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    A review for impacts of climate change on rice production in China
    Xiao-Xia LING,Zuo-Lin ZHANG,Jing-Qiu ZHAI,Shu-Chun YE,Jian-Liang HUANG
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2019, 45 (3): 323-334.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.82044
    Abstract1006)   HTML108)    PDF(pc) (593KB)(1213)       Save

    Rice production system is one of the most sensitive agricultural ecosystems in response to climate change. Here, we reviewed the effects of current and future climate change on rice production in China. Over the past few decades, the thermal resources during rice growing seasons showed an increasing trend, while solar radiation resources showed a decreasing trend and the precipitation’s heterogeneity increased. The frequencies of high temperature stress, heavy precipitation, drought and flood increased, which may lower down the effectiveness of hydrothermal resources. Climate change has led to a significant northward shift of potential planting boundaries for single and double rice production systems, resulted in a negative impact on the length of growth period for single rice, early rice and late rice. The researches based on statistical models and process-based crop models showed that climate change hampered rice production of China. Most reports indicated a reducing trend of yield caused by climate change for single rice, early rice and late rice, but there were still some differences in results from different methods and rice cropping regions. The trends of prolonging growth period and increasing yield are a reflection of the capability of rice production system in China to adapt to climate change, through regulating planting regionalization and improving variety and culture technics. The impact assessment with different climate scenarios showed that the projected growth period of rice would shorten and projected yield would decrease in future. That means climate change will seriously challenge the rice production and food security in China. For further study, deeper understanding of abiotic stress physiology and its incorporation into ecophysiological models, reducing the uncertainty and extending the systematicness of impact assessment are the important research areas that require much attention.

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    Identification of maize flowering gene co-expression modules by WGCNA
    Yu-Xin YANG,Zhi-Qin SANG,Cheng XU,Wen-Shuang DAI,Cheng ZOU
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2019, 45 (2): 161-174.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.83053
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    Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) is one of the research methods in systematic biology. It can effectively analyze the complex samples, and has been extensively used in the analysis of complicated traits for many samples. Weighted gene co-expression network has the characteristics of scale-free distribution and could construct the scale free network. The genes with similar expression level can be clustered and assigned to a module, then the relationships between co-expression modules and specific tissues can be furtherly analyzed. Our research utilized the transcriptome data of 14 different tissues of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line B73, and calculated the gene expression level of the whole genome. Through filtering out the genes with low expression level we finally got 22,426 genes with high expression level to construct the gene expression matrix. We utilized the different tissues as the trait to construct the trait matrix. The weighted gene co-expression network analysis packages of R software was used to perform the co-expression network analysis, and 20 co-expression modules were identified. We finally obtained 14 tissue specific modules which were highly correlated with traits (r > 0.65). The enrichment analysis tool Agrigo was taken to perform the GO enrichment of the tissue specific module genes, all the 14 tissues could be enriched in GO terms. Flowering is one of the important agronomic traits in the life cycle of maize controlled by external environment signals and genetic factors. Maize flowering not only represents the transition from the vegetative growth to reproductive growth, also relates to grain yield, plant height and resistance. In our research, we detected eight tissue specific modules, which could be obtained within flowering time related pathways. In addition, 17 flowering genes which have been reported in the literatures were assigned to the co-expression modules, and mainly assigned to the Blue and Darkmagenta modules. Therefore, we focused on the network of Blue and Darkmagenta modules. Our research calculated the gene expression abundances, and detected several flowering time related modules, which will contribute to revealing the genetic mechanism of maize flowering time regulation.

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    Breeding of a novel clubroot disease-resistant Brassica napus variety Huayouza 62R
    LI Qian, Nadil Shah, ZHOU Yuan-Wei, HOU Zhao-Ke, GONG Jian-Fang, LIU Jue, SHANG Zheng-Wei, ZHANG Lei, ZHAN Zong-Xiang, CHANG Hai-Bin, FU Ting-Dong, PIAO Zhong-Yun, ZHANG Chun-Yu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (2): 210-223.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04086
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    The rapeseed clubroot disease incidence in China is about 0.67 million hectare, accounting for 10% of the canola production area, which become a serious threat for the safety of Brassica napus industry. Based on this, we used CR Shinki, a Chinese cabbage material containing CRb clubroot disease resistance locus, as the donor parent, and Pol.CMS restorer line Bing409, the parent of Brassica napus national approved varieties Huayouza 62, as the recipient parent, and the CRb resistance locus was introduced into Bing409 by breeding programs such as crossing, backcrossing, self-cross with the foreground and genetic background selection. In the BC3F2 generation, a new restorer line Bing409R with a genetic background close to Bing409 containing CRb resistance locus was obtained, and Huayouza 62R, the first rapeseed hybrid resistant to clubroot disease in China was successfully developed. The results were as follows: CRb disease resistance locus appeared as a dominant single-gene inheritance in B. napus background, and the genetic improvement of resistance to clubroot disease did not at the expense of yield and quality losses for new restorer line Bing409R and its hybrid Huayouza 62R. Bing409R and Huayouza 62R were showed immune-resistance to physiological races of Plasmodiophora brassicae in Sichuan, Hubei, and Anhui provinces in China. This study will provide valuable resources for the breeding of rapeseed in China, and supplemented important support to overcome the threat of rapeseed clubroot disease.

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    Theoretical and technical models of quantitative regulation in food crop production system
    ZHAO Ming,ZHOU Bao-Yuan,MA Wei,LI Cong-Feng,DING Zai-Song,SUN Xue-Fang
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2019, 45 (4): 485-498.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.83051
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    Multi-objective collaborative development of crop production with high yield, high efficiency, and environmental friendliness is more important in China. Further improving theoretical models of crop system is a main way to adapt multi-objective coordinated development, and promote the sustainable development of crop production. In this paper, we reviewed current theoretical and technical regulation approaches for crop system. Meanwhile, according to the current crop production developing condition and previous researches, a new model “Three Collaboration Theory and Technology System” was established based on the overall composition of crop system, which can collaboratively optimize the relationship of “climate-crops”, “soil-crops”, and “population-individual” simultaneously. The application and perspective of such model were discussed.

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    Physiological response of crop to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration: a review
    Yan-Sheng LI, Jian JIN, Xiao-Bing LIU
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (12): 1819-1830.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.02027
    Abstract475)   HTML52)    PDF(pc) (1292KB)(673)       Save

    The increase of atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide ([CO2]) has substantially had a huge impact on agricultural production. As the sole substrate for photosynthesis, the increase of atmospheric [CO2] stimulates the net photosynthetic rate, thus promoting the biomass accumulation and yield level in many crops. However, the ‘fertilization’ effect of the elevated atmospheric [CO2] on crop production is less than theoretical expectation, and elevated [CO2] increases the health risk due to the decline in grain quality. The relevant mechanism is still unclear. In this paper, we analyzed the effect of elevated [CO2] on crop photosynthesis system, reviewed various responses of key photosynthesis indicators, such as the leaf net photosynthetic rate, the intercellular [CO2] of leaves, maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco (Vc, max), and the capacity of Rubp-regeneration (Jmax) in different crops, in response to the elevated atmospheric [CO2]. Based on the C-N metabolism of the whole plant, we summarized two prevailing hypotheses about the acclimation of photosynthetic capacity under elevated atmospheric [CO2], namely the source-sink regulation mechanism and N limitation mechanism, respectively. We summarized the influence of elevated [CO2] on the nutritional quality of the grain, such as the change in the protein, oil, mineral elements, and vitamin concentrations. Furthermore, we also reviewed the potential interactive effect of the elevated atmospheric temperature and [CO2] on crop growth. Finally, the main research directions of this field in the future are proposed. In summary, this review can provide theoretical reference for accurately assessing the changes in crop yield and quality under climate change conditions, maximizing the ‘fertilization’ effect of elevated [CO2], and mitigating the adverse effects of climate change on crop production.

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    Cloning and functional analysis of a drought tolerance-related gene IbNAC72 in sweet potato
    ZHANG Huan, YANG Nai-Ke, SHANG Li-Li, GAO Xiao-Ru, LIU Qing-Chang, ZHAI Hong, GAO Shao-Pei, HE Shao-Zhen
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (11): 1649-1658.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.04051
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    NAC (NAM/ATAF/CUC) is a plant-specific transcription factor family, which plays an important role in plant growth, development and stress responses. In this study, we cloned IbNAC72, a drought tolerance-related gene from sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] variety Lizixiang by RACE method. The IbNAC72 cDNA of 1319 bp in length, had an open reading frame (ORF) of 1008 bp, and encoded a 335 amino acids polypeptide, with a molecular weight of 37.4 kD and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.76. The genomic DNA of IbNAC72 gene was 1199 bp and was deduced to contain 3 exons and 2 introns. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that IbNAC72 had a close relationship with the predicted protein products of Ipomoea nil. RT-qPCR analysis showed that IbNAC72 was expressed at the highest level in the leaves of sweet potato, and it was strongly induced by PEG-6000 and NaCl, respectively. IbNAC72 was transformed into tobacco via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Its overexpression significantly enhanced drought tolerance in the transgenic tobacco plants. Under drought stress, transgenic plants developed stronger root system; the SOD activity was significantly increased whereas the MDA content was significantly decreased in transgenic plants compared to those of wild type plants. This study showed that IbNAC72 gene was closely related to drought tolerance, providing a basis for in-depth study on the drought tolerance molecular mechanism of IbNAC72 in sweet potato.

