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    12 August 2015, Volume 41 Issue 08
      EST-SSR and SNP Markers Based Barley Malt Purity Detection
      ZHANG Li-Sha,DONG Guo-Qing,ZHA Sang,ZHUO Ga,WANG De-Liang,GU Fang-Hong,YUAN Xing-Miao,ZHANG Jing,GUO Gang-Gang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(08):  1147-1154.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.01147
      Abstract ( 588 )   RICH HTML    PDF (1478KB) ( 1352 )   Save
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      Barley malt is one of the main raw materials used in beer production. Malt purity determines the level of its homogeneity, which affecting processing techniques and beer quality. For the efficient and accurate identification of malt purity, providing evidence for the malt raw materials procurement and quality monitoring in beer production, the purities of six proportionally premixed malt samples and another four blind samples were detected by using EST-SSR and SNP markers in this study. The results showed that the samples with mixing ratio higher than 10% were distinguished with EST-SSR markers in qualitative detection, whereas those with SNP markers were more effective even the sample impurity as low as 5%. In the quantitative detection, the standard error between the measured value and the true value was lower than 3% in one sampling. Obviously, both of the two types of molecular markers are all can be used for malt purity test, but KASP assay based-SNP detection is more suitable for rapid and quantitative malt purity test.

      Genetic Analysis of a New Yellow-green Leaf Mutant and Fine-mapping of Mutant Gene in Rice
      HE Ni-Qing,LIU Zhou,ZHANG Long,BAI Su-Yang,TIAN Yun-Lu,JIANG Ling,WAN Jian-Min
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(08):  1155-1163.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.01155
      Abstract ( 650 )   RICH HTML    PDF (2311KB) ( 1475 )   Save
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      The yellow-green leaf mutant T113, which was isolated from a T-DNA mutant pool with Dongjin variety as the background material, showed a yellow-green leaf phenotype in whole developing stage. Compared with wild type, the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid decreased, the yellow-green leaf became more and more obvious along with developing in T113. At maturity, the number of productive panicles per plant, panicle length, seed setting rate, 1000-grain weight and plant height reduced. The date of heading of T113 also delayed. The phenotype of mutant was not affected by temperature. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the chloroplast of mutant was brighter than that of wild type, the mutant developed loosed thylakoid lamellar structures. The expression of genes associated with chlorophyll biosynthetic and chloroplast development of T113 changed a lot. Genetic analysis showed that the yellow-green leaf trait of the T113 mutant was controlled by one pair of recessive nuclear genes. Genetic mapping of the mutant gene was conducted using a F2 mapping population of T113/N22. Finally, the mutant gene was mapped between Indel markers CX2 and JX18 on the long arm of chromosome 2 with physical distance of 79 kb, in which 12 predicted genes had been annotated.

      Characterization and Gene Mapping of Rolled Leaf Mutant 28 (rl28) in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
      FENG Ping**,XING Ya-Di**,LIU Song,GUO Shuang,ZHU Mei-Dan,LOU Qi-Jin,SANG Xian-Chun,HE Guang-Hua,WANG Nan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(08):  1164-1171.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.01164
      Abstract ( 524 )   RICH HTML    PDF (3122KB) ( 878 )   Save
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      Leaves play a very important role in plant development for their function of photosynthesis. Moderate rolling leaves can facilitate the improvement of plant’s population structure and enhance light-use efficiency, which is very important in ideotype breeding. Therefore, the rolled leaf genes which regulate morphology in rice are important for exploring plant type and improving basic research in molecular biology. This study reported a new gene rolled leaf 28 (rl28), which was derived from EMS-treated restorer line Jinhui10. The mutational trait inherited steadily after several generations’ self-crossing. Compared with the wild-type, the leaves of rl28 began to curl along ?the vasculan bundle in medial axis from booting stage, leaf rolling index was significantly higher than that of the wild-type, and leaf angles were less than those of wild-type. Scanning electron microscopy and morphological analysis showed stoma number per 10-5 m2 and stomatal conductance were significantly higher than those of the wild-type, transpiration rate was significantly higher than that of wild-type. Compared with the wild-type, midrib of rl28 was much larger, and the number of the two adjacent vesicular cells decreased. Genetic analysis showed that the mutational trait was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. RL28 was finally mapped on chromosome 5 between SSR markers 5-43 and 5-34 with an interval of 90 kb. These results provide a foundation for cloning and function analysis of RL28.

