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Table of Content

    12 March 2015, Volume 41 Issue 03
    • CROP GENETICS & BREEDING·GERMPLASM RESOURCES·MOLECULAR GENETICS
      Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Related to Spike Traits Using a RILs Population of Yanda 1817 × Beinong 6 in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
      WU Qiu-Hong,CHEN Jiao-Jiao,CHEN Yong-Xing,ZHOU Sheng-Hui,FU Lin,ZHANG De-Yun,XIAO Yao,WANG Guo-Xin,WANG Zhen-Zhong, WANG Li-Xin,HAN Jun,YUAN Cheng-Guo,YOU Ming-Shan,LIU Zhi-Yong
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(03):  349-358.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00349
      Abstract ( 1118 )   RICH HTML    PDF (3005KB) ( 1097 )   Save
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       Spike length (SL), grain number per spike (GNS), and grain weight per spike (GWS) are important spike traits associated with yield in wheat. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for spike traits were mapped using an available high-density SNP and SSR genetic linkage map developed from a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of Yanda 1817 × Beinong 6. Using phenotypic data on two locations (Beijing and Shijiazhuang) in two years (2011–2012 and 2012–2013 growing seasons), 29 QTLs for SL, GNS and GWS were detected by inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) (LOD ≥ 2.5). Among which, 10 QTLs for spike length were mapped on chromosomes 1B, 2D, 3A, 3B, 4A, 5A, 5B, 6A, and 7D with phenotypic variations ranging from 2.96% to 9.63%. A stable and major QTL associated with SL, QSl.cau-4A.2, was detected in all the environments with phenotypic variations ranging from 5.89% to 9.62%. Eight QTLs for GNS were found on chromosomes 1A, 3A, 3D, 4A, and 5B with phenotypic variations from 4.06% to 11.17%. However, they were all environments sensitive and detected in a single environment. Eleven QTLs for GWS were mapped on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 2A, 2D, 3A, 4D, 5A, 5B, and 6B with phenotypic variations ranging from 2.79% to 16.12%. The QTL QGws.cau-6B.2 was identified in three environments and the favorable allele was contributed by Beinong 6. The stable QTLs on chromosomes 3A, 4A, 6B, and 7D identified in this study may serve as target sites in marker-assisted selection of spike related traits in wheat breeding program.

      Mapping and Epistatic Interactions of QTLs for Pericarp Thickness in Sweet Corn
      YU Yong-Tao,LI Gao-Ke,QI Xi-Tao,LI Chun-Yan,MAO Ji-Hua,HU Jian-Guang*
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(03):  359-366.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00359
      Abstract ( 1590 )   RICH HTML    PDF (1041KB) ( 1261 )   Save
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      Pericarp thickness is of great importance to the sensory quality of sweet corn. Mining the gene for pericarp thickness and understanding its genetic mechanism can provide a base for instructing breeding. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) for pericarp thickness was detected based on two genetic models using a population comprising 190 BC1F2 families derived from the cross of Richao-1 (thin pericarp, 56.57 μm) ×1021 (thick pericarp, 100.23 μm) in the present study. Three QTLs for pericarp thickness were identified on bin 3.01, 6.01, and 8.05 using the Composite interval mapping (CIM) method, explained 8.6%, 16.0%, and 7.2% of phenotypic variation, respectively. Based on the MCIM (mixed-model based CIM) method, we identified five QTLs for pericarp thickness, comprising one additive QTL and two pairs of epistatic QTLs. The additive QTL was located on bin 8.05. Additive × additive epistatic effects for pericarp thickness were showed between QTL in 2.01 and QTL in 6.05 with estimated 6.63% of the phenotypic variation and between QTL in 5.06 and QTL in 6.01 with the estimated phenotypic variation of 12.48%. The results indicated that epistasis and additive effects play an important role in the genetic basis of pericarp thickness. The MCIM model with the ability to detect epistatic QTLs is more suitable for pericarp thickness QTL mapping. In addition, candidate genes encoding proteins that play important role for pigment biosynthesis and cell transformation in endosperm were contained in four QTL regions of all, suggesting the likely relations between the expressions of these candidate genes and pericarp thickness variation.

