association analysis of agronomic traits of tartary buckwheat germplasm resources with SSR markers
      LI Xiao-Yu, FANG Xiao-Mei, WU Hao-Tian, WANG Ying-Qian, LIU Yang, TANG Tian, WANG Yu-Dong, WU Yin-Huan, YUE Lin-Qing, ZHANG Rui-Feng, CUI Jing-Bin, ZHANG Jian, YI Ze-Lin
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(12):  3091-3107.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11113
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      The analysis of the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of Fagopyrum tataricum germplasm resources and the molecular markers associated with the agronomic traits and seed-related traits of Fagopyrum tataricum could provide a theoretical basis and reference for the hybrid combinations and molecular marker assisted breeding of Tartary buckwheat. In this study, 318 Tartary buckwheat germplasms were used as materials. A total of 11 traits, including thousand-grain weight (TGW), grain length (GL), grain width (GW), grain length-to-width ratio (L/W), grain area (GA), grain perimeter (GP), grain diameter (GD), roundness of grain (GR), plant height (PH), branch number of main stem (BN), and the node pod number of main stem (PN), were investigated in two years of 2019-2020, and the phenotypic data were analyzed by BLUP. A total of 293 loci were detected by 77 SSR markers with good polymorphism in the tested Tartary buckwheat accessions. The average gene diversity coefficient was 0.52, and the average PIC value was 0.46. 318 Tartary buckwheat resources were divided into 4 groups with an average genetic distance of 0.44 by cluster analysis and it had no obvious correspondence with geographical origin. Genetic structure analysis revealed that the tested group could be divided into two subgroups. There were detected extremely 54 significant loci at P < 0.01 associated with 11 traits with the explanation rate ranging from 1.77% to 16.40% by association study. Among these markers, 47SSRmarker could be detected by two or more traits at the same time and 25SSRmarker could be detected under 2019, 2020, and BLUP, simultaneously. These results will be of great significance for candidate gene mining for related traits and molecular marker-assisted breeding of high-yield Tartary buckwheat.

      Identification and relative expression levels of PEPC gene family members in cassava
      LI Xiang-Chen, SHEN Xu, ZHOU Xin-Cheng, CHEN Xin, WANG Hai-Yan, WANG Wen-Quan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(12):  3108-3119.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14241
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      Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is the key enzyme of photosynthesis in C4 plants. Cassava is a C3-C4 plant, and the relative expression levels of MePEPC genes in cultivated species are significantly higher than wild type. So far, systematic studies on MePEPC have not been done. To investigate the basic information of MePEPC family in cassava, five MePEPCs members were identified in the whole genome of cassava by bioinformatics method. The MePEPC family of cassava were comprehensively analyzed by bioinformatics software, including basic physical and chemical properties analysis, prediction of subcellular localization, evolutionary tree analysis, chromosome localization, gene and protein structure, and promoter cis-element prediction. The results showed that five MePEPC family members were identified and distributed on five chromosomes, respectively. Among them, MePEPC2 was distributed on chromosome 3 with underwent variable splicing, early termination of sequence, and loss of function. The phylogenetic tree revealed that MePEPC family could be divided into two subfamilies (plant type and bacterial type), and the distribution of exons of the same group were similar. The promoter region of MePEPC members contained different numbers of light corresponding elements, hormone corresponding elements, and stress response elements, indicating that different MePEPC member may participate in different growth and development regulation processes. The relative expression levels of MePEPC1, MePEPC4, and MePEPC5 were relatively higher, and the different expression patterns were in different light time, different development stages, drought and ABA stress. The relative expression levels of MePEPC2 and MePEPC3 were lower and almost invisible. This study provides basic data for in-depth study of the function of MePEPC family in cassava and candidate genes for cassava high light efficiency breeding.