      Identification and Molecular Detection of Powdery Mildew Resistance of New Bred Wheat Varieties (Lines) in Henan Province, China
      CAO Ting-Jie,CHEN Yong-Xing,LI Dan,ZHANG Yan,WANG Xi-Cheng,ZHAO Hong,LIU Zhi-Yong
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(08):  1172-1182.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.01172
      Abstract ( 879 )   RICH HTML    PDF (646KB) ( 873 )   Save
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      The powdery mildew resistance of 809 (2009–2013) and 412 (2009–2012) new bred wheat varieties (lines) from Henan provincial regional trials was tested using Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) isolates E09 and E20, respectively. Molecular markers linked to powdery mildew resistance genes Pm2, Pm4a, Pm8, and Pm21 were used to detect the presence of the individual resistance gene. Among the 908 varieties (lines) inoculated by E09, 199 (21.9%) exhibited resistance. Among the 412 varieties (lines) inoculated by E20, 39 (9.5%) exhibited resistance. Only 15 (3.6%) varieties (lines) showed resistance to both E09 and E20. The 1RS chromatin was detected in 580 out of 908 (63.9%) varieties (lines), indicating the common use of Pm8 or newly developed 1BL/1RS translocation lines in wheat breeding program. Two varieties carried the board spectrum powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21 originating from 6AL/6VS translocation. Eight and two lines might contain the Pm2 and Pm4a loci, respectively. Six varieties (lines) seemed to carry at least two powdery mildew resistance genes. Our results indicated that the newly developed wheat varieties (lines) in Henan province are important powdery mildew resistance resources. However, the common use of 1BL/1RS translocations and a few powdery mildew resistance genes has revealed a very narrow genetic diversity of the resistant resource. It is very urgent to introduce new diversified and broad spectrum powdery mildew resistance genes into the commercial wheat breeding program.

      Molecular Mapping of Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene MlDH155 in Hexaploid Wheat DH155 and Its Transfer by Marker Assisted Selection
      GUAN Chang-Ying,GUO Jun,XUE Feng-Bo,ZHANG Guang-Xu,WANG Hong-Wei,LI An-Fei,KONG Ling-Rang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(08):  1183-1190.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.01183
      Abstract ( 750 )   RICH HTML    PDF (1038KB) ( 648 )   Save
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      Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) line DH155 is highly resistant to wheat powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt). To identify the Bgt resistance gene(s) in DH155, we developed an F2 population and its derived F2:3 families by crossing the resistant line DH155 with the susceptible line SN2890. The segregation ratios indicated that the seedling resistance to Bgt E09 in DH155 was controlled by a single dominant gene, which was tentatively designated MlDH155. By bulked segregation analysis, two codominant SSR markers, Xcfd81 and Xcfd18, were identified to be linked to MlDH155. To identify the closely linked markers to the targeted gene, we developed five new molecular markers based on the published D genome sequences of Chinese Spring and Aegilops tauschii, which permitted mapping of MlDH155 within an interval of 1.0 cM, flanked by XsdauK525 and XsdauK527. The Pm resistant line DH155 was crossed with two elite wheat lines (HB133-4 and Han 10) but susceptible to powdery mildew. Subsequently, two powdery mildew resistant lines with the genetic background of HB133-4 and one resistant line with Han 10 background were developed by genotypic and phenotypic selection, which were designated by the name of SDAU2100, SDAU2101 and SDAU2102, respectively. Among the 14 Bgt isolates tested at the seedling stage, DH155 was resistant to 13 and susceptible to 1 isolates. The virulence pattern of these Bgt isolates on DH155 was similar to that of the known powdery mildew resistance gene Pm2, but the reactions of DH155 to two Bgt isolates differed from those of Ulka/8*Cc carrying Pm2. Compared to previous studies about Pm2, MlDH155 was most likely to be either the same as or an allele of Pm2.

