A field experiment was conducted using super rice Yongyou 12 to compare the differences in absorption and accumulation characteristics of potassium among high yield population (HY, 10.5–12.0 t ha-1), higher yield population (HRY, 12.0–13.5 t ha-1), and super high yield population (SHY, ≥13.5 t ha-1) in 2013 and 2014. Results followed that, on an average across two years, grain yield of SHY was 13.9 t ha-1, significantly higher than that of HRY (12.5 t ha-1) and HY (10.9 t ha-1). HY showed higher K content in plants, followed by HRY and SHY, with no significant difference among them. K content at heading and maturity stages, showed a trend of SHY> HRY > HY, whileK uptake amount at jointing stage showed HY>HRY>SHY. K uptake amount at heading stage of SHY was 364.1 kg ha-1, significantly higher than that of HRY (326.7 kg ha-1) and HY (282.8 kg ha-1), respectively. K uptake amount at maturity stage of SHY was 374.6 kg ha-1, significantly higher than that of HRY (331.1 kg ha-1) and HY (284.1 kg ha-1), respectively. With increasing grain yield, K accumulation amount decreased from sowing to jointing stage, while increased from jointing to heading. Very significantly negative linear relationship was observed between K accumulation amount from sowing to jointing and grain yield. Very significantly positive linear relationship was observed between K accumulation amount from jointing to heading and grain yield. Compared with HY and HRY, SHY showed higher K uptake amount in the stem and sheath, leaf, and panicle at heading and maturity stages, which wassignificantly or very significantly and positivelycorrelated with grain yield. SHY showed higher K uptake amount but lower internal nutrient efficiency and K partial productivity, indicating its relatively lower K use efficiency, when compared with HY and HRY. Great attention should be paid for increasing K use efficiency in production of rice. Methods to improve K use efficiency in SHY of Yongyou 12 were discussed.