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    Effects of genotype and environment on wheat yield, quality, and nitrogen use efficiency
    JIN Xin-Xin,YAO Yan-Rong,JIA Xiu-Ling,YAO Hai-Po,SHEN Hai-Ping,CUI Yong-Zeng,LI Qian
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2019, 45 (4): 635-644.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.81072
    Abstract541)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (326KB)(586)       Save

    An experiment was carried out at Guantao, Ningjin, and Gaocheng using five wheat varieties (thirteen strong gluten wheat varieties and two middle gluten wheat varieties) with four levels of nitrogen fertilizer application (0, 180, 240, and 300 kg ha -1). The average yield of different wheat varieties was 9289 to 10,088 kg ha -1; yield of strong gluten varieties was 9548 kg ha -1, which was 3.1% lower than that of middle gluten varieties. The yield in Gaocheng, Ningjin and Guantao was 9932, 9433, 9223 kg ha -1, respectively. The averaged grain protein content, wet gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation, dough stability time, extensibility energy and maximum resistance were 14.5%, 28.5%, 39.5 mL, 15.4 min, 87.5 cm 2, and 428.8 BU, respectively. Gaoyou 5218, Gaoyou 5766, Jimai 738, Kenong 2009, Shiluan 02-1, Gaoyou 2018, and Jimai 738 had better quality. The wheat had better quality in Guantao and Ningjin than in Gaocheng. The nitrogen use efficiency decreased with nitrogen fertilizer increase. Under nitrogen fertilizer application of 180 kg ha -1, nitrogen agronomic efficiency, recovery efficiency and internal efficiency were the highest, with 4.3 kg kg -1, 26.2% and 16.6 kg kg -1, respectively. Gaocheng was suitable for growing Jimai 738, Jimai 867, and Shiluan 02-1. Ningjin was suitable for growing Shiluan 02-1, Kenong 2009, and Jimai 738. Guantao was suitable for growing Gaoyou 5766, Gaoyou 2018, and Shiluan 02-1. Taking grain yield, quality and nitrogen use efficiency into account, 180 kg ha -1 is the optimum nitrogen application under the similar condition of this study.

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    Genome dominance and the breeding significance in Triticeae
    LIU Deng-Cai, ZHANG Lian-Quan, HAO Ming, HUANG Lin, NING Shun-Zong, YUAN Zhong-Wei, JIANG Bo, YAN Ze-Hong, WU Bi-Hua, ZHENG You-Liang
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (10): 1465-1473.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.01022
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    Triticeae tribe houses a number of allopolyploid species that harbor combinations of various genomes. The different genomes of an allopolyploid may have asymmetric contributions to morphological traits. For instance, the taxon traits of allopolyploids within genus Triticum is highly like those from the donor species of A-genome, termed this phenomenon as A-genome dominance. Because of genome dominance, the allopolyploids of Triticeae are grouped into different species clusters with A, D, U, or St as the pivotal (dominant) genome. Genome dominance may confer the advantages in evolution and adaptation. In breeding, it is an important factor to influence the development of novel allopolyploid crops and the design of wheat-alien chromosome translocations.

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    Effects of water saving and nitrogen reduction on soil nitrate nitrogen distribution, water and nitrogen use efficiencies of winter wheat
    LUO Wen-He, SHI Zu-Jiao, WANG Xu-Min, LI Jun, WANG Rui
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (6): 924-936.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.91060
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    In order to solve the problems of excessive nitrogen input and irrigation water resources scarcity in current winter wheat production in Guanzhong Plain, winter wheat grain yield, water and nitrogen use efficiency, and nitrate nitrogen leaching were investigated to hopefully provide a theoretical basis for determining water-saving and nitrogen-reducing cultivation model. The two-factor split-plot field experiment (2017-2019) was conducted in Yangling, Shaanxi province, China, where the nitrogen application rates of N300 (300 kg hm -2), N225 (225 kg hm -2), N150 (150 kg hm -2), N75 (75 kg hm -2), N0 (0 kg hm -2, no nitrogen application) were assigned to the main plots, and the irrigation amount of W2 (1200 m 3 hm -2), W1 (600 m 3 hm -2), W0 (0, no irrigation) were assigned to the subplots. The amount of irrigation and nitrogen application had significant effects on wheat yield, water and nitrogen use efficiency, soil nitrate nitrogen content as well as its leaching loss. In the 2017-2018 and 2018-2019 wheat seasons, the irrigation treatments (W1 and W2) significantly increased the wheat yield by 14.88%-15.01% and 4.11-4.16 times, respectively, but the difference between them was not significant, while the risk of soil nitrate nitrogen leaching under irrigation of 600 m 3 hm -2 in overwintering period was significantly reduced. Under the irrigation of 600 m 3 hm -2in overwintering period, the yield was the highest in N150 treatment in 2017-2018, and in N225 treatment in 2018-2019, the N150 treatment had higher nitrogen use efficiency, and soil nitrate nitrogen leaching was also reduced by 15.87% and 10.20% compared with that of N225 treatment in 2017-2019. Therefore, N150 treatment (with nitrogen application rate of 150 kg hm -2) combined with W1 treatment (irrigated 600 m 3 hm -2in overwintering period) can improve the water and nitrogen utilization efficiencies and reduce the risk of nitrate nitrogen leaching, realizing the water-saving and nitrogen reduction production of winter wheat in Guanzhong Plain.

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    Functional characteristics of TaPYR1, an abscisic acid receptor family gene in mediating wheat tolerance to drought stress
    HAN Le,DU Ping-Ping,XIAO Kai
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (6): 809-818.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.91067
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    ABA receptors are involved in the mediation of ABA signaling transduction through interaction with abscisic acid (ABA) molecules induced by osmotic stresses and play critical roles in regulating the drought stress tolerance in plants. In this study, TaPYR1, an ABA family gene in wheat that was shown to be differentially expressed in our previous transcriptome analysis was used to analyze its molecular property, expression patterns under drought stress condition, and functions in mediating plant adaptation to drought stress. TaPYR1 shares high similarities to its plant counterparts at amino acid level. TaPYR1 protein contains the conserved domains specified by the plant PYR proteins and was targeted onto the plasma membrane after endoplasmic reticulum (ER) assortment. The expression of TaPYR1 was induced in both roots and leaves under drought, with the highest expression levels at 48 h of drought treatment. Transgene analysis on TaPYR1 was performed to assess the gene function in mediating plant drought tolerance. Compared with wild type (WT), the tobacco lines overexpressing TaPYR1 enhanced growth vigor and increased fresh and dry weight under drought stress. In addition, the transgenic lines with TaPYR1 overexpression also increased photosynthetic function, enhanced activities of cellular antioxidant enzymes, and elevated the contents of osmolytes (i.e., proline and soluble sugar) under drought condition. Our investigation suggests that TaPYR1 transcriptively responds to drought stress signaling and plays an important role in regulating plant drought adaptation by improving the associated physiological processes.

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    Biosynthesis and signaling of ethylene and their regulation on seed germination and dormancy
    SONG Song-Quan,LIU Jun,XU Heng-Heng,ZHANG Qi,HUANG Hui,WU Xian-Jin
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2019, 45 (7): 969-981.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.84175
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    Seed germination, a key ecological and agronomic trait, is determined by both internal and external cues that regulate the dormancy status and the potential for germination in seeds, and plays a critical role during the subsequent growth, development and production of plants. Dormancy is the temporary failure of seed germination under favorable conditions. Ethylene is a simple gaseous phytohormone with multiple roles in regulation of metabolism at molecular, cellular, and whole plant levels. It influences performance of plants under optimal and stressful environments by interacting with other signaling molecules. In the present paper, we mainly summarize ethylene biosynthesis and signaling, the role of ethylene in seed germination and dormancy release, and the interaction of ethylene with phytohormone abscisic acid and gibberellin, and propose some scientific problems to be required to investigate further in order to provide an idea for explaining the molecular mechanism of seed germination and dormancy regulated by ethylene.