      Stress-activated Protein Kinase OsSAPK2 Involved in Regulating Resistant Response to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in Rice
      HU Dan-Dan,ZHANG Fan,HUANG Li-Yu,ZHUO Da-Long,ZHANG Fan,ZHOU Yong-Li,SHI Ying-Yao,LI Zhi-Kang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(08):  1191-1200.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.01191
      Abstract ( 668 )   RICH HTML    PDF (1739KB) ( 1014 )   Save
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      Sucrose nonfermenting1-related protein kinase2 (SnRK2), also known as stress-activated protein kinase (OsSAPKs), plays an important role in signal transduction. In this study, we analyzed the structure and function of OsSAPK2 in response to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) infection. The result suggested that OsSAPK2 is a member of Kulik’s II group like OsSAPK1, OsSAPK3 and located in nucleus and cytoplasm. OsSAPK2 and disease-resistant genes OsLRR1, OsHIR1 were down regulated in OsSAPK2-RNAi transgenic rice, while disease-related gene OsMAPK5 was up regulated. Compared with non-transgenic plants, transgenic plants were more susceptible to Xoo infection. OsSAPK2 could activate itself and interact with several stress-related proteins. These results indicate that OsSAPK2 might be involved in the regulation of resistance response by regulating the expression of OsLRR1, OsHIR1, OsMAPK5 and interacting with stress-related proteins.

      Expression Profiling Analysis between Resistant and Susceptible Cotton Cultivars (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Response to Fusarium Wilt
      HAN Ze-Gang,ZHAO Zeng-Qiang,LI Hui-Hui,ZHANG Xi,LI Xiao-Ling,ZHANG Wei
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(08):  1201-1211.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.01201
      Abstract ( 491 )   RICH HTML    PDF (371KB) ( 631 )   Save
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      Fusarium Wilt resistant cotton cultivar Zhongmiansuo 12 and susceptible cultivar Xinluzao 7 were used to analyze the gene expression profiling of root tissues at three hours and six hours after the seedlings infection by Fusarium Wilt using Solexa sequencing technology. Compared with no infection, 4447 and 5481 differential genes after three hours and six hours infected by Fusarium Wilt were identified, and compared six hours with three hours, 2559 differential genes were identified in Zhongmiansuo 12; while 8615, 6727 and 2078 was respectively identified in Xinluzao 7. There were 1879 and 500 differential genes in three hours and six hours after infection when the two cultivars were compared. According to the Gene Ontology, these genes were divided into these groups of biological process, cellular component and molecular function; then further subdivided into 48 functional categories. By analyzing the pathways, the most of them were identified in 6 h/0 h after infection between Zhongmiansuo 12 and Xinluzao 7, which were 126 each in the two cultivars; the least of pathways were at 6 h after infection in two cultivars, which was 89 only. However, all the pathways in each comparison group could be classified into 13 categories, such as biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, environmental adaptation, Immune system. A pathway, named plant-pathogen interaction in the environmental adaptation and immune system category, was involved in 996 differential genes; and the number of up regulated genes was 444 and that of down regulated genes was 552. The most differential genes were in WRKY transcription factor family, the serine/threonine kinase had the medium number of differential genes, while DNA damage-repair/ toleration protein, JAZ1, RAR1, RPM1-interacting protein, S locus specific glycoprotein S6 precursor and caltractin had the least genes. Finally, six expressed genes were randomly relected to ralidate the results by RT-PCR which were consistent with those by Solexa sequencing.

