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    12 March 2014, Volume 40 Issue 03
      Cloning and Analysis of 5′ Flanking Regions of Arachisis hypogaea L. Genes Encoding Plastidial Acyl Carrier Protein
      SHAN Lei,TANG Gui-Ying,XU Ping-Li,ZHAO Xue-Bin,LIU Zhan-Ji
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(03):  381-389.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.00381
      Abstract ( 917 )   RICH HTML    PDF (1830KB) ( 950 )   Save
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      We cloned the 5′ flanking fragments of three peanut plastidial acyl carrier protein (ACP) genes AhACP1, AhACP4,and AhACP5 by chromosome walking method, and the fragments sizes were 535, 1400, and 1180 bp, respectively. Using 5′ RACE (5′ Rapid Amplification of cDNA End), the transcription start sites of the three genes were localized on 71, 92, and 71 bp from the translation initiation codon ATG, respectively. The crucial regulation elements in promoters of three peanut ACP genes and four Arabidopsis ACP genes were further analyzed with softwares PLACE and Plant CARE (http://www.dna.affrc.go.jp/PLACE; http://bioinformatics.psb.ugebp.be/webtools/plabpcare/html), showing that although AhACP4 and AhACP5 had similar expression patterns in root, stem, leaf, flower and seed at different development stages, their promoter regions contained their specific cis-elements. For instance, the promoter region of AhACP4 consisted of the regulation element WUS expressingin meristems of root or shoot primordia while that of AhACP5 had several key regulation elements such as E2FB, TELO BOX, and UP1 required in sprouting and expansion of axillary shoots, suggesting that their expression patterns may be various in different tissues and development stages. This study also indicated that the expression profiles of orthologous genes peanut AhACP4 and Arabidopsis AtACP4 diverged in evolution, and the AhACP4 gene expressed in a constitutive pattern while the AtACP4 expressed mainly in leaf, and in comparison with the promoter region of AtACP4, that of AhACP4 contained fewer light regulation elements.

      Cloning and Functional Analysis of GhVacInc2a Encoding Vacuolar Invertase in Cotton
      XU Wen-Ting,WANG Cheng,XU Xiao-Yang,NIU Er-Li,CAI Cai-Ping,GUO Wang-Zhen
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(03):  390-396.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.00390
      Abstract ( 742 )   RICH HTML    PDF (534KB) ( 1051 )   Save
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      Cotton fiber development depends on a large supply of sugar. Invertase plays a central role in sucrose metabolism. Structural and functional analysis of gene encoding invertase will conductively reveal the complex molecular mechanism of fiber development, and also provide elite gene resources for improvement of cotton fiber quality. In the study, a novel gene encoding vacuolar invertase was obtained by sillico cloning, based on a differentially expressed EST (GenBank accession number EY196825) between G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 and im mutant, combined with reconfirmation of ORF information in transcriptional and genomic level. BlastN showed that the gene shared 99% identity of GhVacInv2 reported previously (GenBank accession number FJ864677), and designated as GhVacInv2a (GenBank accession number KF305322). GhVacInv2a contained an open reading frame of 1857 bp that encoded a polypeptide of 618 amino acids, with seven exons and six introns at genome sequence. GhVacInv2a comprised one copy in diploid cotton species G. herbaceum and G. raimondii, and two copies in tetraploid cotton species G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 and G. barbadense cv. Hai 7124, with GhVacInv2a in A-subgenome and GhVacInv2 in D-subgenome, respectively. Q-PCR expression analysis showed that the set of homoelogous genes performed the highest expressive abundance in anther in comparison with other tissues. In developing fibers, it was predominantly expressed from fiber rapid elongation stage, and there existed significant difference between TM-1 and im mutant during 13 to 19 days post anthesis (DPA) in fiber tissues. Further, GhVacInv2a was located on chromosome 3 by developing subgenome-specific SNP marker, and the association analysis showed that there was a significant correction (P=0.0087) between GhVacInv2a and fiber strength, suggesting that GhVacInv2a probably plays a key role in fiber qualities formation.