      Construction of Molecular Fingerprinting Map in Gene Pool of Jute with SRAP, ISSR and SSR Markers
      WU Gui-Fen,XU Xian-Jun,XU Jian-Tang,TAO Ai-Fen,ZHANG Li-Wu,WEI Li-Zhen,PAN Mo,FANG Ping-Ping,LIN Li-Hui,QI Jian-Min
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(03):  367-377.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00367
      Abstract ( 975 )   RICH HTML    PDF (7270KB) ( 597 )   Save
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      An experiment was conducted using 231 jute germplasm resources from abroad and at home to construct DNA fingerprints of jute varieties with SRAP, ISSR, SSR marker and the DNA fingerprint analysis software. The results showed that 96 DNA fingerprints from 231 jute germplasm resources with 35 pairs of selected SRAP primers, 45 DNA fingerprints from 96 jute varieties with 11 selected polymorphic ISSR primers, and 13 DNA fingerprints from 48 jute varieties with 49 selected polymorphic SSR primers were constructed. This study completed a total of 154 genomic DNA molecular fingerprint maps of jute varieties. Every identified jute variety had its unique “ID”. Other 77 local varieties had not been able to be identified due to their high genetic similarity with some varieties. It showed that jute local variety has a serious phenomenon of synonym.

      Genome-wide Identification of Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase Gene Family and Their Expression Analysis in Cotton
      DINGJian,WUShuang,CAICai-Ping,GUO Wang-Zhen*
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(03):  378-385.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00378
      Abstract ( 1067 )   RICH HTML    PDF (571KB) ( 938 )   Save
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      Metabolism related to lipids synthesis plays an important role inregulating both oil biosynthesis and fiber development in cotton. Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT) is a key enzyme in oil biosynthesis pathway in plant. In this study, eight cotton LPAT family genes were identified and their gene sequences, chromosome location were obtained, based on G. raimondii genome database (http://www.phytozome.net/) and bioinformatic method. These LPAT members were anchored on six chromosomes in G. raimondii. Phylogenetic analysis showed that LPAT candidate genes were classified into four groups, with two members each in group I and group III, one in group II,and three in group IV. The expression patterns of LPAT genes revealedtheir important roles in diverse functions in the developmental stages of vegetative and reproductive growth in cotton. LPAT6 and LPAT8 showed the highest expression level in ovules at 17days post-anthesis, which might play an important role in regulating oil biosynthesis. Eight genes showed the preferential expression level in fiber development stages. Among them,LPAT2, LPAT3, and LPAT4 showed the higher expression level in fiber than in other tissues and organs, implying their association with cotton fiber development.

      Identification of Bacterial Blight Resistance Gene in Yunnan Wild Rice
      LI Ding-Qin,CHEN Ling,LI Wei-Jiao,KE Xue,YU Teng-Qiong,LI E-Xian,HUANG Xing-Qi,CHENG Zai-Quan*
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(03):  386-393.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00386
      Abstract ( 807 )   RICH HTML    PDF (6238KB) ( 972 )   Save
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      Bacterial blight (BB) is one of the most destructive diseases in rice production. The most efficient and economical way of controlling the disease is developing disease resistance varieties. Owing to the limited number of resistance genes from cultivated rice and the narrow spectrum of some bacterial blight resistance genes, exploring new resistance genes from wild rice will be conducive to development of new resistance varieties with wider spectrum and higher resistance. Yunnan is rich in resources of wild rice. However, till now there are few reports concerning whether they contain seven cloned BB resistance genes. In this study, seven cloned BB genes were detected in Yunnan wild rice by resistance identification and PCR analysis. The results showed that Yunnan wild rice had different levels of resistance to BB strains Y8 and PXO99, and O. granulata was immune to Y8 and PXO99. The resistance genes xa5, xa13 and Xa21 were not found in all three wild rice materials. Xa1 was detected in O. rufipogon type from Jinghong. Xa3/Xa26 was identified in O. rufipogon types from Yuanjiang and Jinghong, respectively. Xa3/Xa26 was alsoidentified in O. officinalis, Xa23 was found in O. rufipogon type from Yuanjiang, Xa27 in O. rufipogon type from Jinghong, and Xa27 in O. granulata. The results provided a theoretical reference for further exploring and cloning new BB resistance genes in Yunnan wild rice to improve the disease resistance of cultivated rice.