      Response of Soil Microbial Characteristics and Soil Enzyme Activity to Irrigation Method in No-till Winter Wheat Field
      YE De-Lian,QI Rui-Juan,GUAN Da-Hai,LI Jian-Min,ZHANG Ming-Cai,LI Zhao-Hu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(08):  1212-1219.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.01212
      Abstract ( 552 )   RICH HTML    PDF (486KB) ( 912 )   Save
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      The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of conventional (150 mm, W1), water-saving (75 mm, W2), and zero (W3) irrigation on winter wheat yield, soil basal respiration, soil microbial biomass nitrogen (SMBN) and soil enzyme activities under no-till practice in North China Plain. Wheat yields in W1 and W2 were similar and significantly higher than that in W3. Water stress showed great influence on soil basal respiration and SMBN at jointing and filling stages, resulting in a significant decrease of soil basal respiration under W2 and W3 compared with that under W1, and a change of SMBN as W1 > W2 > W3. The activities of soil β-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase, and urease declined with the decrease of irrigation quantity. Such influence was more sensitive in early growth period of wheat than in late growth period, particularly in the 0–10 cm soil layer. These results suggested that yield formation of winter wheat under no-till practice might result from the regualtion of soil microbial activity that received great impact of irrigation strategy.

      Difference in Yield and Population Characteristics of Different Types of Late Rice Cultivars in Double-cropping Rice Area
      GUO Bao-Wei,HUA Jin,ZHOU Nian-Bing,ZHANG Hong-Cheng, HEN Bo,SHU Peng,HUO Zhong-Yang,ZHOU Pei-Jian,CHENG Fei-Hu,HUANG Da-Shan,CHEN Zhong-Ping,CHEN Guo-Liang,CHEN Heng,DAI Qi-Gen,XU Ke,WEI Hai-Yan,GAO H
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(08):  1220-1236.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.01220
      Abstract ( 557 )   RICH HTML    PDF (418KB) ( 959 )   Save
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      In order to provide the scientific basis and technical support for the selection of suitable cultivars and high-yielding cultivation in double cropping systems, we selected indica-japonica hybrid rice, japonica hybrid rice, japonica conventional rice and indica hybrid rice in double-cropping rice areas (Shanggao of Jiangxi) in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River to analyze the differences of yield and its components, development of stem and tiller number, development of leaf area and its composition, photosynthetic potential, dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate and net assimilation rate of rice cultivars with different types systematically using wet nursery and big seedlings transplanting under high-yielding cultivation condition. Results showed that the yields of different types of late rice cultivars in double cropping systems all demonstrated indica-japonica hybrid rice > japonica hybrid rice > japonica conventional rice > indica hybrid rice very significantly. Establishing enough total spikelets through adequate panicles and large spikelets per panicle, and keeping a sustainable seed-setting rate and 1000-grain weight liene the basic way to obtain the highest yield for indica-japonica hybrid rice. Compared with japonica hybrid rice, japonica conventional rice and indica hybrid rice, indica-japonica hybrid rice showed fewer tillers at the early growth stage, achieved expected number of stems and tillers at the critical leaf age for productive tiller, and had lower number of peak tiller at the jointing stage. Then, the indica-japonica hybrid population had a steady decline in number of tillers with a higher productive tillers rate (about 73.19%). The leaf area index of indica-japonica hybrid rice population was lower at the early growth stage, with the maximum leaf area index of about 7.93 at booting, and kept more than 3.85 at maturity, whose leaf area index, the ratio of effective leaf area, ratio of effective leaf area in top three leaves and ratio of grain to leaf were significantly higher than those of japonica hybrid rice, japonica conventional rice and indica hybrid rice population at heading. The dry matter accumulation of indica-japonica hybrid rice was comparable to that of japonica hybrid rice, japonica conventional rice and indica hybrid rice population at the critical leaf age for productive tiller and at the jointing stage, increased greater after jointing, and was higher at booting, heading, milky stage and maturity. The proportion of total biomass accumulation was higher at the middle and late growth stage. The photosynthetic potential, crop growth rate and net assimilation rate were smaller at the early stage and higher at the middle and late stages. 

