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    Response of rhizosphere bacterial community diversity to salt stress in peanut
    DAI Liang-Xiang, XU Yang, ZHANG Guan-Chu, SHI Xiao-Long, QIN Fei-Fei, DING Hong, ZHANG Zhi-Meng
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (8): 1581-1592.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04160
    Abstract237)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (1106KB)(505)       Save

    To characterize the peanut rhizosphere bacteria community in response to salt stress, a pot experiment was performed with different salt concentrations. The peanut rhizosphere soils at flowering and mature stages were sampled to extract DNA for constructing bacterial 16S rRNA gene library, and then high-throughput sequencing was performed for sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. The results showed that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Patescibacteria, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi were the dominant phyla, and the orders Saccharimonadales, Betaproteobacteria, Sphingomonadales, Gemmatimonadales, and Rhizobiales were dominated in the peanut rhizosphere soils. Comparisons of the bacterial community structure of peanuts revealed that the relative abundance of Proteobacteria dramatically increased, while that of Actinobacteria decreased in salt-treated soils, and the fluctuation increased with the increase of the salt concentration. Moreover, applying calcium fertilizer under salt stress increased the abundance of Betaproteobacteria, Gemmatimonadales, and Sphingomonadales, which were affected by salt stress, growth stages, and exogenous calcium application. Cluster analysis revealed that the dominant bacteria of soil groups with high salt concentration were similar and clustered together, while the soil samples of the same growth period were similar and clustered together according to the bacterial structure at the genus level under non-salt stress conditions. Bacterial community structure differed in the growth stages and soil salt concentrations, whereas the differences of soil groups with or without calcium application were relatively small. Function prediction analysis indicated that the sequences related to secondary metabolites, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and amino acid and lipid metabolism were enriched in high salt-treated soils. The functional groups increased significantly during the fast-growth period, low salt stress, and basal calcium fertilizer treatments, which may play an important role on the growth and stress response in peanut. This study of microbial communities could lay the foundation for future improvement of stress tolerance of peanuts via modification of the soil microbes.

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    Molecular Design Breeding in Crops in China
    WANG Jian-Kang, LI Hui-Hui, ZHANG Hua-Cai, YIN Chang-Bin, LI Yu, MA Wei-Zhi, LI Xin-Hai, QIU Li-Juan, MO Jian-Min
    Acta Agron Sin    2011, 37 (02): 191-201.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.00191
    Abstract4851)      PDF(pc) (261KB)(6208)       Save
    Molecular design breeding is a highly integrated system built on multiple scientific disciplines and technological areas. It allows the simulation and optimization of the breeding procedure before breeders’ field experiments. Thus the best target genotypes to meet various breeding objectives in various ecological regions, and the most efficient and effective crossing and selection strategies approaching the best target genotypes can be identified. The design breeding greatly increases the predictability in conventional breeding, leading to the evolution from “phenotypic breeding by experience” to “genotypic breeding by prediction” and an increased breeding efficiency and effectiveness. Three major steps are involved in design breeding. The first step is to identify genes affecting breeding traits and to study gene and gene interactions, i.e., to seek for the original materials for producing the crop cultivars, which includes establishment of genetic populations, screening of polymorphism markers, construction of linkage maps, phenotypic evaluation and genetic analysis etc. The second step is to determine the target genotypes for various breeding objectives in various ecological regions, i.e., prototype of the final cultivar product, which includes the genotype-to-phenotype prediction based on identified and known gene information, i.e., locations of genes on chromosomes, biochemical pathways and expression networks from genes to traits, their genetic effects on breeding traits, and the interactions between genes. The third step is to identify the most efficient breeding strategies leading to the target genotypes determined in the second step, i.e., a detailed blue chart to produce the designed crop cultivars. Significant progresses have been made in crop molecular design breeding in China in recent years. This paper first summarized major progresses made in the development of novel genetic materials, genetic study of important breeding traits, development and application of breeding simulation tools, application of design breeding, and the platform research and development in molecular design breeding in crops in China. A perspective view of molecular design breeding was given for the near future after reviewing the current research both in China and worldwide. Finally, major research areas relevant to molecular design breeding in China were proposed, among which are prediction methods and tools of genetics and breeding, genetic mating designs and analysis, gene and environment interactions, functional genomics of crops, methods and tools of bioinformatics, technical systems and decision-supported tools. Professional development and education, and team building are essential as well to China’s leading role in crop molecular design breeding in the world.
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    Cited: Baidu(36)
    Breeding of a novel clubroot disease-resistant Brassica napus variety Huayouza 62R
    LI Qian, Nadil Shah, ZHOU Yuan-Wei, HOU Zhao-Ke, GONG Jian-Fang, LIU Jue, SHANG Zheng-Wei, ZHANG Lei, ZHAN Zong-Xiang, CHANG Hai-Bin, FU Ting-Dong, PIAO Zhong-Yun, ZHANG Chun-Yu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (2): 210-223.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04086
    Abstract422)   HTML25)    PDF(pc) (6984KB)(750)       Save

    The rapeseed clubroot disease incidence in China is about 0.67 million hectare, accounting for 10% of the canola production area, which become a serious threat for the safety of Brassica napus industry. Based on this, we used CR Shinki, a Chinese cabbage material containing CRb clubroot disease resistance locus, as the donor parent, and Pol.CMS restorer line Bing409, the parent of Brassica napus national approved varieties Huayouza 62, as the recipient parent, and the CRb resistance locus was introduced into Bing409 by breeding programs such as crossing, backcrossing, self-cross with the foreground and genetic background selection. In the BC3F2 generation, a new restorer line Bing409R with a genetic background close to Bing409 containing CRb resistance locus was obtained, and Huayouza 62R, the first rapeseed hybrid resistant to clubroot disease in China was successfully developed. The results were as follows: CRb disease resistance locus appeared as a dominant single-gene inheritance in B. napus background, and the genetic improvement of resistance to clubroot disease did not at the expense of yield and quality losses for new restorer line Bing409R and its hybrid Huayouza 62R. Bing409R and Huayouza 62R were showed immune-resistance to physiological races of Plasmodiophora brassicae in Sichuan, Hubei, and Anhui provinces in China. This study will provide valuable resources for the breeding of rapeseed in China, and supplemented important support to overcome the threat of rapeseed clubroot disease.

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    Research Advances on Crop Growth Models
    Lin zhonghui;Mo Xingguo;Xiang Yueqing
    Acta Agron Sin    2003, 29 (05): 750-758.  
    Abstract2601)      PDF(pc) (237KB)(5253)       Save
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    Cited: Baidu(83)
    Research advances of cover crops and their important roles
    JIAN Shu-Lian, LI Shu-Xin, LIU Sheng-Qun, LI Xiang-Nan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (1): 1-14.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.03058
    Abstract347)   HTML72)    PDF(pc) (1301KB)(430)       Save

    In crop planting system, the influences of field weeds and soil properties on crop growth and development, yield, and quality have always been paid close attention to agriculture field. Overdose applications of chemical fertilizers and herbicides are beneficial for crop yield and well control of weeds, however, their negative impacts on soil and environment seriously restrict the sustainable development of agricultural production. Planting cover crops have been considered as a novel strategy to achieve sustainable agricultural development, which can help to control weeds, reduce nitrogen application, and improve soil quality. We summarize the current research advance progress of cover crops and their application in crop cultivation, including the origin and development process, main types, functions, and cropping systems of cover crops, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the research and application of cover crops in agriculture production in China.

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    Characteristics of post-anthesis carbon and nitrogen accumulation and translocation in maize cultivars with different low nitrogen tolerance
    WU Ya-Wei, PU Wei, ZHAO Bo, WEI Gui, KONG Fan-Lei, YUAN Ji-Chao
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (5): 915-928.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03033
    Abstract321)   HTML17)    PDF(pc) (1959KB)(416)       Save

    To understand the suitable amount of nitrogen (N) application and the potential of increasing yield and improve efficiency for the maize cultivars with different low N tolerance. The experiment was setting from 2017 to 2019, the low-N tolerant cultivar ‘Zhenghong 311 (ZH311)’ and the low-N sensitive cultivar ‘Xianyu 508 (XY508)’ were selected and four N application rates (0 kg hm-2, 150 kg hm-2, 300 kg hm-2, and 450 kg hm-2) were set to investigate the effects of N level on carbon (C) and N accumulation and translocation in the later growth stage of different maize cultivars. The results showed that in low N environment, maize increased the C and N translocations of pre-silking to the grain to ensure the yield. Increasing the N fertilizer applications could improve the contribution rates of dry matter and carbohydrate to grain yield. Compared with XY508, ZH311 had higher accumulations of plant dry matter, N and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) of pre- and post-silking, and higher contribution rates of dry matter, N and accumulations to grain yield of post-silking, so it had higher grain yield. There was no significant difference between cultivars in the rate of dry matter, N and NSC translocation of pre-silking. In the face of low N stress, ZH 311 not only ensured the sufficient C and N translocations of pre-silking to the grain, but also maintained a higher capacity of assimilate accumulation to affect the yield formation.