      Identification of PEBP Gene Family in Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium raimondii and Expression Analysis of the Gene family in Gossypium hirsutum
      LI Chao,ZHANG Yan-Nan,LIU Huan-Long,HUANG Xian-Zhong
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(03):  394-404.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00394
      Abstract ( 1013 )   RICH HTML    PDF (5538KB) ( 1034 )   Save
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      The phosphatidylethanolamine-binding proteins (PEBP) widely exist in eukaryotes. In angiosperms, PEBP family genes play important roles in promoting or inhibiting flowering, as well as plant architecture control. Eight PEBP genes were identified from diploid cotton Gossypium arboreum (A2) and Gossypium raimondii (D5) genome database, respectively. All the PEBP genes of cotton contained four exons and three introns, and their encoded proteins contained a conserved PEBP motif and critical amino acid sites of PEBP family, which indicated there were at least eight PEBP genes in diploid cotton. Phylogenetic analysis showed that eight cotton PEBP genes comprised three subfamilies: FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like containing one gene, TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1)-like containing five genes including three TFL1 and two BFT genes, and MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT)-like containing two genes. The expression patterns of eight Gossypium hirsutum PEBP family genes in root, stem, leaf, shoot apical meristem, flower, ovule and 25 days post-anthesis (DPA) fiber were identified with quantitative Real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed that FT1 transcript was preferentially expressed in leaf and secondly in fiber, ovule and flower. MFT1 expressed in all the tissues, with the highest expression level in fiber, then in flower and leaf, while MFT2 transcript was preferentially expressed in leaf. TFL1a, TFL1b and TFL1c expressed mainly in root, and TFL1c also expressed in leaf, flower and ovule. Expression of BFT1 and BFT2 were present mainly in leaf, and that of BFT1 in the other six tissues except in shoot apical meristem (SAM) was higher than that of BFT2. Expression analysis revealed that eight PEBP genes in cotton have different expression patterns, showing their different functional roles in regulation of cotton development.

      Cloningand Expression Pattern of DNA Methylase I (MET1) from Brassica napus L. and Its Progenitors
      TAN He-Lin,XU Xin-Ying,FU Li-Man,XIANG Xiao-E,LI Jian-Qiao,GUO Hao-Lun,YE Wen-Xue
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(03):  405-413.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00405
      Abstract ( 750 )   RICH HTML    PDF (832KB) ( 799 )   Save
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      Methylation in genomic DNA, a way of epigenetic regulation, plays animportant role during the growth and development of plant. As allotetraploid oilseeds plant, Brassica napus (AACC, 2n=38) originated from the natural cross between Brassica rapa (AA, 2n=20) and Brassica oleracea (CC, 2n=18), containing duplicate genes. Here, we isolated and characterized five Brassica napus BnMET1s, which are orthologous gene of Arabidopsis AtMET1 acted as transferase in DNA methylation. Our results showed that there were conspicuous variations in gene structuresof BnMET1s compared with its orthologos of BrMET1 and BoMET1, leading to more abundant divergences in coding region of BnMET1s. Moreover, we found that some divergences among BnMET1paralogous genes were derived from its progenitor orthologousgenes of Brassica rapa or Brassica oleracea. Furthermore, the transcription analysis indicated that partialBnMET1paralogs were silence,and the expression patternsof the activated BnMET1were altered in contrast to its BoMET1 orthologs in Brassica oleracea and BrMET1 orthologs in Brassica rapa. Taken all these together, we speculated that duplicate BnMET1s regulate the development process ofBrassica napuswitha certain gene dosagekept by alteringtheir gene structures and spatio-temporal expression patterns.