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    Response of rhizosphere bacterial community diversity to salt stress in peanut
    DAI Liang-Xiang, XU Yang, ZHANG Guan-Chu, SHI Xiao-Long, QIN Fei-Fei, DING Hong, ZHANG Zhi-Meng
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (8): 1581-1592.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04160
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    To characterize the peanut rhizosphere bacteria community in response to salt stress, a pot experiment was performed with different salt concentrations. The peanut rhizosphere soils at flowering and mature stages were sampled to extract DNA for constructing bacterial 16S rRNA gene library, and then high-throughput sequencing was performed for sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. The results showed that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Patescibacteria, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi were the dominant phyla, and the orders Saccharimonadales, Betaproteobacteria, Sphingomonadales, Gemmatimonadales, and Rhizobiales were dominated in the peanut rhizosphere soils. Comparisons of the bacterial community structure of peanuts revealed that the relative abundance of Proteobacteria dramatically increased, while that of Actinobacteria decreased in salt-treated soils, and the fluctuation increased with the increase of the salt concentration. Moreover, applying calcium fertilizer under salt stress increased the abundance of Betaproteobacteria, Gemmatimonadales, and Sphingomonadales, which were affected by salt stress, growth stages, and exogenous calcium application. Cluster analysis revealed that the dominant bacteria of soil groups with high salt concentration were similar and clustered together, while the soil samples of the same growth period were similar and clustered together according to the bacterial structure at the genus level under non-salt stress conditions. Bacterial community structure differed in the growth stages and soil salt concentrations, whereas the differences of soil groups with or without calcium application were relatively small. Function prediction analysis indicated that the sequences related to secondary metabolites, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and amino acid and lipid metabolism were enriched in high salt-treated soils. The functional groups increased significantly during the fast-growth period, low salt stress, and basal calcium fertilizer treatments, which may play an important role on the growth and stress response in peanut. This study of microbial communities could lay the foundation for future improvement of stress tolerance of peanuts via modification of the soil microbes.

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    Review of biochar structure and physicochemical properties
    ZHANG Wei-Ming, XIU Li-Qun, WU Di, SUN Yuan-Yuan, GU Wen-Qi, ZHANG Hong-Gui, MENG Jun, CHEN Wen-Fu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (1): 1-18.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.02021
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    As a new emerging technology, biochar and its applications have been rapidly developed in recent years. However, due to large differences in carbonization materials and processes, it is difficult to compare or even contrast the results of biochar application studies, thus hindering the development of biochar applications to some extent. For this reason, our paper focuses on the key factors restricted the function of biochar, namely, the structure as well as physical and chemical properties of biochar, and then systematically presents the main research advances in recent years from the following perspectives of biochar such as definition, formation, structure, elemental composition, and other main physical-chemical properties, and property controlling-technologies. The paper analyses and summarizes the common and differential characteristics of biochar structure and physical and chemical properties and clarifies the relevant basic perspectives, statuses, trends, and consensus on the structure and properties of biochar. The structure and fundamental physical and chemical properties of biochar are believed to be the most important factors affecting the roles, function, and effects of biochar. They also determine the application field, scope, amount, objective, and direction of biochar. Therefore, the modification technology or optimal regulation technique is the key to develop the efficacy advantage, potential and values of biochar. By further combining the research and application of biochar, the basic principles and development directions of biochar physicochemical property research in the future focusing on the physical and chemical properties of biochar are evaluated from cycle and sustainable development of resources and material perspectives. This paper aims to provide the basis and reference for the development of basic scientific science and application technology studies on biochar.

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    Development of efficient KASP molecular markers based on high throughput sequencing in maize
    Hai-Yan LU,Ling ZHOU,Feng LIN,Rui WANG,Feng-Ge WANG,Han ZHAO
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2019, 45 (6): 872-878.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.83067
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    SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) which is abundant and dispersed widely in the genome is suitable for large-scale and automated genotyping. In this study, highly polymorphic bi-allelic SNP loci were screened and 700 KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) molecular markers were developed based on resequencing data of 205 diverse maize inbred lines. Among them, 202 KASP markers validated by 46 representative lines were further used for phylogenetic tree construction and genetic structure analysis. The validated KASP markers distributed evenly on 10 chromosomes in maize with an average PIC of 0.463 and an average MAF of 0.451. The phylogenetic tree constructed by KASP markers is highly consistent with that by re-sequencing data. In addition, the genetic similarity coefficient evaluated between KASP loci and the total SNP loci achieved 89.5% which demonstrated the availability of KASP in heterotic group division. These findings suggest that 202 KASP markers play an important role in analysis of germplasm resource, construction of genetic map, and division of heterotic group in maize.

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    Effects of increasing planting density and decreasing nitrogen rate on dry matter, nitrogen accumulation and distribution, and yield of cotton
    Shi-Hong WANG,Zhong-Xu YANG,Jia-Liang SHI,Hai-Tao LI,Xian-Liang SONG,Xue-Zhen SUN
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (3): 395-407.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.94074
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    A field experiment was conducted using Liaomian 6 with the treatments of three plant densities (5.25×10 4, 6.75×10 4, and 8.25×10 4 plants hm -2), and five nitrogen rates (0, 105, 210, 315, and 420 kg hm -2) in 2016 and 2017. Compared with D5.25, D6.75, and D8.25 dry matter accumulation of cotton significantly increased by 17.6% and 28.7% in 2016, 12.6% and 20.9% in 2017, respectively. Compared with N0, N105, N210, N315, and N420 increased dry matter accumulation by 4.5%, 11.1%, 13.7%, 16.3% in 2016 and 3.6%, 13.5%, 15.3%, 19.8% in 2017, respectively. The dynamic curve of cotton dry matter and nitrogen absorption accumulation conformed to the Logistic model, and the maximal nitrogen accumulation (Ym) was obtained under D8.25 N420 treatment in 2016 and 2017. Compared to the average, the maximal biomass, duration of rapid accumulation (T), the maximal speed of accumulation (Vm) increased by 17.3% and 23.8%, 5.20% and 9.9%, 11.45% and 13.8%, respectively in two years. The starting date of rapid accumulation period (t1) was 4.1 d and 6.4 d earlier for nitrogen than for dry matter, indicating that the nutrient absorption of cotton was the premise of dry matter accumulation. The lint yield of D5.25N315, D6.75N210 and D6.75N105 in 2016 as well as D5.25N315 and D6.75N210 in 2017 was significantly higher than that of other treatments. The interaction effect of planting density and nitrogen application amount significantly affected cotton yield. Increasing planting density and reducing nitrogen application amount can obtain high yield. It is recommended for this region that the cotton planting density should be increased from 5.25×10 4 to 6.75×10 4 plants hm -2, and the amount of nitrogen application decreased from 300 kg hm -2 to 105 kg hm -2in the first year, and then to 210 kg hm -2 in the next year.

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    Effects of drip irrigation pattern and water regulation on the accumulation and allocation of dry matter and nitrogen, and water use efficiency in summer maize
    Ming-Da YANG,Xiao-Kang GUAN,Ying LIU,Jing-Yu CUI,Chao-Ming DING,Jing-Li WANG,Jing-Li HAN,Huai-Ping WANG,Hai-Ping KANG,Tong-Chao WANG
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2019, 45 (3): 443-459.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.83026
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    A split-plot experiment was conducted to explore the dry matter and nitrogen accumulation and allocation characteristics, and water use efficiency of maize in response to different drip irrigation regimes. Drip underground (DU) and drip surface (DS) were applied with three levels of water treatment [W40, W60, and W80 referring to 40%-50% field water capacity (FWC), 60%-70% FWC, and 80%-90% FWC, respectively]. The nitrogen accumulation and water use efficiency of DU treatment has been significantly increased by 6.18% and 4.85%-8.61% respectively compared with DS treatment. The response of dry matter and nitrogen characteristics to drip irrigation patterns was depended on soil water regulation levels. Under W40 and W60 conditions, DU significantly increased the net photosynthetic rate of summer maize, improved dry matter and nitrogen accumulation after silking and their contribution to grains. At last, DU increased the dry matter accumulation, nitrogen accumulation in grains, yield and nitrogen partial factor productivity by 3.29% to 19.94%, -1.10% to 20.65%, 3.29% to 19.94%, and 3.31% to 23.64% respectively. While under W80 condition, dry matter and nitrogen accumulations, yield and crop evapotranspiration were 6.80% to 12.24%, 5.93%, 8.39% to 14.91%, and 9.73% to 14.57% respectively higher in DS than in DU. In conclusion, drip underground could improve dry matter and nitrogen translocated to grain, and increase yield under limited irrigated condition (W40 and W60), while under adequate water supply (W80), drip surface could enhance the dry matter and nitrogen accumulation with lower water use efficiency due to excessive water consumption.