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    Variation and Distribution of Seed Storage Protein Content and Composition among Different Rice Varieties
    ZHOU Li-Hui, LIU Qiao-Quan, ZHANG Chang-Quan, XU Yong, TANG Su-Zhu, et al.
    Acta Agron Sin    2009, 35 (5): 884-891.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.00884
    Abstract2709)      PDF(pc) (400KB)(2854)       Save

    The crude protein contents (PC) in 351 varieties were measured by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and their distribution and classification were analyzed. The results showed that the average value of crude protein content in indica and japonica types were 13.2% and 12.2%, respectively, with an average of 12.42%. The range of those above was 10.816.8%, 9.317.7%, and 9.317.7%, respectively. It elucidated that PC was higher in indica rice than in japonica rice. The huge difference in ratios of varieties (lines) based on their PC showed the genetic disequilibrium between subspecies indica and japonica, for exsample, the ratio of japonica rice with low PC was eight times that of indica rice with low PC. According to the criterion classifying varieties with different protein contents, most of rice genotypes fell into the group with intermediate PC, and there was very small number of varieties with either high or low PC, especially with very high PC in japonica rice. However, we could find some extreme individuals which PC were very high/low, such as those with high PC: forage rice, early maturity varieties and indica-japonica hybrid progenies close to indica in the subspecies of indica, or close to japonica in the subspecies of japonica; and those with low PC: some japonica rice (but the PC not low enough), some overseas germplasms in indica. Thus it was not impossible to find out extreme germplasms on PC from landrace, overseas germplasms or india-japonica hybrid progenies etc., which are fine basic materials in genetic and breeding researchs. From the results of SDS-PAGE analysis of the total seed storage proteins among some representative varieties, we could know that the seed storage protein composition was different among different types of rice genotypes.

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    Cited: Baidu(15)
    Research progress on traits and assessment methods of stalk lodging resistance in maize
    ZHAO Xue, ZHOU Shun-Li
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (1): 15-26.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.03055
    Abstract272)   HTML41)    PDF(pc) (959KB)(399)       Save

    Maize stalk lodging causes yield loss, decreases grain quality, increases harvest costs, and makes it impossible for grain dehydration after physiological maturity which limits mechanical grain harvest. Previous researches have been conducted to study the traits related to stalk lodging, including morphological and anatomical traits, chemical constituents of the plant and internode. However, there exist some disagreements, and lack quantitative studies on stalk lodging resistance. In this study, we review the evaluation methods and indicators of stalk lodging resistance, the determination methods of mechanical properties as well as analysis methods of stalk lodging related traits and some factors that may have effects on the results. Furthermore, we put forward the existing problems in previous researches on traits and evaluation indicators related to stalk lodging resistance and the contents need to be given further attention. These results provide a reference for further study of maize stalk lodging resistance traits and evaluation methods, lodging resistance breeding and optimization of cultivation measures.

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    Crop Molecular Breeding in China:Current Status and Perspectives
    LI Yu, WANG Jian-Kang, QIU Li-Juan, MA You-Zhi, LI Xin-Hai, WAN Jian-Min
    Acta Agron Sin    2010, 36 (09): 1425-1430.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2010.01425
    Abstract5195)      PDF(pc) (160KB)(6330)       Save
    With some technological breakthroughs such as sequencing and microarray in the recent years, genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metalomics and phenomics have made a great progress in the world. Theories and technologies of crop breeding have also been revolutionarized considerably. Traditional crop breeding is based on phenotypic selection, which is often called “empirical breeding” with poor predictability, long breeding cycle and low breeding efficiency. Modern crop molecular breeding including marker-assisted breeding, transgenic breeding and molecular design breeding has become an important direction in the field of plant breeding. It is based on the combination of genotypic selection and phenotypic selection and thus target genes/alleles can be directly selected and pyramided. Therefore, the efficiency of molecular breeding can be improved and the breeding duration can be shortened. The paper defines the concept of mole
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    Cited: Baidu(44)
    Development and identification of transgenic rapeseed with a novel gene for glyphosate resistance
    LI Jie-Hua, DUAN Qun, SHI Ming-Tao, WU Lu-Mei, LIU Han, LIN Yong-Jun, WU Gao-Bing, FAN Chu-Chuan, ZHOU Yong-Ming
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (5): 789-798.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04169
    Abstract368)   HTML33)    PDF(pc) (11274KB)(357)       Save

    Glyphosate is the most widely used broad-spectrum herbicide in the world. However, at present there is no glyphosate-tolerant rapeseed variety with independent intellectual property rights in China. In the study, a novel glyphosate-resistant genes I. variabilis EPSPS was transferred to the Brassica napus pure line J9707 via the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated hypocotyl method, and 126 T0-positive transgenic plants with 97.0% positive rate were generated. The T-DNA insertion with a single copy (44.8%) is dominant. The insertion locations of T-DNA in the lines of EPS-2, EPS-6, and EPS-7 were identified by inverse PCR method. The stability of the T-DNA insertion in these lines were further confirmed by insertion-specific PCR in their T0 to T3 plants. The gene expression analysis revealed that the I. variabilis EPSPS gene and its protein was stably expressed in different generations of transgenic lines in RNA and protein levels. Treatments with different doses of glyphosate indicated that the lines of EPS-1, EPS-2, EPS-5, EPS-6, and EPS-7 could tolerate four times of the recommended dose of glyphosate in production. Thus, the novel glyphosate-tolerant rapeseed lines generated in the present study will lay the foundation for the herbicide- tolerance rapeseed breeding in China.

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    Genome-wide association study of nitrogen use efficiency related traits in common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)
    JIN Yi-Rong, LIU Jin-Dong, LIU Cai-Yun, JIA De-Xin, LIU Peng, WANG Ya-Mei
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (3): 394-404.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01024
    Abstract387)   HTML26)    PDF(pc) (3110KB)(374)       Save

    Nitrogen application plays an important role in plant growth and development. Exploring genetic loci related to nitrogen use efficiency is of great significance for improving wheat yield and reducing environmental pollution. Root system architecture (RSA) determined the composition of plant root system, and significantly affected by nitrogen level. Under different nitrogen levels (deficiency and normal), 160 winter wheat accessions from the Huanghuai valley and Northern winter wheat region were counted for their root architecture-related traits (total root length, total root surface area, total root volume, average root diameter, and root tip number). Genotype was analyzed using 660K SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) data. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) was employed to identify the relevant loci for nitrogen use efficiency. A total of 34 associated loci were detected, which explained 6.9%-15.4% of the phenotypic variation. These loci distributed on all chromosomes and mainly centered on chromosomes 1A, 2B, 3B, 5B, 6A, 6B, and 7A, respectively. Among the loci detected in this study, 11 loci overlapped or were close to the reported ones, while the other 23 might be novel loci. In addition, we explored a candidate gene encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase. This study is of great significance for understanding the genetic mechanism of nitrogen utilization and breeding high-yield wheat varieties.

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    Seedling root characteristics and drought resistance of wheat in Shanxi province
    ZHAO Jia-Jia, QIAO Ling, WU Bang-Bang, GE Chuan, QIAO Lin-Yi, ZHANG Shu-Wei, YAN Su-Xian, ZHENG Xing-Wei, ZHENG Jun
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (4): 714-727.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01048
    Abstract368)   HTML20)    PDF(pc) (1008KB)(351)       Save

    Wheat root morphology at the seedling stage is the basis of root distribution at the adult stage. It is closely related to stress resistance and yield. A comprehensive understanding of the root system characteristics at seedling stage and drought resistance is of great significance for the excellent germplasm utilization and early screening of drought resistance. Using 239 wheat varieties (lines) from Shanxi province, the root traits at seedling stage and their response to water stress were evaluated. The results showed that under normal growth, Shanxi wheat had a great variation in root traits at seedling stage, with the greatest variation in landraces. The maximum root length (MRL) tended to decrease slightly with the years, while other root traits were first increased and then decreased. There were differences among the root traits in response to water stress. The total root length (TRL) is the most sensitive to water, followed by root surface area (RSA), root volume (RV) and root biomass. The maximum root length (MRL) and the average number of roots (RN) were insensitive. The drought resistance of seedling roots showed a trend of decreasing first and then increasing with the years. Landraces and varieties released from 1970 to 1979 had moderately resistance to water stress, varieties released from 1980 to 1999 had lower drought resistance, and varieties released after 2000 had the better resistance, of which the dryland varieties were the best resistance. Correlation analysis of the seedling root characteristics and yield related traits suggested that the maximum root length, total root length, root volume and root biomass were significantly positively correlated with 1000-kernel weight and yield under rain-fed conditions, and the maximum root length and root biomass were also significantly positively correlated with adult plant drought resistance. The present study suggests that the maximum root length and root biomass at the seedling stage can be used as early generation selection parameters for drought resistance and yield in dryland breeding in semi-arid areas.