      Genetic analysis and gene mapping of the yellow midrib leaf mutant (yml) in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
      GUO Jun-Yao, LIU Bin-Mei, YANG Hui-Jie, QIN Chao-Qi, REN Yan, JIANG Hong-Rui, TAO Liang-Zhi, YE Ya-Feng, WU Yue-Jin
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(12):  3120-3129.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12077
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      Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important food crop, and its yield has been concerned for a long time. Rice leaves are the essential sites for photosynthesis, and leaf midrib is the tissue with the function of supporting and transporting. Meanwhile, the photosynthetic pigments present in leaf midrib can also provide a certain amount of photosynthesis. In this study, the yellow midrib leaf (yml) mutant obtained by the heavy ion beam implantation on indica rice 9311 was applied for genetic analysis and gene mapping. The mutant began to had the yellowing phenotype of leaf midrib about 5 days after flowering at heading stage, and the yellowing character was obvious at the late heading stage, and this change could last until the mature stage. At tillering stage, there was no significant difference in photosynthetic pigment content between the mutant and the wild type. However, compared with wild type at the late heading stage, the photosynthetic pigment content in the leaves and midribs of the mutant was significantly lower. Consequently, the photosynthetic efficiency of the mutant was substantially reduced, and the net photosynthetic rate was only 50.37% of wild type. At mature stage, plant height, panicle length, effective panicle, filled grain number per panicle, seed setting rate, and the 1000-grain weight of mutants were significantly lower than wild type. Genetic analysis revealed that this mutant character was controlled by a pair of recessive genes. By using map-based cloning technique, this gene was located on chromosome 6. Moreover, the gene was further located between InDel5 and RM3431 with a physical distance of approximately 700 kb by using simple repeat sequence (SSR) and insertional deletion (InDel) markers. This study provides a research basis for the subsequent cloning and functional analyses of the mutant gene.

      Evaluation and identification index of heat tolerance in different summer maize varieties at V12 stage
      ZHU Ya-Di, WANG Hui-Qin, WANG Hong-Zhang, REN Hao, LYU Jian-Hua, ZHAO Bin, ZHANG Ji-Wang, REN Bai-Zhao, YIN Fu-Wei, LIU Peng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(12):  3130-3143.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13079
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      At present, the occurrence times of high temperature stress is moving forward, and the mean temperature of air and duration of high temperature stress are increasing, which makes summer maize vulnerable to high temperature stress at V12 stage. V12 stage is the critical period of young ear differentiation in summer maize, which is sensitive to temperature. High temperature stress during this stage lead to significant decrease in grain yield. Screening heat tolerant varieties and identification index of heat tolerance are the economical and efficient measures to alleviate heat damage. 35 maize hybrids varieties were used as material in this experiment. Artificial warming method of field planting was adopted, and high-temperature treatment in V12 stage was set, which lasted 7 days. According to multiple traits such as yield, ear and tassel morphology, 35 varieties were evaluated and classified for heat tolerance in V12 stage by using correlation analysis and multivariate analysis such as principal component analysis, fuzzy membership function method, cluster analysis, stepwise regression method and grey relation analysis, so as to determine the identification indexes of heat tolerance in V12 stage. The results showed that high temperature stress in V12 stage leads to tassel spikelet number, density, total pollen emission decreased, ear morphology changed, the number of silk and kernels per ear reduced, setting rate reduced, and the increase of grain weight couldn’t compensate for the negative effect caused by the decreased of kernels per ear, which lead to the decreased of grain yield. Heat tolerant varieties Denghai 111, Qiangsheng 339, Ludan 9088, Denghai 605, Derui 88, and Denghai 533 were screened out by cluster analysis. Based on stepwise regression analysis, correlation analysis and grey relation analysis, the grain yield, kernels per ear, setting rate, ear length, ear diameter, the spindle length of tassel with spikelet, and tassel branch length were determined as the identification indexes for heat tolerance of summer maize at V12 stage. Multivariable statistical analysis is an effective way to evaluate the heat tolerance of summer maize, the heat tolerant varieties and identification index which selected in this paper can provide the basis for breeding heat tolerant varieties in future.