      Effects of Double Cropping of Wheat and Cotton on Fat and Protein Metabolism of Cotton Embryo
      SHEN Tian-Yao,DU Xiang-Bei,YANG Hong-Kun,ZHANG Yu-Xiao,ZHENG Yu-Fei,ZHOU Zhi-Guo,CHEN Bing-Lin
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(08):  1237-1245.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.01237
      Abstract ( 507 )   RICH HTML    PDF (535KB) ( 682 )   Save
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      To provide a theoretical basis for improving the quality of cottonseed under the condition of stabilizing the cotton yield and quality in wheat-cotton double cropping region of China, we studied the effects of the cropping system on fat and protein metabolism of cotton embryo. Field experiments were conducted in 2012 and 2013 at the cotton experimental station of Dafeng City, Jiangsu Province, China, using cotton cultivars Siza 3 (Mid-late maturity) and CCRI 50 (early maturity) with four cropping systems monocropping cotton (CK) as control, and three wheat-cotton double cropping systems were intercropped cotton (IC), transplanted cotton (TC) and direct-seeded cotton (DC). The accumulation of cotton embryo fat and protein, and key enzyme activities as well as their correlation were measured. The results showed that cotton embryo fat content of the double-cropped cotton was lower than that of CK, with the order of IC>TC>DC. Besides, the cotton embryo protein content of IC, TC was higher than that of CK, however, that of DC was lower than that of CK. Moreover, the contents of cotton embryo fat and protein were higher in CCRI 50 than in Siza 3. The double-cropped cotton had lower phosphatidate phosphatase (PPase) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) but higher phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activities, compared with CK. Furthermore, the activities of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) of IC and TC were higher than those of CK, however, those of DC were lower. Moreover, the activities of PPase, G6PDH, GS and GOGAT were higher in CCRI 50 than in Siza 3, but the PEPC activity had opposite trend between them. The content of cotton embryo fat was significantly and positively correlated with PPase and G6PDH activities, and significantly and negatively correlated with PEPC activity. In addition, the content of cotton embryo protein was significantly and positively correlated with G6PDH, GS and GOGAT activities. In summary, wheat-cotton intercropping system with mid-maturity cotton cultivars should be utilized to increase the quality of cottonseed on the basis of the stable cotton yield and quality in wheat–cotton region double cropping of China.

      Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization Application Regime on Dry Matter, Nitrogen Accumulation and Transportation in Summer Maize under Waterlogging at the Seedling Stage
      WU Wen-Ming,CHEN Hong-Jian,WANG Shi-Ji,WEI Feng-Zhen,LI Jin Cai
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(08):  1246-1256.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.01246
      Abstract ( 529 )   RICH HTML    PDF (514KB) ( 713 )   Save
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      Field experiments were carried out from 2011 to 2012 to clarify the leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, nitrogen assimilation, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield under waterlogging at the seedling stage in summer maize cultivar “Zhengdan958”. Under both waterlogging and control (normal watering) conditions, we implemented four treatments with total N amount of 240 kg ha-1 in all treatments and different N application ratios at land preparation, jointing, and big trumpet stages (10:0:0 for N1, 7:3:0 for N2, 5:5:0 for N3, and 3:5:2 for N4). The results showed that waterlogging stress in the seedling stage significantly decreased grain yield by 24.2%–25.7%, postponement of nitrogen application was able to alleviate the effect of waterlogging on grain yield. The grain yield was affected more by kernel number per ear than by 1000-kernel weight, and grain yield was positively correlated to the maximum LAI at silking stage and harvest index, while not to grain-leaf ratio. Waterlogging stress in the seedling stage significantly decreased leaf area index (LAI), especially LAI of under-ear layer. Postponed nitrogen application increased the LAI of ear layer and above-ear layer to compensate the LAI decrease of under-ear layer, and the compensation effect was higher than the decrease effect of waterlogging stress, which resulted in higher LAI compared to the nitrogen application in advance. Waterlogging stress in the seedling stage significantly decreased dry matter accumulation, and increased the transportation amount after silking stage. Postponed nitrogen application enhanced the accumulation of dry matter and laid the foundation for increasing grain yield. Waterlogging stress in the seedling stage also significantly decreased nitrogen accumulation of different organs, and decreased nitrogen translocation from vegetative organs to the grain, and nitrogen accumulation amount after silking stage. Compared with nitrogen applied in advance, postponed nitrogen application significantly increased the nitrogen content of different organs, and nitrogen accumulation amount after silking stage. Waterlogging stress decreased nitrogen uptake efficiency and partial factor productivity from applied nitrogen, postponed nitrogen application increased the nitrogen uptake efficiency by 0.9% to 18.2%, and partial factor productivity from applied nitrogen by 1.0% to 17.5%.