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    CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the thermo-sensitive genic male-sterile gene TMS5 in rice
    CHEN Ri-Rong,ZHOU Yan-Biao,WANG Dai-Jun,ZHAO Xin-Hui,TANG Xiao-Dan,XU Shi-Chong,TANG Qian-Ying,FU Xing-Xue,WANG Kai,LIU Xuan-Ming,YANG Yuan-Zhu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (8): 1157-1165.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.92059
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    Thermo-sensitive genic male-sterile (TGMS) gene tms5 is most widely used in the two-line hybrid breeding system in China. To develop novel rice thermo-sensitive male sterile lines, we knocked out the TMS5 genes of six elite japonica and four indica rice varieties by using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology. By analyzing the critical sterility-inducing temperature (CIST) of the newly TGMS lines, it was found that the CIST of japonica TGMS lines ZG75S, CYGS, YG0618S, ZG07S, T0361S, and 7679S were between 28°C and 32°C, the CIST of indica TGMS lines 2537S, 6150S and 6379S were between 24°C and 28°C, and the CIST of indica TGMS line 1109S was lower than 23.5°C. These results indicated that the CIST of tms5 mutant from different genetic background materials was different. The TGMS lines with lower CIST could be obtained by knocking out the TMS5 from different genetic background materials. A hybrid rice combination 1109S/8048 had high quality and high yield. The yield of 1109S/8048 was 13.1% higher than that of Fengliangyou 4. The creation of the TGMS 1109S and the high-yield cross combination 1109S/8048 provides a new way for high-yield breeding.

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    Mapping and genetic analysis of QTLs for Fusarium head blight resistance to disease spread in Yangmai 16
    HU Wen-Jing,ZHANG Yong,LU Cheng-Bin,WANG Feng-Ju,LIU Jin-Dong,JIANG Zheng-Ning,WANG Jin-Ping,ZHU Zhan-Wang,XU Xiao-Ting,HAO Yuan-Feng,HE Zhong-Hu,GAO De-Rong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (02): 157-165.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.91048
    Abstract633)   HTML76)    PDF(pc) (2398KB)(450)       Save

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance of Yangmai wheat cultivars has been paid much attention, but the underlying genetic mechanism is unclear. In recent years, Yangmai 16 is a predominant wheat cultivar durably resistant to FHB in production. A population of 174 double haploid lines (DH) produced by crossing Yangmai 16 (YM16) with the susceptible cultivar Zhongmai 895 (ZM895) was evaluated for FHB response using point inoculation from 2017 to 2019. The DH population was genotyped with wheat 660K SNP array and a high-density genetic map was constructed. Six resistance QTLs were detected, and among them, five were from the resistant parent Yangmai 16 and one from Zhongmai 895. QFhb.yaas-4DS and QFhb.yaas-6AS were detected at least in two years, explaining 8.8% to 15.0% of the phenotypic variances, respectively. QFhb.yaas-2DL and QFhb.yaas-3BL were detected only in one year, accounting for 10.5% and 14.7% of the phenotypic variances. QFhb.yaas-5BL and QFhb.yaas-4BS were detected in one year, too, accounting for 6.4% and 8.3% of the phenotypic variances, respectively. Pyramiding of multiple resistant loci with large effects (>10%) is an effective approach to increase FHB resistance. The QTLs identified from Yangmai 16 in the present study will provide a starting point for genetic studies of other Yangmai cultivars, and the QTLs closely linked to markers will be useful for marker-assisted selection in wheat FHB improvement.

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    Effect of integrated agronomic managements on leaf growth and endogenous hormone content of summer maize
    YU Ning-Ning,ZHANG Ji-Wang,REN Bai-Zhao,ZHAO Bin,LIU Peng
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (6): 960-967.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.93050
    Abstract448)   HTML22)    PDF(pc) (622KB)(443)       Save

    The leaves are the main place of photosynthesis directly related to the nutritional status, dry matter accumulation and yield formation of maize plants. The experiment was conducted using summer maize hybrid Zhengdan 958 with treatments of T1: local conventional cultivation practices; T2: based on T1, increasing planting density, delaying harvesting time, decreasing fertilizer application, and changing fertilization time; T3: based on T2, further increasing planting density, and further increasing fertilizer rate; T4: based on T3, decreasing planting density and the amount of fertilizer; and nitrogen treatments of N0, N1, N2, and N3, with 0, 129.0, 184.5, and 300.0 kg N hm -2, respectively. The contents of IAA, ZR, and GA3 decreased and the content of ABA increased, resulting in the decreases of SPAD, leaf area index (LAI) and specific leaf mass, when nitrogen application was not enough. And the contents of IAA, ZR, and GA3 increased, and ABA content decreased, and LAI, SPAD and dry matter accumulation per plant increased significantly with increasing nitrogen application. Integrated agronomic management practices could regulate the content of endogenous hormones in leaves. In T4 treatment, IAA, ZR, and GA3 contents increased by 23.1%, 9.8%, and 14.7%, the ABA content decreased by 12.4%, resulting in a suitable LAI; SPAD and final dry matter accumulation per plant were by 4.2% and 12.6% higher, respectively, than those in T1 treatment. Integrated agronomic managements could coordinate endogenous hormone contents, increase leaf SPAD and specific leaf mass, and be beneficial to dry matter accumulation per plant under the condition of reducing nitrogen application combining with optimal agronomic managements, which might be one of the important reasons for increasing summer maize yield.

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    Screening and identification of salt-tolerant rice germplasm in whole growth period
    SUN Xian-Jun,JIANG Qi-Yan,HU Zheng,ZHANG Hui-Yuan,XU Chang-Bing,DI Yi-Huan,HAN Long-Zhi,ZHANG Hui
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2019, 45 (11): 1656-1663.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.92012
    Abstract552)   HTML19)    PDF(pc) (1389KB)(443)       Save

    Five hundred and fifty rice germplasm collected from different regions at home and abroad were tested at 10 days after transplanting treated with various salt concentrations (0, 0.3%, and 0.5% salinity) during whole growth period, the various salt concentrations were obtained by watering different volumes of water and seawater. Six agronomic-related traits, including plant height, panicle number per plant, main panicle length, seed setting rate, yield per plant and heading date, were investigated under 0, 0.3% salinity treatments, and salt-tolerant phenotype was investigated under 0.5% salinity treatment. Under the salt treatment of 0.3% salinity during whole growth period, the plant height of 550 (100%) rice varieties decreased significantly; and there were significant difference in panicle number per plant of 124 (90 up, 34 down) rice varieties, main panicle length of 414 (405 down, 9 up) rice varieties, seed setting rate of 145 (84 down, 61 up) rice varieties, yield per plant of 375 (343 down, 32 up) rice varieties, while no significant difference in heading date. Principal component analysis showed that 77.25% variation was contributed by the three agronomic-related traits including main spike seed-setting rate, effective tiller number and yield per plant. One hundred and twenty-one salt-tolerant rice varieties with yield salt tolerance index ≥ 0.8 were obtained under 0.3% salinity treatment, 78 salt-tolerant rice varieties with salt tolerance phenotype of level 3 were screened under the durable 42 days salt treatment of 0.5% salinity. There were 25 rice varieties with both the yield salt tolerance index ≥ 0.8 under 0.3% salinity treatment and phenotype of level 3 under the durable 42 days salt treatment of 0.5% salinity. These salt-tolerant varieties can be used for cultivar innovation and the further study on mechanism of salinity tolerance.

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    Research advance on calcium content in wheat grains
    LIU Yu-Xiu, HUANG Shu-Hua, WANG Jing-Lin, ZHANG Zheng-Mao
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (2): 187-196.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01045
    Abstract516)   HTML64)    PDF(pc) (418KB)(441)       Save

    Increasing the mineral content is becoming the important research direction and major target for crops breeding in the world. Calcium is an essential mineral element for human health and plays a pivotal role in skeletogenesis and metabolism. It is estimated that about 3.5 billion people was suffered from calcium deficiencies. Calcium deficiency has become a major international problem harming human health. The staple food is an optimal and safe way to mineral supplement. Wheat, one of the main food crops in China and even in the world, is the main source of food for 35%-40% of global population, a main source for human’s calcium intake as well as an important crop of mineral element biofortification. Improving the calcium content in wheat grains through genetic improvement is considered to be the most economical, effective and sustainable measure to solve the calcium deficiency, which has aroused great concern from international scholars. This paper summarized the recent advances in the study of calcium content in wheat grains, mainly including the genetic variation, affecting factors, the relationship with related traits and regulation mechanism of calcium content in grain. Furthermore, we also put forward the direction of future research on calcium-fortified wheat, which provides solutions for accelerating the effective calcium supplementation through staple food, promoting the healthy and nutritious dietary pattern, ensuring the food security to meet the transition from “quantitative” to “qualitative” demands, improving people’s health, and reducing economic losses caused by calcium deficiency.