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    Mapping and candidate gene analysis of silique number mutant in Brassica napus L.
    ZHAO Gai-Hui, LI Shu-Yu, ZHAN Jie-Peng, LI Yan-Bin, SHI Jia-Qin, WANG Xin-Fa, WANG Han-Zhong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (1): 27-39.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.04281
    Abstract187)   HTML22)    PDF(pc) (10417KB)(332)       Save

    The silique number is one of the important components of yield per plant in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and the exploitation and utilization of its excellent alleles are essential to increase yield. More than hundreds of silique number QTLs have been mapped in oilseed rape, but they are difficult to be fine-mapped or cloned because of their moderate and unstable effects. A oilseed rape mutant (No.7931) was detected in previous study and it had few siliques at mature stage due to the stop growth after differentiation about 10 flowers on the top of inflorescence. A F2 segregating population consisting of 3400 individuals was constructed using this mutant and another more-silique lines No.73290. Among them, we performed BSA-seq on 30 individuals with extreme more- or less-siliques and detected three associated intervals of 0-1.1 Mb, 4.7-6.2 Mb, and 11.5-12.4 Mb on the C02 chromosome. These genomic intervals contained a total of 522 annotated genes in the reference genome DarmorV8.1, among which 235 genes had functional annotation and SNP/InDel variation. At the early stage of flower bud differentiation, the shoot apical meristems of two parents were subjected to RNA-seq, and a total of 8958 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected. These DEGs were significantly enriched into 20 pathways, including carbohydrate metabolism, translation, and amino acid metabolism (highly associated with flower bud differentiation) and so on, among which 99 were located in the associated intervals. By the integration of gene functional annotation as well as sequence and expression variation analysis, a total of nine candidate genes (BnaC02g00490.1D2, BnaC02g01030.1D2, BnaC02g01120.1D2, BnaC02g00270.1D2, BnaC02g02670.1D2, BnaC02g08680.1D2, BnaC02g08890.1D2, BnaC02g09480.1D2, and BnaC02g10490.1D2) were identified, which were mainly involved in the maintenance of inflorescence meristems and the regulation of flower development. The above results lay the foundation for the following fine-mapping and cloning of the silique number mutant gene in oilseed rape.

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    Cloning and expression analysis of lncRNA27195 and its target gene TaRTS in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)
    WANG Na, BAI Jian-Fang, MA You-Zhi, GUO Hao-Yu, WANG Yong-Bo, CHEN Zhao-Bo, ZHAO Chang-Ping, ZHANG Ling-Ping
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (8): 1417-1426.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01071
    Abstract349)   HTML31)    PDF(pc) (3770KB)(329)       Save

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a non-coding RNA length over 200 bp, which is abundant in plants. It plays important roles in plant growth, development, and stress response by regulating gene expression or protein function. In the previous study, a fertility-related lncRNA named lncRNA27195 was screened and obtained by transcriptome sequencing from the anther of wheat Photoperiod-thermo Sensitive Genic Male Sterility (PTGMS) line BS366. To investigate the function of lncRNA27195 in wheat, the lncRNA27195 gene and its target gene TaRTS were cloned from BS366. Bioinformatics analysis were performed on TaRTS. The expressions of lncRNA27195 and TaRTS in different tissues and their expression correlation between them were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Meanwhile, the expression patterns of lncRNA27195 and TaRTS under different light and temperature treatments, and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments were investigated. The results showed that the TaRTS gene with 315 bp length, encoded 104 amino acids. Additionally, RTS proteins were only found as anther-specific proteins in gramineae plants. Both lncRNA27195 and TaRTS with a significantly positive correlation were highly expressed in stamens, and revealed different expression patterns in different fertility environments. The results demonstrated that the expression of lncRNA27195 and TaRTS were also regulated by light and temperature. In addition, we found that the appropriate concentration of MeJA could promote the expression of lncRNA27195 and TaRTS while SA could inhibit the expression. The results indicated that under the induction of photoperiod, temperature, and plant hormones, IncRNA27195 positively regulated TaRTS gene expression, resulting in affecting pollen development and male fertility. This study contributed to the mechanism research and production application of PTGMS wheat.

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    Differences in photosynthetic performance of leaves at post-flowering stage in different cultivation modes of summer maize ( Zea mays L.)
    LI Jing, WANG Hong-Zhang, LIU Peng, ZHANG Ji-Wang, ZHAO Bin, REN Bai-Zhao
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (7): 1351-1359.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03051
    Abstract320)   HTML34)    PDF(pc) (710KB)(325)       Save

    Photosynthesis plays an important role in crop growth and yield formation. Different cultivation patterns can significantly affect the photosynthetic performance of leaves at post-flowering stage in summer maize. In order to explore the effects of different cultivation modes on the photosynthetic performance of summer maize leaves at post-flowering stage, field experiments were carried out with Denghai 605 maize hybrid variety as experimental material from 2018 to 2019 in Tai’an, Shandong, China. With the local farmer management mode (FP) as the control, the super-high-yield cultivation mode (SH) and high-yield and high-efficiency cultivation mode (HH) by comprehensively optimizing the planting density, fertilizer planting and management mode were set in this study. Leaf area index, chlorophyll content, gas exchange parameters, rapid chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetic curve (OJIP) were evaluated, which indicated significant differences in biomass of different cultivation modes at maturity stage. Compared with FP, the biomass of SH and HH increased by 27.77% and 7.43%, respectively, and the population biomass at post-flowering stage of HH increased significantly as well. Besides, the photosynthetic rate all declined in different cultivation modes, reaching the highest degree of decline on the 30th day at post-flowering stage (R1+30 d). In contrast with FP, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of SH and HH increased at post-flowering stage stage (R1) by 21.63% and 12.96%, respectively, and on the 30th day (R1+30 d) at post-flowering stage by 35.37% and 12.37%, respectively, which could maintain a higher level of photosynthetic capacity. In addition, these results revealed that the differences of net photosynthetic rate among the different cultivation modes were caused by non-stomatal factors. The stomatal conductance (Gs) of SH and HH was increased at the silking stage by 18.36%, 16.66%, 26.16%, and 10.74%, respectively, and while on the 30th day at post-flowering stage intercellular carbon dioxide (Ci) declined by 12.85%, 7.34%, 14.08%, and 9.75%, respectively. Compared with FP, Wk and Vj of SH and HH significantly decreased, indicating that SH and HH apparently improved the performances of both electron donor and acceptor sides of electron transport chain in PSII reaction center, the quantum yield of electron transfer (φE0), the electron transfer ability as well as the reaction center activities of PSII and the coordination between PSI and PSII. In conclusion, SH and HH effectively improved the photosystems performance, increased the net photosynthetic rate, and prolonged duration of high photosynthesis rate, resulting in the increase of the population biomass and high yield.

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    Review of biochar structure and physicochemical properties
    ZHANG Wei-Ming, XIU Li-Qun, WU Di, SUN Yuan-Yuan, GU Wen-Qi, ZHANG Hong-Gui, MENG Jun, CHEN Wen-Fu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (1): 1-18.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.02021
    Abstract592)   HTML33)    PDF(pc) (2839KB)(490)       Save

    As a new emerging technology, biochar and its applications have been rapidly developed in recent years. However, due to large differences in carbonization materials and processes, it is difficult to compare or even contrast the results of biochar application studies, thus hindering the development of biochar applications to some extent. For this reason, our paper focuses on the key factors restricted the function of biochar, namely, the structure as well as physical and chemical properties of biochar, and then systematically presents the main research advances in recent years from the following perspectives of biochar such as definition, formation, structure, elemental composition, and other main physical-chemical properties, and property controlling-technologies. The paper analyses and summarizes the common and differential characteristics of biochar structure and physical and chemical properties and clarifies the relevant basic perspectives, statuses, trends, and consensus on the structure and properties of biochar. The structure and fundamental physical and chemical properties of biochar are believed to be the most important factors affecting the roles, function, and effects of biochar. They also determine the application field, scope, amount, objective, and direction of biochar. Therefore, the modification technology or optimal regulation technique is the key to develop the efficacy advantage, potential and values of biochar. By further combining the research and application of biochar, the basic principles and development directions of biochar physicochemical property research in the future focusing on the physical and chemical properties of biochar are evaluated from cycle and sustainable development of resources and material perspectives. This paper aims to provide the basis and reference for the development of basic scientific science and application technology studies on biochar.

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    Effects of irrigating at different growth stages on kernel number of spring maize in the North China Plain
    GAO Zhen, LIANG Xiao-Gui, ZHANG Li, ZHAO Xue, DU Xiong, CUI Yan-Hong, ZHOU Shun-Li
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (7): 1324-1331.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03045
    Abstract273)   HTML29)    PDF(pc) (784KB)(308)       Save

    Drought stress is the main limiting factor for kernel setting of spring maize in the North China plain (NCP). It is important to investigate the effects of irrigation at different growth stages on kernel number, which contributes much to improve grain yield and water use efficiency of spring maize in the NCP. A three-year field experiment was conducted from 2014 to 2016. Irrigating at V6, V12, tasseling, 15 days after silking stage, and rain-fed treatments were set to evaluate the soil water change, ear leaf photosynthesis rate, kernel number per ear and their relationships. The results indicated that irrigating could increase kernel number in dry years, and irrigating at tasseling stage increased kernel number by 1.4%-97.0% compared with other treatments in 2015 and 2016. However, there were no significant differences among each treatment in kernel number in the rainy year of 2016. Irrigating at V6 and V12 stage increased vegetative growth of spring maize, including leaf area and biomass, whereas drought stress occurring at flowering stage still reduced kernel number. In irrigating treatment at tasseling stage, vegetative growth would be inhibited by drought, thus lowing leaf area index and biomass, but ensuring water availability during silking-pollination-kernel growth stage. Moreover, irrigating at tasseling stage increased photosynthesis rate (Pn) by 5.2%-32.8% than other treatments. Regression analysis suggested that high water availability could significantly increase Pn (P = 0.0034) and kernel number (P = 0.0137), but excess rainfall (low solar radiation) had adverse effect on kernel setting. Overall, irrigating at tasseling stage in dry years was a critical management to ensure kernel number of spring maize.