      Quality of Indica Hybrid Rice under the High-yield Cultivation Conditions in Different Ecological Regions of Sichuan Province, China
      TIAN Qing-Lan,LI Pei-Cheng,LIU Li,ZHANG Qiang,REN Wan-Jun
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(08):  1257-1268.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.01257
      Abstract ( 567 )   RICH HTML    PDF (261KB) ( 718 )   Save
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      Pixian, Hanyuan, Shehong, and Linshui are four ecological regions of Sichuan province representative. Pixian lies in Chengdu Plain, having plenty of fertile soil, but weak light. Hanyuan lies in the high altitude area of Panxi, with sufficient temperature and light resources. Shehong lies in the hilly area of mid Sichuan plateau, and is restricted by terrain so that the temperature difference is small. Linshui lies in the hilly area of East Sichuan, it lacking in water resources and often having drought stress. The experiment was conducted in the high-yielding rice demonstration sites in four typical ecological regions of Sichuan Province to study milling quality, apparent quality, protein content, amylose content, RVA profile characteristic values of hybrid indica rice with different yield levels under different cultivation patterns. The results were as follows: (1) There was a close relation between ecological conditions and rice grain quality. Pixian had the best milling quality among the four ecological regions, and Linshui had the worst one. The slightly higher temperature before and after full panicle stage and higher total N, total K, available P in the soil were in favor of the formation of high milling quality. Soil total P could significantly increase the rice aspect ratio. The high temperature at grain filling period increased the rice chalkiness rate and chalkiness degree, while high soil available P was of benefit to reducing the rice chalkiness rate and chalkiness degree. The high temperature in grain filling period was able to reduce the rice protein content. The rice amylose content was rising with the increase of soil organic matter. Peak viscosity had a significant negative correlation with soil total K. Breakdown viscosity had a significant negative correlation with soil total K and available P, while a significant positive correlation with the maximum temperature from 8 to 21 d before full heading. Consistency viscosity and peak time both had a significant negative correlation with the maximum temperature from 14 to 21 d before full heading and the maximum temperature from heading to maturity. In addition, consistency and peak time had a significant positive correlation with the soil available N. (2) Among cultivation patterns, mechanized direct-seeding gained the better milling quality. Optimal cast?transplanting had higher amylose content, but mechanized transplanting had higher peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity, and lower setback viscosity, resulting better cooking and eating quality. (3) High-yield and super high-yield plots had better milling quality, but relatively poor cooking and eating quality and apparent quality. This study provides a theoretical reference for the high yield and high quality cultivation techniques of hybrid indica rice in Sichuan Province.