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    Establishment of screening method for salt tolerant soybean at emergence stage and screening of tolerant germplasm
    LIU Xie-Xiang,CHANG Ru-Zhen,GUAN Rong-Xia,QIU Li-Juan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (01): 1-8.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.94062
    Abstract606)   HTML89)    PDF(pc) (3749KB)(438)       Save

    Salinity is an important factor affecting crop production. Screening salt tolerant soybean germplasm is of great significance for the utilization of salinized soil in major soybean production regions. In order to select salt tolerant soybean, a screening method was developed by using six soybean accessions, including Zhonghuang 35, Zhonghuang 39, Williams 82, Tiefeng 8, Peking, and NY27-38. Seeds were grown in vermiculite and treated with 0, 100, and 150 mmol L -1 NaCl solution. Seedling rate (SR), plant height (H), fresh weight of shoot and root (FWS and FWR), dry weight of shoot and root (DWS and DWR) were decreased significantly under 150 mmol L -1 NaCl treatment, with significant difference among varieties. Therefore, 150 mmol L -1 NaCl was suitable to identify salt tolerant soybean at emergence stage. The salt tolerance index (SI) based on the growth and development of seedlings and the salt tolerance coefficient (ST) were significantly correlated with the salt tolerance. The method using salt tolerance index is non-destructive and does not require planting control, which could save time and labor in salt tolerant germplasm identification. Twenty-seven soybean resources were screened, in which three were highly tolerant (grade 1) and seven tolerant (grade 2) at emergence stage. Among them, Yundou 101, Zheng 1311, Wansu 1015, and Tiefeng 8 also showed salt tolerance (grade 1) at seedling stage. In summary, an effective method for screening salt tolerant soybean at emergence stage was developed, with vermiculite as the substrate, 150 mmol L -1 NaCl as suitable treatment solution, and salt tolerance index as the indicator. Four soybean accessions were found to be salt tolerant at both emergence and seedling stages. This screening method will be useful for identification of salt tolerant soybean germplasm.

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    Research advances on characteristics, damage and control measures of weedy rice
    CHEN Lei, JIN Man, ZHANG Wei-Le, WANG Cheng-Xu, WU Yong-Bin, WANG Zhi-Zhong, TANG Xiao-Yan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (7): 969-977.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.92064
    Abstract624)   HTML68)    PDF(pc) (3059KB)(433)       Save

    Weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea) presumably originated from rice but has weedy characteristics. It is one of the malignant weeds in rice field that decreases rice production and grain quality severely. In this study, the biological characteristics of weedy rice were described from morphology, shattering, dormancy and stress tolerance. The process of weedy rice origination from de-domestication of cultivated rice was summarized briefly. We also introduced the worldwide distribution of weedy rice as well as its non-uniform distribution in China with the most severe occurrence in middle-south area of Jiangsu province and Zhanjiang of Guangzhou province. In addition, we analyzed the agricultural damage on rice yield, rice quality and paddy field ecology environment by weedy rice. To control the occurrence and spread of weedy rice, we further proposed comprehensive measures, including prevention and controlling measures, reasonable cultivation system, and scientific use of chemical herbicides.

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    Interactive effects of sowing pattern and planting density on grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency in large spike wheat cultivar
    Fei-Na ZHENG,Jin-Peng CHU,Xiu ZHANG,Li-Wei FEI,Xing-Long DAI,Ming-Rong HE
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (3): 423-431.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.91046
    Abstract430)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (530KB)(432)       Save

    In order to find out the way to achieve further improvement in the grain yield (GY) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of winter wheat, two sowing pattern (the wide range sowing and conventional drilling sowing) and seven planting densities (130×10 4, 200×10 4, 270×10 4, 340×10 4, 410×10 4, 480×10 4, and 550×10 4 plants hm -2) were designed during 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 growing seasons. Tainong 18, a winter wheat cultivar with larger spike and lower tillering capacity, was used to investigate the combined effects of sowing pattern and planting density on GY and NUE. Compared with the conventional drilling sowing, the wide range sowing with higher planting density effectively alleviated the negative effect of increasing spikes per unit area and nitrogen uptake efficiency (NUpE) on decreasing single spike weight and nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUtE), respectively. Concurrent improvement in GY and NUE was achieved by increasing the number of spikes per unit area and NUpE. The planting density resulting in the highest GY and NUE under wide range sowing conditions was 410×10 4 plants hm -2, which was significantly higher than that (340×10 4 plants hm -2) under conventional drilling sowing. Moreover, the increase percentage of GY and NUE under wide ranging sowing was also significantly higher than that under drilling sowing. In summary, it is feasible to further improve GY and NUE of large spike wheat cultivar through rational combination of wide range sowing with higher planting density. Under the condition of this experiment, the optimal combination measure for high GY and NUE was sowing width of 8-10 cm with plant density of 410×10 4 plants hm -2.

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    Research advances of cover crops and their important roles
    JIAN Shu-Lian, LI Shu-Xin, LIU Sheng-Qun, LI Xiang-Nan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (1): 1-14.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.03058
    Abstract347)   HTML72)    PDF(pc) (1301KB)(430)       Save

    In crop planting system, the influences of field weeds and soil properties on crop growth and development, yield, and quality have always been paid close attention to agriculture field. Overdose applications of chemical fertilizers and herbicides are beneficial for crop yield and well control of weeds, however, their negative impacts on soil and environment seriously restrict the sustainable development of agricultural production. Planting cover crops have been considered as a novel strategy to achieve sustainable agricultural development, which can help to control weeds, reduce nitrogen application, and improve soil quality. We summarize the current research advance progress of cover crops and their application in crop cultivation, including the origin and development process, main types, functions, and cropping systems of cover crops, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the research and application of cover crops in agriculture production in China.

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    Combined effects of low temperature and weak light at grain-filling stage on rice grain quality
    ZHANG Cheng-Xin,GUO Bao-Wei,TANG Jian,XU Fang-Fu,XU Ke,HU Ya-Jie,XING Zhi-Peng,ZHANG Hong-Cheng,DAI Qi-Gen,HUO Zhong-Yang,WEI Hai-Yan,HUANG Li-Fen,LU Yang,TANG Chuang,DAI Qi-Xing,ZHOU Miao,SUN Jun-Yi
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2019, 45 (8): 1208-1220.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.82067
    Abstract644)   HTML14)    PDF(pc) (480KB)(420)       Save

    In recent years, the low temperature and less sunshine occurred frequently during the heading and filling stages of rice in southern China, which affected rice quality. An experiment was conducted with four treatments including low temperature and weak light combined stress (LW), low temperature under normal light (LN), weak light under normal temperature (WN) and normal temperature under normal light (NN) in five periods of grain filling stage (1-7 d, 8-14 d, 15-21 d, 22-28 d, 29-35 d) to research the influences of low temperature and weak light combined stress on rice quality. The chalkiness rate (CR), chalkiness size (CS) and chalkiness degree (CD) among different stress treatments in each period all showed a trend of LW > LN > WN > NN, in which LW in each setting period of grain filling stage was significantly or very significantly different from NN, in each period within 21 days of grain filling stage, LW was also significantly or very significantly different from WN and LN, and single stress was also significantly or very significantly different from NN, except the whiteness in the period of 1-7 d of grain filling stage in 2016. And in each period within 21 days of grain filling stage, there were no significant difference between WN and LN, of which each was significantly different from LW in some periods. The brown rice rate, milled rice rate and head milled rice rate of different stress treatments in each period reflected NN > WN > LN > LW, in which LW, LN, and WN were all significantly or very significantly different from NN in each period within 21 days of grain filling stage and in some periods after 21 days of grain filling stage. Head milled rice rate was affected more deeply than brown rice rate and milled rice rate by the combined stress or single stress, especially at the periods within 21 days of grain filling stage. LW reduced the amylose, gel consistency, appearance, viscosity and taste value of rice significantly or very significantly and increased protein content and hardness significantly or very significantly; WN and LN showed the same influence trend as LW. LW reduced the peak viscosity, trough viscosity and break down of rice significantly except the breakdown of 29-35 d of grain filling stage, and increased final viscosity, set back and peak time significantly too. In general, low temperature and weak light combined stress and single stress deteriorate the rice quality in various degrees during different periods, especially the combined stress within 21 days of grain filling stage.