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    Efficient screening system of effective sgRNA for cotton CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing
    ZHOU Guan-Tong, LEI Jian-Feng, DAI Pei-Hong, LIU Chao, LI Yue, LIU Xiao-Dong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (3): 427-437.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04178
    Abstract282)   HTML8)    PDF(pc) (4263KB)(333)       Save

    Single guide RNA (sgRNA) is one of the important elements of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology system. However, studies have shown that many sgRNAs cannot work effectively. It is worth screening to verify the effectiveness of multiple design candidate sgRNAs. Instantaneous transformation of protoplasts or leaves with complete editing vectors were used to verification of the effectiveness of sgRNA in the early stage. These methods are time-consuming and laborious, and the success rate is not high, especially for cotton with low efficiency of the protoplasmic system. In this study, target sequences were designed for GhMAPKKK2 and GhAE genes, and two vectors of GhU6-5P::MAPKKK2-sgRNA-1300, GhU6-5P::AE-sgRNA-1300 which transcibed only sgRNA were constructed and injected YZ-1 Cas9 transgenic cotton plant leaves through Agrobacterium; meanwhile, two corresponding complete CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing vectors of GhU6-5P::MAPKKK2-sgRNA-Cas9 and GhU6-5P::AE-sgRNA-Cas9 were constructed and injected YZ-1 wild-type cotton leaves with Agrobacterium. In addition, target sequences were designed for GhPDS, GhCLA1, GhMAPKKK2, and GhAE genes, respectively, and GhU6-5P-2::PDS-sgRNA- CLCrVA, GhU6-5P-2::CLA1-sgRNA-CLCrVA, GhU6-5P-2::MAPKKK2-sgRNA-CLCrVA and GhU6-5P-2::AE-sgRNA-CLCrVA virus delivery vectors were constructed and injected YZ-1 Cas9 transgenic cotton plant leaves through Agrobacterium. In the above experiments, the plants transformed with the empty vector were used as controls. The genomic DNA of the transformed cotton leaves was subjected to PCR and enzyme digestion, and the PCR products which were not completely digested were cloned and sequenced. The results showed that no mutation in target gene was detected in the cotton plants transformed with the GhU6-5P::AE-sgRNA-1300, GhU6-5P::MAPKKK2-sgRNA-Cas9 and GhU6-5P::AE-sgRNA-Cas9, and the target genes mutation in the Cas9 transgenic plants transformed with GhU6-5P::MAPKKK2-sgRNA-1300, GhU6-5P-2::PDS-sgRNA-CLCrVA, GhU6-5P-2::CLA1-sgRNA-CLCrVA, GhU6-5P-2::MAPKKK2-sgRNA-CLCrVA and GhU6-5P-2::AE-sgRNA-CLCrVA vector was uncovered. The types of mutations included base substitution, base deletion and base insertion. The results indicated that the strategy of using Cas9 transgenic plants as transformation recipients can efficiently and truly verify the effectiveness of sgRNA, which eliminated false negative results due to low transformation efficiency, and the strategy of using virus as vectors to deliver sgRNA was more efficient and accurate. The establishment of this sgRNA high-efficiency verification system provides an important technical basis for cotton functional genomics research.

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    Grain filling characteristics of summer maize varieties under different sowing dates in the Huang-Huai-Hai region
    XU Tian-Jun, LYU Tian-Fang, ZHAO Jiu-Ran, WANG Rong-Huan, ZHANG Yong, CAI Wan-Tao, LIU Yue-E, LIU Xiu-Zhi, CHEN Chuan-Yong, XING Jin-Feng, WANG Yuan-Dong, LIU Chun-Ge
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (3): 566-574.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03023
    Abstract248)   HTML9)    PDF(pc) (1102KB)(342)       Save

    In order to provide helpful information for maize variety selection and realizing high yield, the grain filling characteristics of 18 summer maize varieties were investigated under 6/10 (S1), 6/20 (S2), and 6/30 (S3). The results showed that: (1) There were significant differences in the final 100-grain dry weight among varieties and sowing date treatments, characterized by S1 (35.20 g) > S2 (33.45 g) > S3 (31.38 g), and the range of variation was 28.50 g (HM 1) to 36.37 g (JNK 728). (2) The average filling rate (Gave) under different sowing date treatments was S1 (0.74 g 100-grain -1d-1) > S2 (0.65 g 100-grain -1d-1) > S3 (0.57 g 100-grain -1d-1). The average grain filling rate of S1 was 0.09 g 100-grain-1d-1and 0.17 g 100-grain-1d-1 higher than that of S2 and S3, increased by 13.85% and 29.82%, respectively. The Gave of JNK 728 (0.75 g 100-grain -1 d-1) was the highest among varieties, which significantly higher than ZD 958 and XY 335 (0.58 g 100-grain-1 d-1 and 0.67 g 100-grain-1 d-1), increased by 29.31% and 11.94%. The active grain filling period (P) showed that S1 (47.85 d) < S2 (51.39 d) < S3 (55.04 d). (3) The yield under different sowing date treatments was S1 (10,628.67 kg hm-2) > S2 (10,207.65 kg hm -2) > S3 (9144.59 kg hm -2), with S1 4.12% and 16.23% higher than S2 and S3, respectively. Among them, NK 815, MC 121, JNK 729, MC 812, JNK 728 and XY 335 had relatively high yields, with an average of 10,730.56 kg hm-2, significantly higher than ZD 958 (10,080.85 kg hm-2), increased by 6.44%. (4) Correlation analysis showed that yield level was significantly and positively correlated with Gave (0.70 **) and grain weight (0.68**), and was significantly and negatively correlated with P (-0.36 **); Grain weight was significantly correlated with Gave (0.58 **). In conclusion, maize yield, grain weight and grain filling rate reduced with the sowing date delay, but P increased accordingly, early sowing properly was beneficial to achieve higher yield in Huang-Huai-Hai summer maize region, by selecting varieties such as JNK 728, JNK 729, MC 812, MC 121, NK 815, and XY 335 which characterized by suitable growing period, higher grain filling rate, suitable active grain filling period and higher yield level. JNK 728, characterized by medium-early maturity, higher grain filling rate and yield, was suitable for the later sowing conditions or areas with insufficient accumulated temperature, and could reach physiological maturity in mid-October when sowing at the end of June.

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    Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of B-box gene family in wheat
    WANG Yan-Peng, LING Lei, ZHANG Wen-Rui, WANG Dan, GUO Chang-Hong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (8): 1437-1449.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01077
    Abstract378)   HTML32)    PDF(pc) (3123KB)(294)       Save

    B-box (BBX) is a class of zinc finger proteins that contain one or two B-box domains and play important roles in plant growth and development. The number, gene structure and phylogenetic relationship of wheat B-box transcription factors, as well as their expression specificity in different tissues and response to abiotic stress were investigated. A total of 87 members of B-box gene family were identified from wheat genome and all contained the B-box domain. TaBBXs encoded 146 to 489 amino acids and the isoelectric points ranged from 4.32 to 10.42. Chromosome mapping showed that these genes were distributed on 18 wheat chromosomes except 1A, 1B, and 1D. Based on phylogenetic analysis, TaBBXs were divided into five subfamilies, with 0-4 introns. The members of the subfamily in the same phylogenetic tree branch in the same group had highly similar gene structures. The qRT-PCR revealed that the investigated 20 genes had different expression patterns, and most genes were highly expressed in leaves, and TaBBX10 and TaBBX39 were only highly expressed in leaves, while TaBBX74 was expressed in spikes, TaBBX43 was specifically expressed in roots. These genes showed different expression patterns under different stress. 11 genes were up-regulated after low temperature stress, 13 genes were down-regulated after ABA treatment, 10 genes were up-regulated after salt stress, and 7 genes were down-regulated after drought stress. TaBBX10, TaBBX39, TaBBX60, TaBBX67, and TaBBX74 were significantly up-regulated under two or more stresses.