      Response of Nutrient Uptake, Yield and Quality to Nutrition of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in Grain Sorghum
      WANG Jin-Song,JIAO Xiao-Yan,DING Yu-Chuan,DONG Er-Wei,BAI Wei-Bin,WANG Li-Ge,WU Ai-Lian
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(08):  1269-1278.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.01269
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      The field experiment conducted with the fixed plots tested in Dongyang Agricultural Experiment Station of Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences in 2011 and 2012 was carried out to investigate the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium on nutrient uptake, yield and quality of grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] cv. Jinza 23 under the sorghum-maize rotation cropping system in 2013. The experiment included five treatments with fertilizers NPK, PK, NK, NP, and CK (without fertilization) with three replicates in a completely randomized block design. The experimental results showed that at 76 days after emergence, the sorghum maximum leaf area of NPK, PK, NP, and NK treatments increased by 18.7%, 4.1%, 17.9%, and 16.6%respectively; and the total functional leaf area per plant increased by 54.1%, 18.4%, 47.4%, and 48.2% respectively compared with CK treatment. Fertilization treatment had significantly influences on leaf biomass throughout growth period. Since 121 days after emergence, there were significant effects of different fertilization treatments on the stem biomass. Comparison with CK treatment, the sorghum grain yield of NPK, PK, NK, and NP treatments increased by 93.8%, 35.5%, 91.2%, and 78.1% respectively. The N contents in leaves of CK and PK treatments were significantly lower than those of NPK, NK, and NP treatments at 100 days after emergence. The P contents in leaves of CK and NK treatments decreased significantly as well. At 149 days after emergence, CK significantly reduced the N content in grains. The treatments of CK, PK, and NP increased the amylose contents in grains, while decreased the amylopectin content, resulting in an increased amylose/amylopectin ratio accordingly. The protein content in applying N fertilizer treatments of NPK, NP and NK was significantly higher than that of CK and PK. The grain protein content in NPK treatment was 73.9% and 40.3%, more than that in CK and PK treatments respectively. The grain tannin content of NPK treatment was the highest among treatments. The tannin content of NPK treatment increased by 15.6% and 22.7% respectively, compared with that of CK and PK treatments. These results demonstrated that no N application or no fertilization significantly reduces the growth, dry matte accumulation, grain yield, N and P uptake, and the concentrations of amylase, protein and tannin in grains of grain sorghum. The effect of no N application or no fertilization on sorghum is significantly greater than that of no P or K application. Balanced fertilization with N, P and K is beneficial to increase grain yield and improve grain quality of grain sorghum.

      Effects of Different Drip-Irrigation Modes at the Seeding Stage on Yield and Water-Use Efficiency of Spring Maize in Northeast China
      XU Jie,LI Cong-Feng,MENG Qing-Feng,GE Jun-Zhu,WANG Pu,ZHAO Ming
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(08):  1279-1286.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.01279
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      The seasonal drought especially in spring is one of the major obstacle factors for yield improvement in maize production in Northeast China. Drip irrigation could effectively alleviate drought while different drip irrigation strategies have different impacts. Using rainfed maize as a control (CK), we compared the effects of traditional drip irrigation (using the Embedded labyrinth drip irrigation tube, TDI) and new drip irrigation (using the New drip irrigation tube, NDI) together with three depths of tube (0 cm, 5 cm and 10 cm) on maize growth, yield and water use. Compared with CK, irrigation treatments significantly increased grain yield by 9.5%–20.1%. For TDI, no significant yield difference was observed among three tube depths. For NDI, grain yield in treatment with 5 cm tube depth was 4.4% higher than that with 0 cm tube depth. At the same tube depth between TDI and NDI, no significant yield difference was observed with an exception of NDI with 5 cm tube depth, which increased yield by 8.8%. Compared with CK, yield increase with irrigation mainly resulted from the improvement of emergence rate, which was increased by 12%. The ear number per ha was improved by 13%. The higher yield in NDI with 5 cm tube depth was because of the delayed leaf senescence and higher total dry matter accumulation. Compared with CK, irrigation improved water use efficiency by 8.1%–10.9%, with the highest in NDI with 5 cm tube depth. Therefore, Using NDI with 5 cm tube depth could be an effective strategy to increase both yield and water use efficiency of spring maize in Northeast China.