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    Characteristics of post-anthesis carbon and nitrogen accumulation and translocation in maize cultivars with different low nitrogen tolerance
    WU Ya-Wei, PU Wei, ZHAO Bo, WEI Gui, KONG Fan-Lei, YUAN Ji-Chao
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (5): 915-928.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03033
    Abstract321)   HTML17)    PDF(pc) (1959KB)(416)       Save

    To understand the suitable amount of nitrogen (N) application and the potential of increasing yield and improve efficiency for the maize cultivars with different low N tolerance. The experiment was setting from 2017 to 2019, the low-N tolerant cultivar ‘Zhenghong 311 (ZH311)’ and the low-N sensitive cultivar ‘Xianyu 508 (XY508)’ were selected and four N application rates (0 kg hm-2, 150 kg hm-2, 300 kg hm-2, and 450 kg hm-2) were set to investigate the effects of N level on carbon (C) and N accumulation and translocation in the later growth stage of different maize cultivars. The results showed that in low N environment, maize increased the C and N translocations of pre-silking to the grain to ensure the yield. Increasing the N fertilizer applications could improve the contribution rates of dry matter and carbohydrate to grain yield. Compared with XY508, ZH311 had higher accumulations of plant dry matter, N and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) of pre- and post-silking, and higher contribution rates of dry matter, N and accumulations to grain yield of post-silking, so it had higher grain yield. There was no significant difference between cultivars in the rate of dry matter, N and NSC translocation of pre-silking. In the face of low N stress, ZH 311 not only ensured the sufficient C and N translocations of pre-silking to the grain, but also maintained a higher capacity of assimilate accumulation to affect the yield formation.

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    Silking duration characteristics in different maize hybrids and its response to sowing date
    Yue-E LIU,Tian-Fang LYU,Jiu-Ran ZHAO,Rong-Huan WANG,Tian-Jun XU,Chuan-Yong CHEN,Yi-Tian ZHANG,Yuan-Dong WANG,Xiu-Zhi LIU
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2019, 45 (2): 310-315.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.83034
    Abstract601)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (549KB)(411)       Save

    Silking is an important growth stage and has important effects on maize (Zea mays L.) yield. The research of silking characteristics plays a fundamental role in maize productivity. To examine the silking characteristics difference of different maize hybrids and its responses to sowing date, we conducted an experiment with three sowing date (4/10, 5/10, 6/10) treatments using the most widely cultivated maize hybrids of Zhengdan 958 (ZD958), Xianyu 335 (XY335), and Jingke 968 (JK968). The silking duration difference between different hybrids and the relationship of silking duration with ear length variation and yield components were analyzed. The significant differences were found in silking durations with an order of XY335 (9.12 d) > ZD958 (8.94 d) > JK968 (7.68 d). The silking ratio per day was well correlated with days to silking (P < 0.05), A non-linear positive relationship existed between silking ratio per day (y) and days to silking (x). The highest silking ratio per day showed an order of XY335 (16.51%) < ZD958 (17.07%) < JK968 (19.98%). Significant differences of silking duration were found between different sowing date treatments. The silking durations of ZD958, XY335, and JK968 in different sowing date treatment ranged from 8.10 d to 9.55 d (CV = 6.57%), from 7.54 d to 10.53 d (CV = 9.40%), from 6.55 d to 8.66 d (CV = 11.68%), respectively. Silking duration significantly and positively correlated the coefficient of variation of ear length, and negatively correlated with yield and kernel number per ear. No significant correlation was found between silking duration and 1000-kernel weight. Sowing date has significant effects on silking duration. With increasing silking duration , the coefficient of variation of ear length is increased significantly, the uniformity of ear length and kernel number per ear are decreased, resulting in maize yield decrease significantly.

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    Difference of physiological characteristics of grain weight at various kernel positions in wheat spikelets
    LI Yan-Xia,YANG Wei-Bing,YIN Yan-Ping,ZHENG Meng-Jing,CHEN Jin,YANG Dong-Qing,LUO Yong-Li,PANG Dang-Wei,LI Yong,WANG Zhen-Lin
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2019, 45 (11): 1715-1724.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.91004
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    The object of the experiment was to explore the main physiological mechanism of heterogeneous development of grains located at the various kernel positions in wheat spikelets, further to reveal the factors restricting grain filling of inferior grains located on the distal kernel positions. Two varieties with different spike sizes of winter wheat (a large-spike cultivar Tainong 18 and a multiple-spike cultivar Shannong 20) were used to as the experimental materials. We have studied the dynamic changes of concentrations of endogenous hormones, soluble sugar and total nitrogen in grains located at different kernel positions in wheat spikelets during grain-filling period, and the microstructure of vascular bundle junction on kernel handle and kernel weight. Correlation analysis showed that the grain filling rate was significantly correlated with the contents of GA and IAA in grains. Higher GA and IAA contents in proximal kernels could make the conversion from sucrose to starch start earlier, the seed differentiate rapidly and the grain-filling rate higher, which is the physiological mechanism of the higher weight of proximal kernel in wheat spikelets. The micrograph showed that the cross-sectional area of vascular bundle of seed stalk on proximal kernels at the early stage of grain-filling period was significantly larger than that of distal kernels, and the microcosmic space was small and orderly, which is conducive to the transport of assimilates and physiological active substances, showing an anatomical basis for the rapid increase of seed weight and higher grain-filling rate in the proximal kernels of spikelets.

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    Photosynthetic characteristics of senescent leaf induced by high planting density of maize at heading stage in the field
    Han-Yu WU,Ya-Jun ZHANG,Wang-Feng ZHANG,Ke-Ru WANG,Shao-Kun LI,Chuang-Dao JIANG
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2019, 45 (2): 248-255.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.83042
    Abstract507)   HTML23)    PDF(pc) (553KB)(407)       Save

    A field experiment was conducted using maize variety “Xianyu 335” at heading stage to study the influences of planting density (15,000 plants ha -1, 75,000 plants ha -1, and 135,000 plants ha -1) on canopy light intensity, specific leaf weight, nitrogen content, chlorophyll content, gas exchange, and chlorophyll a fluorescence induction kinetics of the ear leaf and the fourth leaf below ear. With increasing the density, the light intensity within the canopy significantly reduced, especially around the fourth leaf below ear, and the specific leaf weight and content of nitrogen and chlorophyll in the ear leaf and the fourth leaf below ear reduced. The fluorescence induction kinetics of the ear leaf revealed little changes under different planting densities. Compared with low density, the J and I phases of the fluorescence induction kinetics curves increased slightly in the fourth leaf below ear under high density. In addition, at high planting density, the photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate of the both leaves decreased. The intercellular CO2 concentration decreased in the ear leaf, while increased in the fourth leaf below ear. Therefore, we believe that the heterogeneity of light environment can rapidly induce senescence in the lower leaves of the canopy (such as the fourth leaf below ear) at heading stage under high planting density in the field. In the process of leaf senescence within canopy, the limiting factor of photosynthesis is not light energy capture and electron transport, while may be the decrease of carbon assimilation.

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    Research progress on traits and assessment methods of stalk lodging resistance in maize
    ZHAO Xue, ZHOU Shun-Li
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (1): 15-26.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.03055
    Abstract272)   HTML41)    PDF(pc) (959KB)(399)       Save

    Maize stalk lodging causes yield loss, decreases grain quality, increases harvest costs, and makes it impossible for grain dehydration after physiological maturity which limits mechanical grain harvest. Previous researches have been conducted to study the traits related to stalk lodging, including morphological and anatomical traits, chemical constituents of the plant and internode. However, there exist some disagreements, and lack quantitative studies on stalk lodging resistance. In this study, we review the evaluation methods and indicators of stalk lodging resistance, the determination methods of mechanical properties as well as analysis methods of stalk lodging related traits and some factors that may have effects on the results. Furthermore, we put forward the existing problems in previous researches on traits and evaluation indicators related to stalk lodging resistance and the contents need to be given further attention. These results provide a reference for further study of maize stalk lodging resistance traits and evaluation methods, lodging resistance breeding and optimization of cultivation measures.