      Cloning and Functional Analysis of Small Heat Shock Protein Gene ZmHSP17.7 from Maize
      SUN Ai-Qing,GE Shu-Juan,DONG Wei,SHAN Xiao-Di,DONG Shu-Ting,ZHANG Jie-Dao
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(03):  414-421.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00414
      Abstract ( 1209 )   RICH HTML    PDF (6113KB) ( 1030 )   Save
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      Heat shock proteins are typical proteins responding to high temperature. Maize germplasm POB21 was used to isolate a small heat-shock protein gene with 477 bp CDS sequence. This gene encodes a protein with 158 amino acids, which contains the typical ACD domain of HSP20 proteins. Isoelectronic point of ZmHSP17.7 is predicted to be 5.36. It encodes a 17.746 kD protein, and so named as ZmHSP17.7. The homologues can be found in diverse plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. According to the phylogenetic and subcellular localization analyses of this protein, it is a member of CI class of small heat shock protein family. Upon northern blotting analysis, gene expression of ZmHSP17.7 was quickly induced by high temperature. Drought stress under 15% PEG did not independently regulate the gene expression, but enhanced the heat-induced gene expression under combined stress of high temperature and drought. Exogenous ABA did not affect gene expression. The overexpression of ZmHSP17.7 gene in seed germination and plant growth of Arabidopsis showed higher tolerance to stresses of high temperature and drought, indicating that this gene may play a certain role in protecting plant from high temperature, drought and combined stress.

      TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY
      Grain Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Mid-season Indica Rice Cultivars Applied at Different Decades
      JI Cheng-Xin,TAO Jin,QIAN Xi-Yang,GU Jun-Fei,ZHAO Bu-Hong,YANG Kai-Peng,WANG Zhi-Qin,YANG Jian-Chang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(03):  422-431.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00422
      Abstract ( 793 )   RICH HTML    PDF (498KB) ( 1223 )   Save
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      Improvement in rice cultivars plays an important role in increasing grain yield. However, little is known about the relationship between yield and nitrogen use efficiency in mid-season indica rice cultivar improvement process. In this study, 12 typical cultivars (including hybrid combinations) applied in the production in Jiangsu Province during the last 70 years were used, and classified into four types of 1940–1950s, 1960–1970s, 1980–1990s, and after 2000 (super rice) according to their application times. Three treatments of zero N (0N), 210 kg ha-1 N (MN) and 300 kg ha-1 N (HN) were designed. The results showed that grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency were progressively increased with the improvement of cultivars under each nitrogen rate. The super rice cultivars had a higher biomass and nitrogen accumulation, higher activities of root oxidation and nitrogen metabolic enzyme and higher leaf photosynthetic rate resulting in higher grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency when compared with any other types of cultivars. The root oxidation activity and photosynthetic characteristics of super rice were the peak at the heading stage, but sharp declined from heading to maturity, which could account for an important physiological reason for a lower filled-grain percentage of super rice. It would be an important approach to further increase grain yield of super rice through increasing root activity and leaf photosynthetic rate during grain filling.