      Identification of Mungbean Germplasm Resources Resistant to Drought at Adult Stage
      WANG Lan-Fen, WU Jing, JING Rui-Lian, CHENG Xu-Zhen, WANG Shu-Min
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(08):  1287-1294.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.01287
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      Identification of drought resistance is the basic step for selecting drought resistance germplasm resources and mining the drought resistance genes. In this study, 21 mungbean accessions were identified for drought resistance in the different irrigation conditions of greenhouse. Twelve parameters were investigated, including yield per plant, pod weight per plant, seed number per plant, shoot biomass per plant, biomass per plant, root shoot ratio. The ratios of all parameters under the conditions between drought and control were calculated. The identification indices, methods and mungbean germplasm for drought-resistance were evaluated by correlation analysis, subordinative function analysis, drought resistance coefficient and drought resistance index. The results indicated that drought-resistant coefficient had significantly positive correlations with the ratios under the conditions between drought and control for shoot biomass per plant, biomass per plant, pod weight per plant, seed number per plant, effective pod number per plant and significantly negative correlation with that radio for root shoot ratio. The seven indices were recommended for drought resistance identification in mungbean at adult stage. The correlations were significant among parameter values of three evaluation methods, with a very high consistency. Drought resistance index was recommended to screen a large number of germplasm resources of mungbean at adult stage. The various resistant accessions of mungbean germplasm resources were screened by drought resistance index including three varieties with high resistance, six with resistance, four with moderate resistance, five with susceptibility, and three with high susceptibility.

      Effects of Elevated Air Temperature and Carbon Dioxide Concentration on the Nitrogen Use of Double Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Open-top Chambers
      WANG Bin,WAN Yun-Fan,GUO Chen,LI Yu-E,YOU Song-Cai,QIN Xiao-Bo,CHEN Hui-Lin
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(08):  1295-1303.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.01295
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      Preventing 2°C of warming and restricting the CO2 level to 450 µL L-1 are the safety threshold for climate change based on the Copenhagen Consensus. It is an important reference for the security of rice yields to study the influence of elevated air temperature and CO2 concentration on the nitrogen use of rice. In this paper, a modified open-top chamber (OTC) device was used to simulate relative 60 µL L-1 CO2 concentration rise (based on CO2 background concentration of 390 µL L-1) and 2°C temperature increase scenario in a double rice field experiment with Liangyou 287 and Xiangfengyou 9 as the early and late rice varieties respectively. There were five treatments with three replications: 1) UC: Paddy field without OTC cover; 2) CK: Check OTC with the similar temperature and CO2 concentration to the field environment; 3) CT: OTC with 2°C temperature increase; 4) CC: OTC with 60 µL L-1 CO2 concentration elevated; 5) CTC: OTC with 2°C temperature increase and 60 µL L-1 CO2 concentration elevated. The nitrogen accumulation, translocation and utilization in different treatments were explored. The results showed significant interactions between temperature increase and CO2 concentration elevated on the yield and nitrogen use. In early rice CC and CTC achieved an increase for grain yield (19.7% and 2.0%) and nitrogen accumulation (15.7% and 5.1%) compared with CK while CT presented a decrease. In late rice warming and high CO2 concentration (CT, CC, and CTC) benefited the grain yield and nitrogen uptake, increasing 9.2%, 14.4%, 18.8% and 7.3%, 10.2%, 15% compared with CK respectively. Nitrogen translocation and contribution efficiency (from stem and leaf to grain) of CC and CTC was lower than that of CK in early rice, and higher than that of CK in late rice. Nitrogen recovery efficiency of CC and CTC reached to 45.7% and 48.5% in early and late rice respectively, achieving the highest increase of 35.3% and 33.1% compared with that of CK. CC and CTC got the highest nitrogen agronomic efficiency by 23.1 kg kg-1 and 26.9 kg kg-1 in early and late rice respectively, and CC got the highest nitrogen physiological efficiency by 50.7 kg kg-1 and 56 kg kg-1 in both early and late rice. There existed no significant difference between CK and UC, which suggested the impact on rice growth under OTC covering was slight. In conclusion, it tends to a negative effect with 2°C temperature increase on yield and nitrogen utilization for early rice, while a positive effect for late rice. A positive effect with 60 µL L-1 CO2 concentration elevated always exists during double rice growth. The condition of 2°C temperature increase and 60 µL L-1 CO2 concentration elevated has an antagonistic effect on early rice, while a synergistic effect on late rice.

the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
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Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
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Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
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Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
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Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
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