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    Effect of planting density on light interception within canopy and grain yield of different plant types of maize
    Yan-Wen BAI,Yong-Hong YANG,Ya-Li ZHU,Hong-Jie LI,Ji-Quan XUE,Ren-He ZHANG
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2019, 45 (12): 1868-1879.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.93011
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    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between light interception in canopy and dry matter production and grain yield in different plant types of maize. The response of morphological characteristics, canopy light distribution, grain filling parameters and dry matter accumulation were studied using three different maize hybrids Shaandan 609 (SD609, compact), Qinlong 14 (QL14, semi-compact), and Shaandan 8806 (SD8806, flat) with four plant densities (4.5×10 4, 6.0×10 4, 7.5×10 4, and 9.0×10 4plants hm -2) in the field from 2016 to 2017. The average yields of SD609, QL14, and SD8806 were 12,176, 9624, and 8533 kg hm -2, respectively, within two years, reaching high yields under 9.0×10 4, 7.5×10 4, and 6×10 4 plants hm -2, with the yield increase of 26.9%, 20.4%, and 19.7% compared with those under 4.5×10 4 plants hm -2, respectively. With the increase of plant density, leaf area decreased, but LAI and leaf orientation value increased. The middle leaves of SD609 were more upright and larger than those of QL14 under 9×10 4 plants hm -2. With increasing plant density, Dmax (days to the maximum grain-filling rate), Wmax (kernel weight at the maximum grain filling rate), Gmax (maximum grain-filling rate), Gave (average grain-filling rate) and P (active filling period) decreased, the Dmax for SD609 was 1.4 days and 3.0 days earlier than that of QL14 and SD8806, and the Wmax and P were higher than those of SD636 (0.3 g and 3.3 d) and SD8806 (1.1 g and 5.4 d), respectively. The dry matter accumulation after silking and the contribution of dry matter transportation to grain yield increased and then decreased with the increase of plant density, the accumulation, transportation and contribution to grain of dry matter after anthesis were higher in SD609 than QL14 (5.1%, 36.0%, 33.5%) and SD8806 (26.6%, 46.7%, 59.1%). The light interception in the ear canopy was significantly correlated with yield (r = 0.631, P < 0.05), the dry matter accumulation after silking (r = 0.661) and average grain filling rate (r = 0.859) at P < 0.01. Thus, compared with QL14 and SD8806, SD609 could regulate the mid and upper leaves more vertical under close planting, improve the light distribution in the mid and lower canopy, maintain a higher area of green leaves, delay the senescence of canopy leaves, increase dry matter accumulation after anthesis and grain filling rate, so obtain a higher grain yield.

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    Effects of drought treatments at different growth stages on growth and the activity of osmotic adjustment in sweet potato [ Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.]
    ZHANG Hai-Yan, WANG Bao-Qing, FENG Xiang-Yang, LI Guang-Liang, XIE Bei-Tao, DONG Shun-Xu, DUAN Wen-Xue, ZHANG Li-Ming
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (11): 1760-1770.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.04079
    Abstract447)   HTML28)    PDF(pc) (545KB)(393)       Save

    Field experiments were conducted using two sweet potato cultivars (Jishu 21, a drought-tolerant cultivar, and Jizishu 1, a drought-sensitive cultivar) with four water treatments to investigate the effects of drought treatments at different growth stages on growth and the activity of osmotic adjustment in sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.], including well-watered treatment during the whole growth period (WW, control), drought stress during the establishment stage (DS1), drought stress during the storage root initial stage (DS2), and drought stress during the storage root bulking stage (DS3). Drought stress resulted in significant decrease of fresh weight of storage roots in sweet potato. Compared with drought stress in different periods, drought stress during the establishment stage (DS1) decreased the fresh weight most. Compared between cultivars, drought-sensitive cultivar decreased the fresh weight most. The average in three years, compared with the control, the fresh weight of drought-tolerant cultivar (Jishu 21) and drought-sensitive cultivar (Jizishu 1) decreased 28.59% and 38.77% in DS1 treatment, respectively, while 25.20% and 33.50% in DS2 treatment, respectively and 14.55% and 19.56% in DS3 treatment, respectively. Drought stress resulted in significant decrease of biomass of storage roots in sweet potato. One hundred days after planting, compared with the control, the biomass of aboveground part of Jishu 21 in DS1, DS2, and DS3 decreased 32.68%, 20.79%, and 11.72%, respectively, while Jizishu 1 decreased 46.45%, 31.89%, and 18.43%, respectively. The biomass of underground part of Jishu 21 in DS1, DS2, and DS3 decreased 37.69%, 25.86%, and 10.67%, respectively, while Jizishu 1 decreased 54.34%, 33.48%, and 14.20%, respectively. Under drought stress, the relative water content of functional leaves decreased, and the content of soluble sugar, soluble protein, free amino acid and proline in functional leaves, fibrous roots and storage roots increased. The earlier the application of drought stress, the greater the decrease or increase. The effects of drought stress applied at early stages on osmotic adjustment could not be effectively recovered after re-watering, while the osmotic adjustment could be recovered to the control level after re-watering when drought stress was applied at later stage.

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    Effect of nitrogen application on yield and rice quality of mechanical transplanting high quality late rice
    TANG Jian,TANG Chuang,GUO Bao-Wei,ZHANG Cheng-Xin,ZHANG Zhen-Zhen,WANG Ke,ZHANG Hong-Cheng,CHEN Heng,SUN Ming-Zhu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (01): 117-130.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.92010
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    The experiment was conducted by using four high quality late rice varieties, including Taiyou 398, Huanghuazhan, Tianyouhuazhan, and Meixiangxinzhan under four nitrogen treatments of 0, 135, 180, and 255 kg hm -2 to select the optimum nitrogen application rate for the coordination of high quality and high yield. The appropriate increase of nitrogen application improved the yield of high quality rice, which reached maximum under the nitrogen treatment of 180 kg hm -2. When the nitrogen application was 180 kg hm -2, the indicators such as the brown rice rate, milled rice rate and head milled rice rate for all varieties reached maximum except for the head milled rice rate of Huanghuazhan. As more nitrogen was gradually applied, there were growing length-width ratio, protein content and gel consistency of double-season high-quality late rice while in contrast reduction in chalky grain percentage, chalkiness degree and amylose content, which also brought about a steady drop in peak viscosity, trough viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity while a rise in setback and pasting temperature. To sum up, the appropriate increase of nitrogen application can improve the processing quality, appearance quality, cooking and nutritional quality while deteriorate the RVA characteristics. The nitrogen application of 180 kg hm -2 facilitates a better coordination between quality and yield in high quality double-season late rice under mechanical transplanting.

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    Effect of organic fertilizer and rotational tillage practices on soil carbon and nitrogen and maize yield in wheat-maize cropping system
    Kai SUN,Zhen LIU,Heng-Yu HU,Geng LI,Wen-Tao LIU,Liu YANG,Tang-Yuan NING,Yan-Ling WANG
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2019, 45 (3): 401-410.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.83028
    Abstract471)   HTML18)    PDF(pc) (416KB)(388)       Save

    Quantitatively analyzing the effects of different tillage rotations and organic fertilization practices on soil carbon, nitrogen and their enzyme activities is of great importance to improve soil fertility and promote maize yield. This study was intended to explore changes of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, urease and sucrase activities under different tillage rotations and organic manure patterns in wheat-maize cropping system of North China Plain. Six treatments were compared, which were straw returning with rotary tillage-subsoiling (PRS), straw returning with subsoiling-no tillage (PSN), straw returning with conventional tillage-no tillage (PCN), cow manure with rotary tillage-subsoiling (FRS), cow manure with subsoiling-no tillage (FSN), and cow manure with conventional tillage-no tillage (FCN). The tillage mode, organic manure and their interactions had significant effects on soil fertility. The RS and SN patterns had higher contents of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, and higher enzyme activities of urease and sucrase in 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers compared with the CN pattern. In rotation tillage mode of RS, straw returning significantly increased the soil organic carbon contents in 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, and 30-40 cm soil layers, and increased the total nitrogen content and sucrase activity in 10-20 cm soil layer. In rotation tillage mode of SN, the soil organic carbon, total nitrogen content, and sucrase activity in 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers, and urease enzyme activity in each soil layer, were significantly increased by applying cow manure compared with straw returning. Compared with PCN, PRS and FSN could significantly increase the soil fertility. The soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, urease and sucrase activities in FSN treatment were the highest in 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers in all treatments. The tillage mode, organic manure and their interactions had significant effects on maize yield. Compare with CN pattern, maize yield of the RS and SN patterns were averagely increased by 1.89%-10.49% and 5.44%-11.99%, respectively. In rotation tillage mode of RS, the yield under straw returning was significantly increased by 2.91%-3.11% compared with that under using cow manure; while in rotation tillage mode of SN, the yield under straw returning was 5.02%-9.07% lower than that under applying cow manure. The average yields of two years were in the order of FSN>PRS>FRS>PSN>FCN>PCN. This study demonstrates that cow manure with subsoiling-no tillage can increase the soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and urease and sucrase activities, and increase the crop yield as a result. Thus, cow manure with subsoiling-no tillage management practice is a better mode for increasing soil fertility and crop productivity, which should be expected to be adopted in the North China Plain.