      Response of SweetpotatoinSource-Sink Relationship Establishment, Expanding, and Balance to Nitrogen Application Rates
      NING Yun-Wang,MA Hong-Bo,ZHANG Hui,WANG Ji-Dong,XU Xian-Ju,ZHANG Yong-Chun*
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(03):  432-439.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00432
      Abstract ( 826 )   RICH HTML    PDF (506KB) ( 1022 )   Save
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      The pot, field mini-plot, and field split-plot experiments were carried out to investigate sweetpotato roots morphology(RM), number of tuberous roots per plant(NTR), leaf area index(LAI), shoots biomass, roots biomass and ratio of top to root(T/R-value) at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days after planting(DAP). At the whole growth period (0–120 d), nitrogen application promoted shoots growth, but had different effects on roots growth. At the early growing stage (0–30 d), low nitrogen rate (NR, N21) promoted roots growth and differentiation, but proper NR(N11, N22, N31) and excessive NR(N12, N23, N32) apparently inhibited roots development, causing NTR to decrease by 29.3%–36.6%(or 1.3–2.0 per plant) (P<0.05). The NTR at different nitrogen rates tended to be same in the split-plot experiment after 60 DAP. At the middle growth stage (30–60 d), proper or excessive nitrogen rates were in favor of expansion of sweetpotato source-sink relationship(SSR), enhancing shoots biomass by 35.5%–48.9% and 73.4%–79.8%, respectively(P<0.05), LAI rapidly ran up to four, but had no influence on roots biomass (P>0.05). At the late growth stage (60–120 d), excessive NR sustained shoots biomass growth, LAI and T/R at harvest reached 4.9–5.6 and 1.50–1.51, respectively, which were apparently higher than those (3.3–3.5 and 0.58–0.64) under the proper NR (P<0.05). When no nitrogen application, LAI and T/R at harvest were only 1.6–1.9 and 0.36–0.42, of which LAI was apparently lower than that under the proper NR (P<0.05). At the same time, there was a difference in fresh weight of individual tuberous root(FWITR) under different nitrogen rates. FWITR(218–345 g) under the proper NR was higher than those under no NR(181–262 g) and excessive NR(160–285 g, P<0.05), therefore, the final yield per plant under the proper NR(1.02–1.20 kg) was higher than thatunder no NR(0.88–0.91 kg) and excessive NR(0.79–0.87 kg, P<0.05). It is showed that nitrogen as base fertilizer, its less or no application is favorable for the establishment of SSR, its proper or excessive application delays SSR at early growth stage, its right or excessive application promotes the expandation of SSR at middle growth stage, and only right application would keep SSR balance at late growth stage.

      Difference and Related Reason for Assimilate Distribution of Sweetpotato Varieties with Different Tuber Root Yields
      LIU Hong-Juan,SHI Chun-Yu,CHAI Sha-Sha
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(03):  440-447.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00440
      Abstract ( 962 )   RICH HTML    PDF (293KB) ( 1225 )   Save
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      A field experiment was conducted at agricultural experiment station of Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an, Shandong Province in two growth seasons of 2011 and 2012. Six typical varieties of edible sweetpotato in North China were used, including Longshu 9, Hongxiangjiao, Taizhong 6, Sushu 8, Yizi 138, and Beijing 553, to study the difference and reason for assimilate distribution among varieties with different yield levels. The distribution characteristics of assimilate was studied by 13C labeling during storage roots development; sucrose content of different stem parts and stem base diameter were measured as well. And the relationship between the above traits and harvest index, tuber root yield was also analyzed. The results showed that the root tuber yield of high-yielding varieties (Longshu 9, Hongxiangjiao, Taizhong 6, and Sushu 8) was about 60 t hm2, whereas that of intermediate and low-yielding varieties (Yizi 138 and Beijing 553) was less than 50 t hm2. And the harvest index of high-yielding varieties was significantly higher than that of intermediate and low-yielding varieties. The root tuber of high-yielding varieties became assimilate distribution center at early bulking stage, while for intermediate and low-yielding varieties that was at late bulking stage; and high-yielding varieties also had significantly higher 13C distribution rate than that of intermediate and low-yielding varieties, indicating that high-yielding varieties had relatively higher ability to transport assimilate from functional leaves to root tubers. Sucrose content of stem base was higher than that of stem top, and the sucrose concentration gradient of intermediate and low-yielding varieties was higher than that of high-yielding varieties. Low-yielding varieties’ stem base thickened faster than high-yielding varieties in the development of sweetpotato. The correlation analysis showed that root tuber yield had significantly positive correlation with harvest index (r = 0.98**, 2011; r = 0.93**, 2012). Root tuber yield and harvest index had significantly positive correlation with 13C distribution rate of root tuber (0.87* and 0.91**, 2011; 0.92** and 0.99**, 2012); they also had significantly negative correlation with stem base diameter during middle and late growth stages (–0.78* and –0.83*; –0.88** and –0.95**). Therefore, high-yielding varieties got higher harvest index mainly due to less time taken by their root tuber to become assimilate distribution center and stronger ability of assimilate transportation from functional leaves to root tubers; and low-yielding varieties got lower abilities of assimilate transportation mainly because assimilate unloading in root tubers was not smoothly.