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    Response of grain filling and dehydration characteristics of kernels located in different ear positions in the different maturity maize hybrids to plant density
    ZHU Ya-Li, WANG Chen-Guang, YANG Mei, ZHENG Xue-Hui, ZHAO Cheng-Feng, ZHANG Ren-He
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (3): 507-519.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03024
    Abstract241)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (567KB)(309)       Save

    Exploring the regulation effect of planting density on grain filling and dehydration characteristics of kernels located in different ear positions in different maturity maize hybrids could provide theoretical and technical reference for high yield production for the mechanized grain harvest of spring maize in northern Shaanxi irrigation area. A field experiment was conducted using the medium maturity maize hybrid Xianyu 335 and the late maturity maize hybrid Dongdan 60 with four plant densities of 45,000 (D1), 60,000 (D2), 75,000 (D3), and 90,000 (D4) plants hm-2 from 2018 to 2019. Their grain filling and dehydration characteristics at different grain positions and their correlation with climatic factors were analyzed. The results showed that increasing density could significantly increase the grain yield with different maturity maize hybrids with both hybrids reaching the highest yield under D4 treatment in 2018; Xianyu 335 and Dongdan 60 reached the highest yield under D4 and D3 treatments in 2019, respectively, and the 2-year average highest yields were 18,739 kg hm-2 and 17,111 kg hm-2, which were 32.2% and 27.7% higher than those under D1 treatment. With the increase of plant density the grain filling rate and the grain weight decreased, and the dehydration rate accelerated of different grain positions. Under D4 plant density, the average grain filling rate of the lower and upper grains of Xianyu 335 was 0.08 g d-1 and 0.04 g d-1 higher than that of Dongdan 60, and the grain weight was 3.6 g and 1.6 g higher than that of Dongdan 60, respectively. The correlation analysis showed that the grain moisture content of different grain positions was positively correlated with the effective accumulated temperature from silking to physiological maturity stage, but the total dehydration rate was not significantly correlated with grain filling rate. The grain dehydration rate of Xianyu 335 at different grain positions was high, and the average total dehydration rate of lower and upper grains was 0.006% °C d -1 and 0.005% °C d -1 higher than that of Dongdan 60. Furthermore, compared with the lower grains, the upper kernels had lower filling rate, longer filling period, smaller grain weight, faster dehydration at the later stage, and required less accumulated temperature to reach 28% and 25% moisture content. Based on our study, the upper kernels were more sensitive to higher plant density than lower kernels. Compared with Dongdan 60, the mid-mature maize hybrid Xianyu 335 has the higher grain filling rate, larger grain weight, and faster dehydration rate in the dense planting conditions. In conclusion, properly increased plant density coupled with middle-maturity maize hybrids is a potential way to increase the grain yield for mechanized grain harvest in the irrigation area of Northern Shaanxi.

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    Research progress on genetic regulatory mechanism of seed color in soybean ( Glycine max)
    QIU Hong-Mei, CHEN Liang, HOU Yun-Long, WANG Xin-Feng, CHEN Jian, MA Xiao-Ping, CUI Zheng-Guo, ZHANG Ling, HU Jin-Hai, WANG Yue-Qiang, QIU Li-Juan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (12): 2299-2313.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.14022
    Abstract288)   HTML43)    PDF(pc) (2315KB)(281)       Save

    The color of soybean seeds is an important morphological marker and evolutionary trait. During the process of domestication, seed coat has gradually evolved from black to yellow, green, black, brown, and bicolor, and cotyledons has evolved from green to yellow. The dark seed coat contains anthocyanins, which are natural pigments with medicinal and nutritional values. Therefore, it is of great importance to study the genetic regulation mechanism of seed color for evolutionary theory, variety breeding, and practical application. The pigment content and composition of seeds result in diverse seed coat colors through complex molecular regulatory mechanisms. In this paper, we described the research progress on genetic loci, related genes, regulatory mechanisms, and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways that controlling the color of soybean seeds. Specifically, we introduced the 9 classical genetic loci I, R, T, O, W1, K1, G, D1, D2, and related molecular markers, as well as the interactions between the loci; 22 related genes that controlling seed color, and the regulatory mechanisms of some allelic variants; as well as the physiological functions of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathways and major metabolites involved in the related genes. The progress of researches on genetic regulation of the color of seed coat, seed hilum, and cotyledon in soybean was reviewed, in addition the regulatory network was mapped with genetic loci, genes, allelic regulatory mechanisms, and flavonoid metabolic pathways, in order to provide references for the quality of seed appearance and genetic improvement of anthocyanin components.

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    Effects of planting density on lodging resistance and grain yield of spring maize stalks in Guizhou province
    ZHENG Ying-Xia, CHEN Du, WEI Peng-Cheng, LU Ping, YANG Jin-Yue, LUO Shang-Ke, YE Kai-Mei, SONG Bi
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (4): 738-751.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03044
    Abstract321)   HTML16)    PDF(pc) (640KB)(291)       Save

    The objective of this study was to clarify the changes of spring maize stalk characteristics and yield and their relationship under the dense planting conditions, and it provides theoretical basis and practical guidance for high yield of spring maize dense planting in Guizhou province. The field experiments were carried out to study the effect of planting density on spring maize stalk morphology and mechanical properties, empty stalk rate, lodging rate and grain yield using Guizhou's widely planted maize variety Xianyu 1171 and Xinzhongyu 801 with six density 3×104, 4.5×104, 6.0×104, 7.5×104, 9.0×104, 10.5×104 plants hm-2 from 2018 to 2019. The results were as follows: (1) Plant height and ear height of spring maize increased first and then decreased with the increase in density; the third node length increased the most after densification, the third node's dry weight per stem length, puncture strength and flexural strength, the seventh nodal thickness, dry weight and cross-sectional area decreased the most; the density had no significant effect on the flatness of the cross-sectional area of the stem. Compared with the varieties, Xianyu 1171 internode length, the 3rd and 5th internode dry weight and the 3rd node puncture strength were significantly higher than Xinzhongyu 801. The 7th node dry weight, internode thickness, dry weight per stem length, the cross-sectional area, cross-sectional flatness and flexural strength of internodes were significantly lower than that of Xinzhongyu 801. (2) Lodging rate and empty shot rate increased with the increase in density. After densification, the lodging rate of Xianyu 1171 was significantly higher than that of Xinzhongyu 801, and the rate of empty shot was significantly lower than that of Xinzhongyu 801. (3) The yield increased first and then decreased with the increase in density. Xianyu 1171 and Xinzhongyu 801 had the highest yields at 93,000 plants hm-2 and 86,000 plants hm-2, respectively. After densification, the yield of Xianyu 1171 was higher 10.28% than that of Xinzhongyu 801, and the number of effective panicles and grains per panicle were higher. (4) Correlation and multiple regression analysis showed that plant height, ear height and lodging rate were significantly positively correlated, and internode thickness and dry matter per stalk length had a significant positive effect on corn stalk bending resistance. The yield was closely related to stalk traits, and plant height had the greatest positive effect on yield. It can be seen that the lodging resistance and grain yield of different spring maize stalks were different in response to density. After the densification of Xinzhongyu 801, the internodes of the stalks were short and thick, the dry weight per stalk length was larger, and the lodging resistance ability was stronger. Because Xianyu 1171 had a lower empty stem rate than Xinzhongyu 801 under high density, it had a higher effective ear number and grain number per ear, the yield was higher under high density. Considering the culm traits and yield, the suitable density of Xianyu 1171 and Xinzhongyu 801 in Guizhou were 90,000 plants hm-2 and 85,000 plants hm-2, respectively.

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    Genome-wide association study of β-glucan content in barley grains
    GENG La, HUANG Ye-Chang, LI Meng-Di, XIE Shang-Geng, YE Ling-Zhen, ZHANG Guo-Ping
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (7): 1205-1214.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01074
    Abstract431)   HTML71)    PDF(pc) (2090KB)(275)       Save

    β-glucan is an important trait in barley, as its content greatly affects the quality in the applications of malting, feeding, and food. Although the genes associated with β-glucan synthesis have been reported, genetic regulation of β-glucan accumulation in barley grains is still unclear. In this study, genome-wide association study (GWAS) with mixed linear model (MLM) and general linear model (GLM) was performed to analyze the grain β-glucan content of 119 barley germplasms collected from worldwide previously, which were planted at two plots with certain differences in soil and climate conditions. The results showed β-glucan content in barley grains was significantly different in genotypes and the heritability of β-glucan was 73.9% in two environments. There were eight and 40 loci for grain β-glucan content detected by MLM and GLM, respectively. A total of 44 loci were obtained by combining the same loci of the two models. HORVU5Hr1G022710 gene identified in both models and sites was considered as a putative candidate gene significantly associated with β-glucan content. Significantly positive correlation was detected between grain β-glucan content and the number of favorable alleles in both models. In addition, 10 enzymatic genes related to sugar synthesis, transport and decomposition were identified based on gene annotations. These genes may significantly relate to β-glucan synthesis, accumulation and hydrolysis. The results provided a new insight into the genetic regulation of β-glucan accumulation and laid a foundation for the genetic improvement breeding of barley seed β-glucan.