      Characteristics of yield components, nitrogen accumulation and translocation, and grain quality of semi-winter cultivars with high-yield and high-efficiency
      DING Yong-Gang, CHEN Li, DONG Jin-Xing, ZHU Min, LI Chun-Yan, ZHU Xin-Kai, DING Jin-Feng, GUO Wen-Shan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(12):  3144-3154.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11117
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      To provide a theoretical support for the synergic production of good quality, high yield, and high efficiency of semi-winter type wheat, the field experiment was conducted with 22 cultivars for three consecutive growth seasons in Suining, Jiangsu province, China. To investigate the differences in yield components, N uptake and utilization, and grain quality between the groups, according to grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), cultivars were divided into high-yield and -efficiency (HH), medium-yield and -efficiency (MM), and low-yield and -efficiency (LL) groups using systematic clustering. The results showed that grain yield and NUE of the HH group were significantly higher than MM and LL groups in the three wheat seasons. Compared with the other groups, HH group had a higher grain yield because of more grain numbers, namely, more spikes and grains per spike, and a greater NUE of HH group due to increasing N uptake efficiency (NUpE) and N utilization efficiency (NUtE). The high NUpE of HH group was mainly depended on improving N uptake before anthesis, which could promote N translocation into grains and increase N accumulation in grains. The results also indicated that grain yield and grain number were synergistically increased with N accumulation per grain in a certain range. When grain yield was more than 9.5 t hm-2 or the total grains were higher than 2.2×108 hm-2, N accumulation per grain was a decreasing trend. The grain protein content, wet gluten content, and sedimentation value of the HH group were significantly higher than MM and LL groups. In conclusion, the semi-winter cultivars with high-yield and high-efficiency had the characteristics of high grain number, strong N uptake and translocation ability, and high grain N accumulation. Furthermore, grain protein quality could be improved by enhancing N accumulation per grain.

      Effects of dynamic temperature at grain filling stage on yield and quality of soft japonica rice
      HU Ya-Jie, YU En-Wei, CONG Shu-Min, LI Luan, XUE Jian-Tao, XIA Chen-Yu, GUO Bao-Wei, XING Zhi-Peng
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(12):  3155-3165.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12087
      Abstract ( 197 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (508KB) ( 114 )   Save
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      Two soft japonica varieties (Nanjing 46 and Suxiangjing 100) were used as materials. Dynamic diminishing temperatures at grain filling stage were set through artificial climate chamber, that is, high temperature (HT), normal temperature (NT), low temperature (LT), and the outdoor temperature (CK). The effects of dynamic temperature at grain filling stage on yield and its composition, dry matter production and rice quality of soft japonica rice were studied. The results showed that compared with NT treatment, LT treatment significantly reduced rice yield, while HT treatment did not reduce rice yield. The grain filled percentage and 1000-grain weight were affected by temperature at grain filling stage, and 1000-grain weight decreased under HT treatment, LT treatment reduced significantly the grain filled percentage, but increased significantly in 1000-grain weight. For dry matter production, LT treatment increased significantly dry matter weight and its proportion in stem and sheath, decreased dry matter weight and its proportion in panicle, and decreased total dry matter accumulation. For rice quality, both HT and LT treatments reduced milled rice rate and head rice rate, resulting in inferior processing quality. HT treatment increased the chalkiness grain percentage and chalkiness degree, while LT treatment decreased the chalkiness grain percentage and chalkiness degree, but the change was different between two varieties. Protein content increased and amylose content decreased with increasing temperature at grain filling stage. Under both high and low temperature treatments, gel consistency became shorter and rice taste value decreased. Therefore, too high or too low temperature at grain filling stage was not conducive to the improvement of processing and eating quality in soft japonica rice.

      Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on phosphorus and potassium absorption at grain filling stage under different nitrogen fertilizer input in maize
      TIAN Ming-Hui, YANG Shuo, DU Jia-Qi, ZHANG Chen-Xi, HE Tang-Qing, ZHANG Xue-Lin
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(12):  3166-3178.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13078
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      Understanding the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on maize grain phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) absorption at grain filling stage with nitrogen (N) fertilizer input could provide a theoretical basis for the rational application of biological fertilizers in farmland and the improvement of nutrient uptake and utilization in farmland. Two factorial pot experiments were established during maize growth periods in Zhengzhou and Shangqiu. The two factors were N fertilizer rates (N1: 180 kg N hm-2; N2: 270 kg N hm-2), and mycorrhizae treatments (M0: no AMF inoculation; M1: AMF inoculation). Maize grain weight, plant biomass, root characteristics, plant P and K content and their accumulation were measured. Both N fertilizer rates and mycorrhizae significantly affected maize 100-kernel weight, grain-filling rate, root characteristics, plant P and K content, and their accumulation in Zhengzhou and Shangqiu, respectively. Grain P accumulation increased gradually at grain filling stage, while grain K accumulation increased first and then decreased. Compared with N1, 100-kernel weight and grain-filling rates for N2 treatment increased by 8.4% and 7.8%, and 58% and 79% for grain P and K accumulation in maize, respectively. Compared with M0 in maize, the presence of M1 in Zhengzhou and Shangqiu significantly increased 100-kernel weight, grain filling rates, grain P accumulation, and K accumulation under two N fertilizer conditions and the increases were higher in Shangqiu than Zhengzhou. Compared with M0, the presence of AMF for M1 treatment increased root length, root surface area, root volume, root diameter, and the number of root tips under the conditions of N1 or N2 input in both Zhengzhou and Shangqiu, respectively. In conclusion, the study showed that the presence of AMF could increase gain P and K accumulation and improve root absorption capacity, and increase the accumulation of P and K at maize grain filling stage, especially in lower nutrient area and lower nitrogen condition.