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    Genome-wide association studies of leaf orientation value in maize
    PENG Bo,ZHAO Xiao-Lei,WANG Yi,YUAN Wen-Ya,LI Chun-Hui,LI Yong-Xiang,ZHANG Deng-Feng,SHI Yun-Su,SONG Yan-Chun,WANG Tian-Yu,LI Yu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (6): 819-831.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.93063
    Abstract709)   HTML56)    PDF(pc) (2510KB)(386)       Save

    Leaf orientation value is a comprehensive index reflecting the two characteristics of “straight” and “vertical” of leaves. The varieties with high leaf orientation value have straight and not curved leaves, and small angle, which are conducive to the wind ventilation and light transmission for maize population. When the planting density is high, it is easier to obtain high yield than the expanded plant-type. It is of great significance for molecular design breeding of ideal plant type to clarify the genetic basis of leaf orientation value. In this study, 285 diverse lines genotyped by the MaizeSNP50 chip were evaluated for leaf orientation in 2017 and 2018. The genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) were used to identified the SNPs, which were significant association with leaf orientation values. The analysis of variance showed that the significant variations were observed for leaf orientation value of different inbred lines (P < 0.01). In the selection of the optimal model, it was found that the Q + K model was the most suitable for the leaf orientation association analysis in this study. A total of 15 loci (P < 4.05E-5) were detected by GWAS, including 27 SNPs, explaining 5.54%-8.73% of phenotypic variation, and 15 candidate genes were mined in two years. Among them, site 2 in 1.07 bin was an important site found in this study, and its candidate gene might be Zm00001d032050 encoding cyclin dependent protein kinase, which needed to be further confirmed by map-based cloning.

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    Identification of indeterminate domain protein family genes associated with flowering time in maize
    Yun-Fu LI,Jing-Xian WANG,Yan-Fang DU,Hua-Wen ZOU,Zu-Xin ZHANG
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2019, 45 (4): 499-507.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.83068
    Abstract980)   HTML47)    PDF(pc) (602KB)(384)       Save

    Flowering time is one of the important factors affecting grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.). Indeterminate1 (ID1) is a known gene encoding indeterminate domain (IDD) protein which controls flowering time of maize. However, biological functions of the other IDD family genes are little known. In this study, we identified 37 IDD family genes, referred to as ZmIDDs by searching conserved IDD domains using bioinformatics strategy, and we then isolated these ZmIDDs by amplifying B73 genome using PCR. Diverse expression patterns of these ZmIDDs were revealed in eight tissues using B73 transcriptome data deposited in public database MaizeGDB (www.maizeGDB.org). In addition, we found that 35 ZmIDDs showed abundant genetic diversity with an average of 37.8 polymorphic loci per gene in 172 inbred lines, and seven ZmIDDs including ID1 were significantly associated with three flowering time-traits: days to tassel, days to anthesis and days to silking under multiple environments. We resequenced a 2 kb promoter region and 600 bp coding region of Zm00001d020683, and found 64 variants within 172 inbred lines. Candidate gene association analysis identified that two variants at promoter region were significantly associated with flowering time, and the haplotype composed of 3 bp and 2 bp insertion at the two associated loci showed an effect of shortening flowering time. The results provide a subset of flowering time-related candidate genes for further function assay and genetic improvement of flowering time in maize.

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    Effects of straw-incorporation combined with autumn plastic mulching on soil water consumption characteristics and winter wheat yield in arid farming areas
    Yu-Zhang CHEN,Shou-Xi CHAI,Hong-Bo CHENG,Yu-Wei CHAI,Chang-Gang YANG,Kai-Min TAN,Lei CHANG
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2019, 45 (2): 256-266.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.71081
    Abstract455)   HTML36)    PDF(pc) (396KB)(384)       Save

    Straw-incorporation and autumn plastic-film mulch are useful techniques for water-saving cultivation in semi-arid areas in northwest China. To investigate the effects of different straw-incorporation and autumn plastic-film mulching treatments on soil water consumption, winter wheat yield and water use efficiency (WUE), we conducted a two-year (2011-2012 and 2012-2013 wheat growing seasons) experiment in fixed fields in Tongwei county, Guansu province. The five treatments were corn straw-incorporation combined with autumn plastic film mulching (CF), single corn straw-incorporation (CNF), wheat straw-incorporation combined with autumn plastic film mulching (WF), single wheat straw-incorporation (WNF), and non-mulching and non-straw returning (CK). Compared with CK, CF and WF led to the increase of water storage of 0-200 cm soil layer with an average of 6.1% in 2011-2012 and 9.6% in 2012-2013, while CNF and WNF showed tender effect with the average increasing percentage of 0.7% and 4.6% in 2011-2012 and 2012-2013, respectively. In the wet year of 2011-2012, evapotranspiration of CF was 19.0 mm lower than that of CK (P < 0.05), and the evapotranspiration of CNF, WF, and WNF was similar to that of CK with no significant difference. In the dry year of 2012-2013, evapotranspiration of CK was 39.1 mm lower than the average of the other four treatments. Evapotranspiration of CF and WF significantly increased from reviving to jointing stages, but reduced from flowering to maturity stages. Deep soil water of CF and WF was consumed more than that of CK in 2012-2013. On the average of CF and WF, the grain yield and WUE were increased, compared with that of CK, by 31.0%-69.4% and 25.6%-43.0%, respectively. Particularly, CF ranked the first in improving yield (51.1% higher than CK) and WUE (41.7% higher than CK). In contrast, the average grain yield and WUE of CNF and WNF were increased by 1.2%-28.0% and 3.0%-11.6%, respectively. This study suggests that CF is an applicable technique in winter wheat cultivation in Northwest dryland.

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    Fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of awn inhibiting gene B2 in common wheat
    Di JIN,Dong-Zhi WANG,Huan-Xue WANG,Run-Zhi LI,Shu-Lin CHEN,Wen-Long YANG,Ai-Min ZHANG,Dong-Cheng LIU,Ke-Hui ZHAN
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2019, 45 (6): 807-817.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.81090
    Abstract673)   HTML67)    PDF(pc) (6260KB)(381)       Save

    Awn is one of the important photosynthetic organs in common wheat and plays a vital role in yield potential and environmental adaptation. At present, the inheritance and development of wheat awn have been not systematically studied, and cloning or fine mapping of related genes are seldom reported. In this study, the genetics and candidate genes conferring the short awn of a Chinese wheat landrace ‘Liuzhutou’ were investigated. Longitudinal section of awn showed cell size of short awn was much shorter than that of long awn. Using Wheat660K SNP chip based bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and SL-F2 population derived from ‘Liuzhutou’ (short awn) and modern cultivar ‘Shiai 1’ (long awn), the awn inhibiting gene in ‘Liuzhutou’ was mapped in a 4.84 Mb interval on chromosome 6BL and predicted as previously characterized B2. A good micro-collinearity of B2 region was observed among chromosomes 6B, 6A, 6D of Chinese Spring and chromosome 6B of AK58, there were 61 genes annotated in the 4.84 Mb B2 region, five of which were specifically expressed in the developing spike of Chinese Spring, and TraesCS6B02G264400 was differentially expressed between Chinese Spring and Azhurnaya. These data provide important clues for cloning the B2 gene, dissecting the developing mechanism of wheat awn and its application in molecular breeding.

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    Genetic diversity of phenotypic traits in 257 Jerusalem artichoke accessions
    Meng-Liang ZHAO,Li-Hui WANG,Yan-Jing REN,Xue-Mei SUN,Zhi-Qiang HOU,Shi-Peng YANG,Li LI,Qi-Wen ZHONG
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (5): 712-724.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.94098
    Abstract510)   HTML11)    PDF(pc) (450KB)(375)       Save

    In order to fully understand and effectively utilize the genetic diversity of Jerusalem artichoke accessions in China. 257 Jerusalem artichoke accessions were analyzed. Among them, 12 quantitative traits had 6%-50% of the coefficient of variation, with a mean of 24.75%, which was the highest in tuber weight per plant (50%) and the smallest in growth period (6%). The diversity index (H') of these 12 traits was 1.24-1.53, with a mean of 1.44, which was the highest in tuber number per plant (1.53) and the lowest in leaf width (1.24). The diversity index of the eight quality traits was 0.85-1.08, with a mean of 0.98, which was the highest in tuber habit and the lowest in tuber uniformity, showing rich genetic diversity in most traits. The subordinate function of 257 Jerusalem artichoke accessions was 0.12-0.58, in which the highest was in JA1095 (0.58) with the obvious advantages of flower number and tuber weight per plant. The correlation analysis of 12 quantitative traits indicated that stem diameter, leaf length, flower and disk size could be used as the main target traits for high yield Jerusalem artichoke varieties breeding in the future. The results of principal component analysis showed that the cumulative contribution rate of the seven principal component factors was 66.794%. Among them, the number of flowers, the tuber number per plant, the number of tuber hairs and the smoothness of tuber epidermis were the main factors contributing to the phenotypic difference of Jerusalem artichoke. By cluster analysis, 257 accessions materials were divided into five categories based on 20 traits,among them class I and class II accounted for 85% of the total germplasm resources. This results can provide an important reference for the utilization of Jerusalem artichoke accessions and variety breeding.

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Co-sponsored:
the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

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  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/the-crop-journal
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E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
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