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    Effects of nitrogen fertilizer in whole growth duration applied in the middle and late tillering stage on yield and quality of dry direct seeding rice under “solo-stalk” cultivation mode
    ZHAO Jie, LI Shao-Ping, CHENG Shuang, TIAN Jin-Yu, XING Zhi-Peng, TAO Yu, ZHOU Lei, LIU Qiu-Yuan, HU Ya-Jie, GUO Bao-Wei, GAO Hui, WEI Hai-Yan, ZHANG Hong-Cheng
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (6): 1162-1174.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.02052
    Abstract245)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (712KB)(274)       Save

    In a rice-wheat cropping system, dry direct seeding rice growth was directly affected by harvest dates of the previous crop of wheat, the return of full wheat straw to the field, and the poor quality of tillage and land preparation. A “solo-stalk” cultivation mode with main stem panicles by late sowing dates, large sowing rates and high basic seedlings was commonly used in dry direct seeding. However, the nitrogen fertilizer management of high-quality and high-yield dry direct-seeding rice for the “solo-stalk” cultivation mode was still lacking in systematic research. With high-quality japonica rice Nanjing 9108, 380×104 hm-2 basic seedlings were realized by mechanical dry direct seeding method. The leaf age treatments of 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 leaf age and nitrogen application amount treatments of 180 and 225 kg hm-2 were designed with accurate quantitative nitrogen management (total nitrogen was 270 kg hm-2, base fertilizer:tiller fertilizer:spike fertilizer = 3.5:3.5:3.0) at basic seedlings of 380×104 and 300×104 hm-2 as the control. Then dry direct seeding rice yield and quality were systematically determined and compared with the control and “solo-stalk” cultural method with nitrogen fertilizer in whole growth duration applied in middle and late tillering stage. The results showed that rice yield showed a trend of first increased and then decreased with nitrogen application at bigger leaf age. Rice yield was significantly higher than other treatments when applying nitrogen fertilizer at the 8-leaf stage, and the yield was further improved with the increase of nitrogen application amount. Compare with the controls, nitrogen fertilizer in whole growth duration of 180 kg N hm-2 applied one time at 8-leaf stage could significantly increase rice yield by 5.10% and 8.65%, and reduced nitrogen fertilizer by 33.3%, whereas nitrogen fertilizer in whole growth duration of 225 kg N hm-2 applied two time at 8-leaf stage and 7 days later could significantly increase rice yield by 7.46% and 11.09%, and reduced the nitrogen by 16.7%. The reason was that, compared with the control, seed setting rate and 1000-grain weight, effective panicle number was significantly increased resulting in the increasing total spikelet amount per hectare and yield on the basis of maintaining larger panicle type. With nitrogen applied at bigger leaf age, the head rice rate, chalkiness and protein content of rice revealed an increasing trend, but the amylose content and taste value of rice showed a decreasing trend. Compare to the two controls, the processing quality of rice with the head rice rate was increased by 0.67%-2.23% with nitrogen fertilizer in whole growth duration applied at 8-leaf age; the appearance quality was improved with the chalkiness decreased by 3.6%-14.5%; the nutrition quality was better with protein content increased by 3.03%-14.08%; the cooking and eating quality showed a tendency of getting better with amylose content decreased by 4.23%-10.95%; and there was no insignificant difference in taste value. In conclusion, nitrogen fertilizer in whole growth duration applied at suitable leaf age in the middle and late tillering stage could improve the quality and increase the yield of dry direct seeding rice under “solo-stalk” cultural method caused by late sowing dates, large sowing rate, and high basic seedlings in a rice-wheat cropping system.

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    Development and Evaluation of New Non-Redundant EST-SSR Markers from Gossypium
    WANG Wei,WANG Chang-Biao,LIU Fang,CHEN Hao-Dong,WANG Lin,WANG Chun-Ying,ZHANG Xiang-Di,WANG Yu-Hong,WANG Kun-Bo
    Acta Agron Sin    2012, 38 (08): 1443-1451.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2012.01443
    Abstract2296)      PDF(pc) (410KB)(1491)       Save
    A software Clustal X was used to analyse the redundancy of 393 753 ESTs of Gossypium available in public database. By mining 349 815 non-redundant ESTs, a total of 11 372 SSR loci derived from 10 507 ESTs using a software SSRmine developed by ourselves were observed. The frequency of ESTs containing SSRs was 3%, with an average of one SSR in every 21 kb of EST sequence. Besides, trinucleotide and hexanucleotide repeats were found to be the most abundant among 2–6-nucleotide repeat types, accounting for 34.1% and 40.6% respectively. In dinucleotide repeats, trinucleotide repeats, tetranucleotide repeats, pentanucleotide repeats and hexanucleotide repeats, AG/CT, AAG/CTT, AAAT/ATTT, AAAAG/CTTTT, AAAAAG/CTTTTT motifs accounted for the highest proportion respectively. Two hundred pairs of new non-redundant EST-SSR primers were developed based on 410 EST sequences removed the redundancy which have not been developed so far in Gossypium arboreum L., G. hirsutum,and G. barbadense. Andwe used a software SSRmine developed by ourselvesto obtain non-similarity primers, designated CRI (Cotton Research Institute) XXX through six steps, including SSR primer sequences download, pretreatment, Blastn, extraction of primer numbers of similarity score more than 81%, extraction of redundant primers pairs and making redundant primers in a line, to remove homologous sequences from themselves and similar primers released in CMD from different cotton species. Among them, 100 primers were evaluated in polymorphism information content (PIC) and transferability using twelve cotton species including seven representative diploids species and five tetraploid species. The results showed that a total of 56 from the 100 pairs of SSR primers could be amplified the stable and clear polymorphic bands in the 12 accessions mentioned above, moreover, 35 out of 56 pairs of primers were polymorphic, with the primer polymorphism ratio of 35%. PIC of these primers ranged from 0.097 to 0.888, with the average of 0.482. Totally, the transferability among twelve cotton species was 100% for a pair of EST-SSR primers from Gossypium barbadense L., 81% for 25 primers from G. arboreum and 80.1% for 74 primers from G. hirsutum, respectively.
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    Advances of QTL mapping for seed size related traits in peanut
    HUANG Li, CHEN Yu-Ning, LUO Huai-Yong, ZHOU Xiao-Jing, LIU Nian, CHEN Wei-Gang, LEI Yong, LIAO Bo-Shou, JIANG Hui-Fang
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2022, 48 (2): 280-291.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2022.14046
    Abstract239)   HTML17)    PDF(pc) (851KB)(269)       Save

    Peanut is an important oil and economic crop in China. Currently, the domestic production of peanut remains far below the needs of consumers. Thus, further improving the yield per unit area is a crucial approach to meet the rising market demand. Seed size related traits are important agronomic traits in peanut, fundamentally contributing to improving yield per unit area. This review summarized the research progress on the regulatory pathways of seed size in plants, molecular markers, genetic linkage map construction, and QTL mapping of seed size related traits in peanut. We discussed the frontline challenges and opportunities for the coming researches of peanut seed related traits and the perspectives of yield improvement in peanut.

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    Expression pattern analysis of genes related to lipid synthesis in peanut
    XU Jing, PAN Li-Juan, LI Hao-Yuan, WANG Tong, CHEN Na, CHEN Ming-Na, WANG Mian, YU Shan-Lin, HOU Yan-Hua, CHI Xiao-Yuan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (6): 1124-1137.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04150
    Abstract250)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (2203KB)(267)       Save

    In order to survey the regulation patterns of genes expression in the synthesis of oil at different developmental stages in peanut seed, F18 (high-oleic medium oil peanut variety) and ‘Luhua 6’ (low-oleic acid low oil variety) were used as research materials. The expression pattern analysis of genes was performed for peanut seeds on the 10, 30, 40, and 60 DAP, respectively. The results indicated that 130, 3556, and 2783 genes were significantly differentially expressed in the two varieties (lines) on the 30, 40, and 60 DAP, respectively. GO annotation and KEGG enrichment showed that DEGs were mainly enriched in the fatty acid synthesis and photosynthetic pathways, such as FAB2, FAD2, WRI1 genes, which were involved in the accumulation of oleic acid. All the genes involved in photosynthesis pathway were photochlorophyll binding proteins and all of them were up-regulated. KEGG pathway indicated that all the genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis pathway on the 40 DAP and 60 DAP were up-regulated. In summary, these results provide a theoretical basis for molecular study of fatty acid synthesis in the development stage of peanut seeds and offer some candidate genes as gene resources of quality improvement in peanut breeding.

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    Physiological response of crop to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration: a review
    Yan-Sheng LI, Jian JIN, Xiao-Bing LIU
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2020, 46 (12): 1819-1830.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2020.02027
    Abstract475)   HTML52)    PDF(pc) (1292KB)(673)       Save

    The increase of atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide ([CO2]) has substantially had a huge impact on agricultural production. As the sole substrate for photosynthesis, the increase of atmospheric [CO2] stimulates the net photosynthetic rate, thus promoting the biomass accumulation and yield level in many crops. However, the ‘fertilization’ effect of the elevated atmospheric [CO2] on crop production is less than theoretical expectation, and elevated [CO2] increases the health risk due to the decline in grain quality. The relevant mechanism is still unclear. In this paper, we analyzed the effect of elevated [CO2] on crop photosynthesis system, reviewed various responses of key photosynthesis indicators, such as the leaf net photosynthetic rate, the intercellular [CO2] of leaves, maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco (Vc, max), and the capacity of Rubp-regeneration (Jmax) in different crops, in response to the elevated atmospheric [CO2]. Based on the C-N metabolism of the whole plant, we summarized two prevailing hypotheses about the acclimation of photosynthetic capacity under elevated atmospheric [CO2], namely the source-sink regulation mechanism and N limitation mechanism, respectively. We summarized the influence of elevated [CO2] on the nutritional quality of the grain, such as the change in the protein, oil, mineral elements, and vitamin concentrations. Furthermore, we also reviewed the potential interactive effect of the elevated atmospheric temperature and [CO2] on crop growth. Finally, the main research directions of this field in the future are proposed. In summary, this review can provide theoretical reference for accurately assessing the changes in crop yield and quality under climate change conditions, maximizing the ‘fertilization’ effect of elevated [CO2], and mitigating the adverse effects of climate change on crop production.