      Effects of Nitrogen Management on Yield and Dry Matter Accumulation and Translocation of Maize in Maize-Soybean Relay-Cropping System
      WEN Xi-Chen,WANG Xiao-Chun,DENG Xiao-Yan,ZHANG Qun,PU Tian,LIU Guo-Dan,YANG Wen -Yu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(03):  448-457.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00448
      Abstract ( 656 )   RICH HTML    PDF (353KB) ( 1107 )   Save
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      Maize-soybean relay-cropping system is an important planting pattern in southwest China, in which the proper nitrogen management plays a key role for improving maize production. A field experiment was conducted in two consecutive seasons (2010–2011) with different treatments of nitrogen (N) application rates (90, 180, 270, 360 kg ha-1) and ratios of base fertilizer, jointing fertilizer and earing fertilizer (5:0:5, 3:2:5, 5:2:3) to study the effects of nitrogen management on yield and dry matter accumulation and translocation of maize in maize-soybean relay-cropping system. The results showed that, maize yield and dry matter accumulation increased with increasing N application rates up to 270 kg N ha-1 under the same ratio of base fertilizer to topdressing, and then decreased when N application rate was 360 kg N ha-1. The N application rate of 180 kg ha-1 significantly increased kemels per ear, 1000-kemel weigh, ear number, and help increase translocation efficiency, post anthesis assimilate, plant dry matter accumulation and the maximum increasing rate, while the N application rate of 360 kg ha-1 had negative effect. The effects of different ratios of base fertilizer to topdressing on maize yield and dry matter accumulation were 3:2:5>5:0:5>5:2:3, postponed N application (B2, 3:2:5) was beneficial to improve dry matter accumulation and translocation to grain, increased the maximum increasing rate and improved ear traits. Compared with conventional ratio of base fertilizer to topdressing (B1, 5:0:5), B2 treatment (3:2:5) had a higher yield 0f 4.11% than B1 (5:0:5) on average of two years. The interaction between N application rates and ratios of base fertilizer to topdressing was significant on maize yield, N application rates of 270 kg ha-1 and the ratio of 3:2:5 reached to the highest yield in 2010 year. No significant difference between 180 and 270 kg N ha-1 with the same ratio of base fertilizer to topdressing (3:2:5) in maize yield was found. In 2011, the yield under N application rate at180 kg ha-1 and ratio of 3:2:5 treatment was significantly higher than that under other nitrogen management. Therefore, the most appropriate nitrogen management is N application rate of 180 kg ha-1 and ratio of base fertilizer to topdressing 3:2:5.

      Effects of Organic Farming on Yield and Quality of Hybrid Japonica Rice
      HUANG Li-Fen,ZHANG Rong,YU Jun,JIANG Ling-Ling,SU Hong-Ding,ZHUANG Heng-Yang*
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(03):  458-467.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00458
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      Two types of japonica rice, including three varieties of hybrid japonica rice (Changyou 2, Changyou 5, Yongyou 8) and three varieties of conventional japonica rice (Huaidao 5, Nanjing 46, Nanjing 5055), were grown under organic farming and conventional farming. The possibility achieving stable production and high quality under organic farming was explored. The results showed that average yield of hybrid japonica rice and conventional japonica rice was 8.11 and 6.29 t ha-1 respectively, under organic farming. While, total stem and tiller number in the population of conventional rice varieties was more than that of hybrid rice under both farming treatments, the decline of tillers of hybrid japonica rice was more stable and as a result, the percentage of earbearing tillers of hybrid japonica rice under organic farming increased by 6.50% compared with conventional rice. In each growth period, rice leaf area index and photosynthesis potential showed the trend of conventional farming > organic farming, and also, compared with the conventional cultivation, smaller drops in those indexes were found under organic farming for hybrid japonica rice than for conventional japonica rice. Furthermore, the average population growth rate of hybrid japonica rice was 1.29% higher and the accumulation of dry matter ratio was 8.81% higher than those of conventional japonica rice. Compared with conventional cultivation, Organic farming slightly declined the processing quality of all rice varieties, but improved the appearance quality and eating quality through reducing the chalk white degree, increasing gel consistency and lowering amylose content. Whereas, the impact of farming methods was not significant on protein content. In sum, with significantly increasing yield and excellent quality traits, hybrid japonica rice displays obvious advantages under organic farming, therefore has a unique application value in the development of organic rice industry.