      Distribution and matching characteristics of light and nitrogen in maize canopy of high-density tolerance varieties
      WANG Meng, ZHOU Guang-Yuan, GAO Ju-Lin, YU Xiao-Fang, SUN Ji-Ying, HU Shu-Ping, QING Ge-Er, QU Jia-Wei, MA Da-Ling, WANG Zhi-Gang
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(12):  3179-3191.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13073
      Abstract ( 158 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (899KB) ( 122 )   Save
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      To increase maize yield and efficiency through high-density planting with limited nitrogen input, it is necessary to further explore the potential of light-nitrogen matching utilization of dense-tolerant varieties. Revealing the spatial distribution and matching characteristics of light and nitrogen in canopy in canopy of different density-tolerant varieties, and their relationship with maize yield formation and nitrogen efficiency, is of guiding significance for exploring the reduction of maize yield and efficiency hierarchy differences. In this experiment, the conventional variety KH8 and the high-density tolerant variety MC670 were used as the experimental materials. The planting density was set at 82,500 plants hm-2 and the nitrogen application rate was 150 kg hm-2, systematic analysis of the different varieties of dense canopy light resistant nitrogen differences in spatial distribution and matching characteristics. The results showed that the transmittance of MC670 was 20.6% significantly higher than that of KH8. SLN (specific leaf nitrogen) of upper and middle leaves was significantly higher than that of lower leaves in both cultivars. The SLN of upper and middle leaves of MC670 was significantly higher than that of KH8, but the difference of lower leaves was not significant. The matching coefficients of light and nitrogen for KH8 and MC670 were 1.28 and 0.86, respectively. The difference between the matching coefficients of light and nitrogen for MC670 and the ideal value was small, indicating that the matching degree of light and nitrogen for MC670 was better than KH8. In conclusion, compared with the conventional varieties KH8, the canopy of high-density resistant varieties MC670 had lower extinction coefficient and higher nitrogen reduction coefficient, which made the canopy of high-density resistant varieties had a better light nitrogen matching degree. Meanwhile, the middle and upper canopy had higher ratio of light and nitrogen, photosynthetic productivity, and photosynthetic nitrogen ratio. This is an important physiological factor to achieve higher nitrogen physiological efficiency, nitrogen use efficiency and high yield.