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    Integrated analysis between folate metabolites profiles and transcriptome of panicle in foxtail millet
    MA Gui-Fang, MAN Xia-Xia, ZHANG Yi-Juan, GAO Hao, SUN Zhao-Xia, LI Hong-Ying, HAN Yuan-Huai, HOU Si-Yu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (5): 837-846.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04173
    Abstract365)   HTML21)    PDF(pc) (2043KB)(274)       Save

    Folate (FA) is an important donor for energy metabolism, amino acid and nucleic acid synthesis, and participates in the intracellular carbon unit transfer reaction. In previous study, we found that folate content in panicle of foxtail millet was higher than other cereal crops, but the composition characteristics of folate metabolites are still unclear. In this study, in order to explore the expression patterns of folic acid components and folic acid metabolism pathway genes and their correlation with variable shear, and to predict the protein interaction network of folic acid synthesis pathway genes, folate metabolome was performed on three panicle development stages using the middle part of the ‘Jingu 21’ panicles as the experimental materials by RNA-seq. The results showed that the total folate content decreased with panicle development stage, and the contents of 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate (5-M-THF) and 10-formyl folate (10-F-FA) were the main components of panicle development. The expression pattern analysis of 17 key genes of folate synthesis can be divided into two groups during the panicle development in foxtail millet. The alternative splicing showed that the 16 key genes for folate synthesis produced transcription start site (TSS) and transcription terminal site (TTS) during the panicle development, the number of other types of alternative splicing was different at each stage, and this specific alternative splicing affects folate content. In addition, methylation pathway, hormone signaling pathway and immune pathway related genes showed a certain correlation with different folate metabolite content, and we preliminarily hypothesized that the expression of folate synthesis related and coupling pathway genes would influence the folate content during the panicle development. The different expression of ADCS, DHFR2, and GGH may be the main reason for the influence of folate content in panicle, and could be used as key target gen 837-846es for folate biofortification of foxtail millet by genetic engineering technology in the future.

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    Research advance on optimizing annual distribution of solar and heat resources for double cropping system in the Yellow-Huaihe-Haihe Rivers plain
    ZHOU Bao-Yuan, GE Jun-Zhu, SUN Xue-Fang, HAN Yu-Ling, MA Wei, DING Zai-Song, LI Cong-Feng, ZHAO Ming
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (10): 1843-1853.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.13012
    Abstract382)   HTML32)    PDF(pc) (298KB)(258)       Save

    Optimizing the distribution of annual solar and heat resources is an important way to improve the annual yield and resource use efficiency without increasing input for the winter wheat-summer maize of the Yellow-Huaihe-Haihe Rivers plain. During 1980s, the researchers began to explore ways to increase the efficiency utilization of solar and heat resources from the sowing/harvest adjustment, variety selection, and intensive cropping system innovation. Based on study of matching relation between crop growth and resources, a technological approach to optimize the distribution of solar and heat resources was put forward by strengthening the high photosynthetic efficiency of “C4 maize”. Then, the winter wheat and summer maize “double late” technology, winter wheat/spring maize/summer maize, winter wheat/spring maize/summer maize/autumn maize cropping systems were established, which realized high yield and high efficient utilization of resources. In this paper, we reviewed current theoretical and regulation approaches for optimizing distribution of solar and heat resources of double cropping system in the Yellow-Huaihe-Haihe Rivers plain. Then proposed a quantitative and optimal resources distribution method for double cropping system, and set up the unified quantitative indexes for resources distribution between winter wheat and summer maize, which could provide theory support for further increasing anniversary production and resource utilization efficiency of the Yellow-Huaihe-Haihe Rivers plain.

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    Effects of genotype and environment on wheat yield, quality, and nitrogen use efficiency
    JIN Xin-Xin,YAO Yan-Rong,JIA Xiu-Ling,YAO Hai-Po,SHEN Hai-Ping,CUI Yong-Zeng,LI Qian
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2019, 45 (4): 635-644.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2019.81072
    Abstract541)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (326KB)(586)       Save

    An experiment was carried out at Guantao, Ningjin, and Gaocheng using five wheat varieties (thirteen strong gluten wheat varieties and two middle gluten wheat varieties) with four levels of nitrogen fertilizer application (0, 180, 240, and 300 kg ha -1). The average yield of different wheat varieties was 9289 to 10,088 kg ha -1; yield of strong gluten varieties was 9548 kg ha -1, which was 3.1% lower than that of middle gluten varieties. The yield in Gaocheng, Ningjin and Guantao was 9932, 9433, 9223 kg ha -1, respectively. The averaged grain protein content, wet gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation, dough stability time, extensibility energy and maximum resistance were 14.5%, 28.5%, 39.5 mL, 15.4 min, 87.5 cm 2, and 428.8 BU, respectively. Gaoyou 5218, Gaoyou 5766, Jimai 738, Kenong 2009, Shiluan 02-1, Gaoyou 2018, and Jimai 738 had better quality. The wheat had better quality in Guantao and Ningjin than in Gaocheng. The nitrogen use efficiency decreased with nitrogen fertilizer increase. Under nitrogen fertilizer application of 180 kg ha -1, nitrogen agronomic efficiency, recovery efficiency and internal efficiency were the highest, with 4.3 kg kg -1, 26.2% and 16.6 kg kg -1, respectively. Gaocheng was suitable for growing Jimai 738, Jimai 867, and Shiluan 02-1. Ningjin was suitable for growing Shiluan 02-1, Kenong 2009, and Jimai 738. Guantao was suitable for growing Gaoyou 5766, Gaoyou 2018, and Shiluan 02-1. Taking grain yield, quality and nitrogen use efficiency into account, 180 kg ha -1 is the optimum nitrogen application under the similar condition of this study.

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    Fertilization Process in Sorghum and Its Performance Time for Each Stage
    LI Ran-Li,SHEN Jia-Heng,JIA Yuan,LI Wei,WANG Li-Ming
    Acta Agron Sin    2009, 35 (12): 2234-2242.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2009.02234
    Abstract1947)      PDF(pc) (2176KB)(1400)       Save

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) grows widely in the world as the fifth biggest crop in use for food, feed and raw material in brewing industry. Great achievements have been taken in routine breeding, and also in apomixis in sorghum. Reports on sorghum embryology mainly focused on the morphological structure and development of flower, megasporogenesis, microsporogensis, megagametophyte and so on. The objective of this study was to explore the fertiligation process of sorghum by routine paraffin-embedded section technique to offer some information for its genetic breeding, gene engineering and reproductive biology. The results showed that pollen grains germinated immediately when they fell on stigma in self-pollinated sorghum, then pollen tubes grew into the intercellular space of branched structure of penniform stigma, entering and penetrating ovary, and growing into micropyle. Pollen tube entered and destroyed one synergid and released successive round staff between egg and central cells. One sperm nucleus entered egg and the other entered central cell. Male and female nucleoli were fused at last. The performance time was as follows: pollen tube grew into micropyle and entered one synergid to release two sperms at 0.5–3 h after flowering; fusion of sperm-polar nucleus and egg-sperm nucleus took place at about 1–3 h after flowering; primary endosperm nucleus divided at about 4 h after flowering; zygote divided at 14 h after flowering; the dormancy stage of zygote was about 4–14 h after flowering, which is the proper time for transgenic operation with pollen-tube pathway technology and other physic-chemical mutagenesis.

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    Cited: Baidu(3)
    Editorial: Strengthening the researches of genomics of bast fiber crops to promote elite allele mining and germplasm innovation
    Zhang Li-wu
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (6): 993-996.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.04993
    Abstract395)   HTML42)    PDF(pc) (180KB)(253)       Save
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    Genome-wide association study of ear cob diameter in maize
    MA Juan, CAO Yan-Yong, LI Hui-Yong
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (7): 1228-1238.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03048
    Abstract288)   HTML20)    PDF(pc) (8297KB)(250)       Save

    Maize ear cob diameter is an important trait impacting the yield of grain and cob, and the analysis of its genetic mechanism will provide a guidance for high-yield breeding. In this study, the genotypes of 309 inbred lines were identified by genotyping-by-sequencing technology. FarmCPU (fixed and random model circulating probability unification), MLMM (multiple loci mixed linear model), and CMLM (compressed mixed linear model) were used to identify significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for ear cob diameter of Yuanyang of Henan province, Dancheng of Henan province, Yucheng of Henan province, Sanya of Hainan province in 2017 and 2019, and best linear unbiased estimate environment. A total of 12 significant SNP for ear cob diameter were detected at P < 8.60E-07. S4_29277313 was detected from Yuanyang in 2017 using FarmCPU and MLMM. The phenotypic variance explained of S1_29006330, S2_170889116, S2_2046026464, and S4_83821463 ranged from 10.23% to 14.17%, and were considered major-effect SNP. In addition, S1_29006330 was mapped in the interval of known QTL for ear cob diameter. A total of 17 candidate genes were identified. Among them, WAKL14 (wall-associated receptor kinase-like 14), transcription factor ZIM35 (zinc-finger protein expressed in inflorescence meristem 35), HMGA (HMG-Y-related protein A), histone-lysine N-methyltransferase ATX4 (Arabidopsis trithorax 4), and XTH32 (xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase protein 32) might be important genes for ear cob diameter. The identification of four major-effect SNP and five candidate genes can provide an information for molecular marker-assisted breeding, fine mapping, and gene cloning.