      Effects of Rotational Tillage on Tilth Soil Structure and Crop Yield and Quality in Maize–Wheat Cropping System
      NIE Liang- Peng, GUO Li-Wei, NIU Hai-Yan, WEI Jie, LI Zeng-Jia,NING Tang-Yuan
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(03):  468-478.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00468
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      In a three-year field experiment from the wheat season of 2009 to the maize season of 2012 in North China., we compared the effects of six tillage systems (zero-tillage, subsoiling, and conventional tillage before wheat sowing; zero-tillage and subsoiling before maize sowing) on soil porosity, moisture content, and crop yield and quality. Compared with zero-tillage, subsoiling before maize sowing greatly increased the annual mean soil total porosity in 0–40 cm soil layer, and subsoiling or conventional tillage before wheat sowing was also in favor of improving soil total porosity in 0–40 cm layer. The interaction between tillage practices in wheat and maize seasons had the largest influence on soil porosity, and the tillage in maize season determined the soil non-capillary porosity. Subsoiling and conventional tillages in wheat season resulted in more water absorption at late wheat growth stage than zero-tillage; particularly, wheat yield in subsoiling was the highest with significant differences from that of zero-tillage and conventional tillage. Subsoiling in maize season had more water absorption at filling stage and yield promotion than zero-tillage. Meanwhile, subsoiling in maize season had a successive effect in the following wheat season. In an overview of yield and grain quality, subsoiling in both maize and wheat seasons was the most optimal tillage mode for wheat-maize cropping system in North China, followed by subsoiling in wheat season plus zero-tillage in maize season.

      RESEARCH NOTES
      Chromolaena odorata Flavonoid 3’-hydroxylase Gene Cloning and Its Expression in Tobacco
      HE Hai-Wang,PAN Hua-Qing,ZHANG Nao-Dan,HE Long-Fei*
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(03):  479-486.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00479
      Abstract ( 985 )   RICH HTML    PDF (714KB) ( 1166 )   Save
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      A flavonoid 3’-hydroxylase gene cDNA sequence was cloned by RACE and RT-PCR techniques from Chromolaena odorata. The obtained full-length cDNA was named as CoF3H with GenBank accession number HQ268505.1. It is 1628 bp in length, containing a 1524 bp open reading frame, encoding 507 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence of CoF3H contains cytochrome P450 domain and cysteineheme binding region (F××G×R×C×G). Homology analysis by DNAMAN software showed that the deduced CoF3H protein was highly homologous to F3’H proteins from different species. CoF3H gene was transferred into tobacco by agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. There was higher content of flavonvoids in T2 transgenic tobacco than in the wild type. This result shows that CoF3H plays an important role in flavonoid biosynthesis, and provides a basis for researches on allelopathy and comprehensive utilization of C. odorata in the future.

      Effect of Ordered Transplanting and Optimized Broadcasting on Japonica Super Rice Quality
      GUO Bao-Wei,ZHU Da-Wei,ZHU Cong-Cong,XU Ke,ZHOU Xing-Tao,ZHANG Hong-Cheng,CHEN Hou-Cun,ZHANG Jun,CHEN Jing-Du,DAI Qi-Gen,HUO Zhong-Yang,WEI Hai-Yan,CAO Li-Qiang,LI Ming-Yin
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(03):  487-498.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2015.00487
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      Broadcasting rice is a light and simple cultivation method with high yield and efficiency. The ordered plantation influences on not only the further high yielding but also the rice quality, so it is necessary to research the quality of ordered transplanting rice providing theoretical and practical basis for good quality rice production. The results indicated that brown rice rate(BR), milled rice rate(MR), head milled rice rate(HMR) in different treatments were all as ordered transplanting (OT) > optimized broadcasting (OB) > cast transplanting(CT) and mechanical transplanting (MT), and 2-hole > 3-hole > 1-hole, showing that the sparsely ordered transplanting and optimized broadcasting were beneficial for improving rice processing quality. Chalkiness rate (CR), chalkiness size (CS), chalkiness degree (CD) in different treatments showed the trend of OT>OB>CT and MT, and 2-hole > 3-hole > 1-hole, the more tillers and larger competition in 2-hole and 3-hole treatments weakened the appearance quality. Gel consistency (GC), peak viscosity, trough viscosity and breakdown value in different treatments were OT > OB > CT and MT. There were no significant changes in amylose content and protein content in different holes treatments, Peak viscosity and breakdown value showed the trend of 2-hole>3-hole and 1-hole, and the final viscosity and setback showed 2-hole and 3-hole>1-hole. In conclusion, ordered transplanting and optimized broadcasting, especially 2-hole and 3-hole transplanting, improve rice processing, appearance, cooking, eating and nutritional qualities.