      Relationship between grain yield and sulfur requirement characteristics of wheat cultivars (lines) in main wheat production regions of China
      MU Wen-Yan, CHU Hong-Xin, HUANG Ning, ZHANG Lu-Lu, ZHANG Xue-Mei, GUO Zi-Kang, HUANG Cui, SUN Li-Qian, WEI Lei, LUO Yi-Nuo, WANG Zhao-Hui, LIU Jin-Shan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(12):  3192-3202.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.11106
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      The objective of this study is to clarify relationships of sulfur requirement to grain yield, and sulfur concentration of leading wheat cultivars (lines) in main wheat production regions in China, and to provide a strategy for ensuring reasonable sulfur fertilizer application and high yield and good quality. To study the relationships of grain yield, sulfur concentration and sulfur requirement of wheat cultivars (lines) under intensive agricultural cultivation, field experiment were conducted during 2017-2020 in the dryland wheat growing area in Northwest China (Dryland Wheat Regions), wheat-maize rotation area in North China (Wheat-Maize Regions), rice wheat rotation area in South China (Rice-Wheat regions). The grain yield of leading wheat cultivars (lines) in these regions were 4.1-6.9, 6.2-9.3, and 4.4-7.1 t hm-2, with the average of 5.9, 8.1, and 5.9 t hm-2; and the grain sulfur concentration was 1.73-2.27, 1.59-2.01, and 1.42-1.73 g kg-1, with the average of 1.98, 1.78, and 1.53 g kg-1, respectively. There were significant differences in grain sulfur concentration among different wheat cultivars (lines) under the same yield level. The sulfur requirement of leading wheat cultivars (lines) was 3.7-5.3, 3.1-4.2, and 2.1-6.1 kg Mg-1, with the average of 4.5, 3.7, and 3.7 kg Mg-1 in Dryland Wheat Regions, Wheat-Maize Regions, and Rice-Wheat regions, respectively. With the increase in yield from the very low to the very high levels, the sulfur requirement average declined by 16.3% and 23.4% in Dryland Wheat Regions and Rice-Wheat regions, respectively, while increased by 7.6% in Wheat Maize Regions. Moreover, with the increase in sulfur concentration from 1.5 g kg-1 to 1.8 g kg-1, the sulfur requirement of wheat cultivars (lines) increased by 17.2% in Dryland Wheat Regions, when the sulfur concentration was increased from 1.2 g kg-1 to 1.8 g kg-1, the sulfur requirement of wheat cultivars (lines) increased by 21.4% and 116.5% in Wheat-Maize Regions and Rice-Wheat regions, respectively. Therefore, the optimization of sulfur fertilizer application should be based on grain yield, sulfur concentration of wheat cultivars (lines), and soil sulfur supply capacities of soils in specific region.

      Water footprint and water consumption structure of peanut production in Yellow-Huaihe-Hai agricultural area
      WANG Yi-Xuan, JIA Hao, LU Jie, SHI Xiao-Yu, ZHAO Ming-Yu, GAO Zhen-Zhen, ZHAO Jiong-Chao, CHU Qing-Quan
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(12):  3203-3214.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14235
      Abstract ( 101 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (1040KB) ( 59 )   Save
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      Accurate assessment of the water consumption structure of crop production can provide the main basis for optimizing the regional crop layout and promoting the sustainable utilization of agricultural water resources. With the help of water footprint theory and method, this study quantified the water footprint of peanut production in Yellow-Huaihe-Hai agricultural area from 1985 to 2015 based on county data, and analyzed the change characteristics of water consumption structure and temporal and spatial distribution. The results showed that the total water footprint of peanut production in Yellow-Huaihe-Hai agricultural area in 2015 was 178.32 × 108 m3, of which the footprints of blue water, green water, and gray water respectively were 34.04×108, 73.58 × 108, and 70.70 × 108 m3, the water footprint was spatially high in the southeast and low in the northwest. The east of Henan Province and the south of Shandong Province were the high value areas of peanut water footprint. From 1985 to 2015, the total water footprint of peanuts increased by 87.94%, of which the footprints of blue water, green water, and gray water increased by 1.12%, 25.16%, and 1221% respectively. From the perspective of spatial change, the blue-green water footprints increased in the southwest and decreased in the East, while the gray water footprints increased significantly in the whole region. Over the past three decades, the center of gravity of peanut water footprint had continuously shifted to the southwest with a cumulative movement of 160.90 km. The spatial agglomeration trend of peanut water footprint had changed significantly in some areas, the main hot spots with Shandong Province as the core had shrunk significantly, and new hot spots had appeared in the southwest of Henan Province. This study provides a theoretical basis for the optimization of peanut layout and agricultural water resources management strategy in this region through the accurate evaluation of peanut production water footprint and the analysis of temporal and spatial evolution law in Yellow-Huaihe-Hai agricultural division county.

      Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi on maize grain nitrogen uptake and the composition of soil bacteria communities
      ZHANG Fu-Liang, CHEN Bing-Jie, YANG Shuo, LI Xiao-Li, HE Tang-Qing, ZHANG Chen-Xi, TIAN Ming-Hui, WU Mei, HAO Xiao-Feng, ZHANG Xue-Lin
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(12):  3215-3224.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.13082
      Abstract ( 99 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (792KB) ( 56 )   Save
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      Clarifying the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF) on maize grain yield and their nitrogen (N) absorption by regulating the composition of soil bacterial communities, could provide a theoretical basis for increasing maize yield and improving nutrient use efficiency. In the maize growing season of 2018 and 2019, the two-factors pot experiment was carried out by compartment box device. The box was divided into two compartments, one was growth chamber (containing host plant and AMF) and the other was test chamber. The factors were N forms and mycorrhizae treatments. Maize grain yield, plant N content, and plant root properties were measured. The structure and diversity of the soil bacterial community in the test chamber were analyzed by Hiseq 2500 PE250 high-throughput sequencing technique. Compared with the NH4+-N fertilizer treatment, maize yield and grain N accumulation of the NO3--N fertilizer treatment increased by 14% and 31%. Compared with the M0, the presence of M1 and M2 increased maize yield by 65% and 182%, by 158% and 813% for grain N accumulation for the NH4+-N fertilizer treatment, respectively. For the NO3--N treatment, maize yield increased by 48% and 123%, by 106% and 387% for grain N accumulation, respectively. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that both N forms and mycorrhizae had significant effects on bacterial communities’ composition. Compared with the NH4+-N fertilizer treatment, the relative abundance of Tepidisphaerales of the NO3--N fertilizer treatment on order level increased by 10%, while on genus level, the Bradyrhizobium reduced by 5%. Compared with the M0, the presence of M1 and M2 increased the relative abundance of Bradyrhizobium by 21% and 55% for the NH4+-N fertilizer treatment, by 49% and 74% for the NO3--N treatment, respectively. Soil Tepidisphaerales on order level and Bradyrhizobium on genus level were significantly and positively related with grain N accumulation. In conclusion, the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi could increase maize grain yield and their N accumulation under both N forms, and the increase mainly through regulating the soil bacterial communities, especially the relative abundance of Tepidisphaerales and Bradyrhizobium.

      Effects of cooking rice-to-water ratio on grain microstructure and eating characteristics of indica hybrid rice with different amylose contents
      YUAN Yu-Jie, ZHANG Si-Qi, WANG Ming-Yue, LUO Xiao, ZENG Yu-Han, SONG Lu-Xin, LU Hui, CHEN Hong, TAO You-Feng, DENG Fei, REN Wan-Jun
      Acta Agronomica Sinica. 2022, 48(12):  3225-3233.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.12088
      Abstract ( 141 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (10091KB) ( 110 )   Save
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      To investigate the effects of different cooking rice-to-water ratio (R/W) on rice eating quality can provide a theoretical basis for the selection of the optimal R/W during cooking for indica hybrid rice with different amylose contents. On the basis of the previous variety screening test, two indica hybrid rice varieties with high amylose and two with low amylose were used to investigate the response of rice appearance morphology, microstructure, texture characteristics, and the eating quality to cooking R/W. The results were as follows: (1) The indica hybrid rice with low amylose content (LAC) had high swelling factor. The large cracks appeared during soaking and penetrated through the whole grain, and water fully entered the grain, which could be gelatinized completely with less water addition. When the amount of water was too high, holes formed inside the grain and the structure was unstable. However, the indica hybrid rice with high amylose content (HAC) had the opposite trend. (2) Cooking R/W significantly affected the hardness, adhesiveness, chewiness, gumminess, cohesiveness, and resilience of rice, as well as palatability, cold rice texture, and overall eating quality of rice. (3) Increasing the amount of water could significantly improve the adhesiveness of rice, reduce the hardness, chewiness, gumminess, cohesiveness and resilience of rice, increase the adhesiveness of rice. The palatability, taste, cold rice texture, and overall eating quality increased first and then decreased with the increase of water addition, while the water addition had no significant influence on rice aroma and appearance. (4) The aroma and appearance of LAC was superior to HAC in each R/W treatment. The palatability of LAC was the best at 1:1.3 (R/W), while the HAC was the best at 1:2.3 (R/W). The taste and cold rice texture properties of the two kinds of rice were similar to the palatability properties. In conclusion, increasing the cooking water amount could significantly improve the eating quality of HAC. The LAC had the best eating quality at the 1:1.3 (R/W), while the HAC had the best taste at 1:2.3 (R/W).

the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
Submission: https://www.editorialmanager.com/cj/
E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
Tel: 8610-82108548