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    Development and Application of High Resolution Karyotypes of Chinese Spring Aneuploids
    WANG Dan-Rui,DU Pei,PEI Zi-You,ZHUANG Li-Fang,QI Zeng-Jun
    Acta Agron Sin    2017, 43 (11): 1575-1587.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2017.01575
    Abstract426)   HTML0)    PDF(pc) (15582KB)(1283)       Save

    Oligonucleotide (oligo hereafter) multiplex-based chromosome painting facilitates chromosome identification of both wheat cultivars and its relatives in a simple, easy and high efficient way. In this study, an oligo multiplex containing oligos pAs1-1, pAs1-3, AFA-4, (GAA)10, and pSc119.2-1 developed earlierwas used for chromosome painting of 18 accessions from 17 Chinese Spring (CS) aneuploids. The high resolution karyotypes allowed to clearly distinguish individualwheat chromosomes. Fourteen aneuploidshad theexpected chromosome constitutions whereasthe other four had chromosome variations including one witha possible small segmental reciprocal translocation T6AS·6AL-6DL and T6DS·6DL-6AL occurred in N5BT5D. The following analysis on eightlandraces,ninecultivars (lines), and one synthetic hexaploid wheat, observed karyotypediversities from 15 chromosomes including six B- (except for 4B), five A- (except for 1A and 3A), and four D-genome (1D, 2D, 4D, and 7D) chromosomes. The three widely-used translocations in China, i.e. T1BL·1RS, T6AL·6VS and the reciprocal translocation T1RS·7DL and T7DS·1BL, were clearly detected after only oncefluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) using the oligo multiplex and without genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). This oligo multiplex also produced rich signals in all chromosomes of Triticum monococum, rye cultivar ‘Jingzhouheimai’, durum wheat ‘Langdon’, and Thinopyrum elongatum, and 30 chromosomes of Thinopyrum intermedium. The karyotypes of these five species were thus developed. These results indicate that oligo multiplex-based chromosome painting will play active roles on chromosome identifying, and provide a reference for the standard karyotypes of CS aneuploids.

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    Effects of elevated temperature and CO 2 concentration on growth and yield of maize under intercropping with peanut
    WANG Fei, GUO Bin-Bin, SUN Zeng-Guang, YIN Fei, LIU Ling, JIAO Nian-Yuan, FU Guo-Zhan
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (11): 2220-2231.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.03018
    Abstract166)   HTML9)    PDF(pc) (2184KB)(246)       Save

    To clarify the effects of climate change on the growth development and yield of maize in the system of maize intercropping peanut, we performed the planting pattern of two rows maize intercropping and four rows peanut. Field experiments were carried out with TC (ambient temperature and ambient CO2 concentration), +T+C (elevated temperature and elevated CO2 concentration) in 2018, and TC, +TC (elevated temperature and ambient CO2 concentration), and +T+C in 2019, with two phosphorus levels of P0 (P2O5 0 kg hm-2) and P180 (P2O5 180 kg hm-2), respectively. The effects of elevated temperature and CO2 concentration on growth, dry matter accumulation and distribution, photosynthesis and yield of intercropping maize were studied. Results were as follows: (1) Compared with TC, the numbers of days from emergence to silking, silking to maturity, and emergence to maturity of intercropping maize under +TC were shortened respective by 4, 2, and 6 days. Compared with +TC, the number of days from emergence to silking of intercropping maize under +T+C was shortened by three days, while the numbers of days from silking to maturity, and emergence to maturity were increased by five days and two days. Compared with TC, the number of days from emergence to silking, and emergence to maturity of intercropping maize under +T+C was shortened by 4-7 days and 2-4 days, respectively; and the number of days from emergence to maturity was extended by 1-4 days. (2) The leaf area, net photosynthetic rate, and leaf area duration of intercropping maize were +T+C>+TC>TC before silking, +T+C>TC>+TC from silking to milk stage, and +T >+T+C>+TC after milk stage. Compared with TC, ear grain number and 100-grain weight of intercropping maize under +T+C were increased by 4.14%-65.70% and 1.70%-14.0%, respectively. (3) Compared with TC, the dry matter of intercropping maize at maturity stage increased by 7.39%-21.30% and the yield increased by 19.18%-28.07% under +TC. The dry matter and yield of intercropping maize increased by 10.0%-57.7% and 4.41%-52.00% under +T+C, respectively. The grain yield of intercropping maize was improved by applying phosphorus after increasing temperature and CO2 concentration. These results indicated that elevated temperature and CO2 concentration could promote dry matter accumulation and grain yield improvement by increasing net photosynthetic rate, leaf area index, and leaf area duration of intercropping maize at early growth stage, shortening vegetative growth period, prolonging grain filling time, and increasing ear grain number and grain weight per panicle. Elevated temperature and CO2 concentration had mutual promoting effect on the growth of intercropping maize before silking stage, while increasing CO2 concentration could make up for the inhibiting effect of increasing temperature on the growth of intercropping maize after silking.

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    Progress of Wheat Breeding in China and the Future Perspective
    HE Zhong-Hu, JIA Xian-Chun, CHEN Xin-Min, ZHUANG Qiao-Sheng
    Acta Agron Sin    2011, 37 (02): 202-215.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2011.00202
    Abstract4875)      PDF(pc) (229KB)(5570)       Save
    During the last ten years, Chinese wheat breeding has mainly made progresses in three aspects, i.e., (1) two sets of cultivars with high yielding potential, improved quality, and multi-resistance to various diseases were developed and extended, (2) three elite parents, viz. Zhou 8425B, Lumai 14, and 6VS/6AL translocation line played a leading role in cultivar development; and (3) a significant progress has been achieved in breeding methodology and applied research. Main constrains on wheat breeding were also summarized. The development and utilization of molecular markers such as SSR marker and functional maker, was reviewed from breeding point of view, and the priority areas for the next five to ten years were proposed. It summarized the progress of wheat quality study which is closely associated with cultivar development, including laboratory evaluation methods and selection criteria for pan bread, cookie, Chinese noodles and steamed bread. China’s strategies for wheat breeding were analyzed in four areas: (1) a draft points on improving Chinese wheat yield potential; (2) utilization of durable resistance for cultivar development; (3) more efforts on water use efficiency, tolerance to high temperature and traits associated with broad adaptation due to the serious impact of climate change; and (4) increased investment in breeding and seed marketing from private sector.
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    Cited: Baidu(83)
    Transcription characteristics of wheat glutamine synthetase isoforms and the sequence analysis of their promoters
    WANG Xiao-Chun, WANG Lu-Lu, ZHANG Zhi-Yong, QIN Bu-Tan, YU Mei-Qin, WEI Yi-Hao, MA Xin-Ming
    Acta Agronomica Sinica    2021, 47 (4): 761-769.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2021.01046
    Abstract253)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (3530KB)(251)       Save

    As a key enzyme for nitrogen assimilation in wheat, glutamine synthetase is grouped into two classes: cytosolic GS and chloroplastic GS (TaGS2), and cytosolic GS includes TaGS1, TaGSr, and TaGSe. In order to study the expression characteristics and regulatory mechanisms of GS isozymes in chromosome A, B, and D of heterohexaploid wheat, transcripts of TaGS isoforms were analyzed based on the third-generation sequencing technology transcriptome analysis, and 12 promoters of TaGS isozymes of Yumai 49 were cloned based on Chinese Spring genome, and the sequence of the promoters were analyzed. The results showed that TaGS1 was mainly transcribed on chromosome 6B, TaGSe and TaGSr on chromosome 4D, and TaGS2 on chromosome 2D. Furthermore, the distance from initiation codon ATG to initiation site of transcript for each promoter of TaGS was distinct. Promoter element analysis showed that the promoter of TaGS1 in 6B had more W-box, AC-I, ABRE, as-1, and methyl jasmonic response elements, the promoter of TaGSe in 4D had more stress response elements (MYB, MBS, LTR, etc.) and auxin response element, the promoter of TaGSr in 4D had more WRE3 and transcript factor response elements, the promoter of TaGS2 in 2D had more A-box, WRE3, ARE, and an AT enrichment region. In summary, the number, type and order of cis-elements of different promoters of TaGS isozymes were distinct, which provided the foundation for further study on the regulation mechanism of TaGS isozymes.

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Co-sponsored:
the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

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  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
Online published:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/the-crop-journal
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E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
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