      Cloning and Expression Analysis of CIPK Gene in Sugarcane
      HUANG Long,SU Wei-Hua,ZHANG Yu-Ye,HUANG Ning,LING Hui,XIAO Xin-Huan,QUE You-Xiong*,CHEN Ru-Kai*
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(03):  499-506. 
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      CIPK (calcineurin B-like-interacting protein kinase) is a plant specific class of serine / threonine protein kinases, which plays an important role in plant response to stress, especially relates with the signal transduction for biotic stresses (drought, high salt, ABA). According to the primers designed on the conserved domain of CIPK15 gene from Zea mays, a full-length cDNA sequence of serine/threonine kinase gene termed as ScCIPK was cloned by RT-PCR method from sugarcane (Saccharum Complex). The sequence analysis showed that ScCIPK had a length of 1782 bp containing the open reading frame (ORF, 91–1631 bp), which encoded 513 amino acids residues with two conserved domains (Kc-like superfamily and AMPKA-C-like superfamily). The characters predicted based on the bioinformatics analysis revealed that the ScCIPK gene of sugarcane was a soluble acidic protein, which has two conserved functional domains with the main function for central_intermediary_metabolism, and its protein was located in endoplasmic reticulum (membrane). The mainly secondary structure element was α-helix. Real-time quantitative PCR(RT-qPCR) analysis revealed that the expression of ScCIPK was higher in bud than in other tissues, meanwhile the inducible expression level of ScCIPK was most significantly up-regulated under the ABA stress, 5.3 times higher than that of control, which suggested that ScCIPK most probably involves in sugarcane resistance to drought and osmotic stresses. The results in this study could provide a basis of cloning and functional identification of other members of ScCIPK in sugarcane and promote the use of ScCIPK gene in sugarcane genetic engineering.

      Transformation of Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli) Root Type Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Gene into Rice (Oryza sativa) Plants and Their Effects on Photosynthesitic Gas Exchange
      ZHANG Gui-Fang,DING Zai-Song,ZHAO Ming
      Acta Agron Sin. 2015, 41(03):  507-514. 
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      Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli) is a C4 weed commonly found in rice field. To fully utilize the photosynthestic potential of Barnyardgrass C4 gene, we transformed Barnyardgrass root Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase gene into rice plant with vectors contained promoters of Ubiqitin gene and Rubisco small unit gene by Agrobactirium- mediated transformation. Both marker genes Hygr and ppc were detected by PCR in regenerated plants. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis confirmed that the ppc gene was incorporated into rice plant and expressed with stable transcripts and proteins. PEPC activity as measured in most of the transgenic rice plants was higher than that in control, being up to 5.85-fold of that in untransformed rice. At T0 generation, net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in most of transgenic rice plants was 20.00% higher than that in untransformed rice, with the highest increase of 47.16%. Water utilization efficiency (WUE) in transgenic rice was also improved. At T6 generation, PEPC activity and Pn of transgenic lines remained higher than those of the wild type. These indicate that over-expressing C3 Eppc gene also can improve rice photosynthesis.

Co-sponsored:
the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Yan Chun-ling
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

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  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/the-crop-journal
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E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
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