      Development and Genetic Mapping of SNP Markers via Genome Complexity Reduction in Tobacco
      XIAO Bing-Guang,QIU Jie,CAO Pei-Jian,GUI Yi-Jie,LU Xiu-Ping,LI Yong-Ping,FAN Long-Jiang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(03):  397-404.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.00397
      Abstract ( 946 )   RICH HTML    PDF (1191KB) ( 1595 )   Save
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      We proposed an approach for development of the SNP markers via genome complexity reduction in this study. The restriction enzymes were employed to digest target genome and then collect and sequence the fragments flanking the restriction sites by next-generation sequencing platform. A bioinformatics pipeline was developed for the SNP calling. A flue-cured tobacco DH population was used as a case to test the approach. The tobacco representative fragments were collected via a genome complexity reduction method and sequenced by using Illumina GA sequencer. A total of 1015 SNPs were found based on 11.4 Gb Illumina data using the bioinformatics pipeline. Taken available SSR markers (as backbone markers) together, a genetic linkage map with 1 307 molecular markers was constructed. Large-scale inter-chromosomal (linkage group) DNA combinations or exchanges and several homologous pairs among the tobacco 24 chromosomes were detected based on the genetic map and the available genomic sequences of two tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) wild progenitors.
      Cloning and Functional Characterization of Peanut Gene AhSOS2
      ZHANG Guo-Jia,HOU Lei,WANG Qing-Guo,LI Zhen,DAI Shao-Jun,LIU Wei
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(03):  405-415.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.00405
      Abstract ( 1066 )   RICH HTML    PDF (4268KB) ( 995 )   Save
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      SOS2 (Salt Overly Sensitive 2) is a kind of important salt tolerance genes, which is involved in mediating the intracellular ion balance and plays an important role in the response of plants to salt damage and adaptation. In this study, a 1462 bp full-length cDNA, including a 1341 bp open reading frame, was isolated and harvested by RACE method. As the gene showed more than 70% homologous to members of SOS2 subfamily in other plants by bioinformatics analysis, it is then named as AhSOS2 (GenBank accession numberHG797656). Its coding protein AhSOS2 has 446 amino acids, and is a member of serine/threonine protein kinases. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that AhSOS2 was expressed constitutively in peanut tissues, and could be induced to express higher under salt and drought treatments. When treated with 250 mmol L-1 NaCl, the gene expression level increased dramatically to about 30 times higher than that of control in the stems of peanut seedlings, while the expression level of AhSOS2 increased markedly in the leaves of peanut seedlings when treated by drought stress that imitated by 30% PEG-6000.AhSOS2 is supposed to participate in stress resistance and tolerance in peanut. The expression binary vector of pCAMBIA1301P-AhSOS2 was constructed and the transgenic rice plants were obtained. The primary functional verification showed that the ability of salt tolerance and adaptation was enhanced in AhSOS2 overexpression rice. The above research is expected to uncover the adversity defense mechanisms of peanut grown under stress conditions, and further guide the resistance breeding and quality improvement of peanut.
      Differential Expression of Defense Related Genes in Brassica napus Infected by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
      MA Tian-Tian,PENG Qi,CHEN Song,ZHANG Jie-Fu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(03):  416-423.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.00416
      Abstract ( 863 )   RICH HTML    PDF (726KB) ( 1167 )   Save
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      Sclerotinia stem rot is the main disease of rapeseed. Up to date, genes involved in defending Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have not been found in rapeseed and some other related plants. In order to reveal the disease resistance mechanism, we inoculated Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on the stems of resistant variety Ning RS-1 and susceptible one APL01, and compared eleven defensive related genes’ expression profiles between two varieties during the period of inoculation by using fluorescence quantitative PCR. Results showed that four genes (PGIP, Cu/ZnSOD, OXO, and GLP) were highly expressed both in Ning RS-1 and APL01, and the expression in Ning RS-1 was much higher than that in APL01. Especially, PGIP’s expression at 24 hours after inoculation (hai) with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was 170.4 times as high as that at 0 hai in Ning RS-1, while it was only 3.5 times in APL01, and PGIP’s expression in Ning RS-1 was 1299.4 times as high as that at 24 hai in APL01. Two genes (LOX2 and PDF1.2)were expressed low both in Ning RS-1 and APL01, without significant difference between two varieties.Five genes (FeSOD, PAL, EDS1, PR1, and EIN3) were also expressed low in Ning RS-1 and APL01, without significant difference between two varieties. We inferred that the reason of resistance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Ning RS-1 is related to the up-regulated expression of PGIP, which prevents the PGprotein in pathogen from degrading the cell wall of infected host tissues, resulting in the inhibition of incidence and spread of sclerotinia stem rot in rapeseed.
      Isolation and Flow Purification of Endosperm Protoplast from Developing Seed of Maize
      GUO Yan-Ping**,REN Cheng-Jie**,LI Zhi-Wei,WANG Wen-Bin,ZHANG Ren-He,LU Hai-Dong,LIU Jian-Chao,ZHANG Xing-Hua,XUE Ji-Quan,GUO Dong-Wei
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(03):  424-430.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.00424
      Abstract ( 1104 )   RICH HTML    PDF (2361KB) ( 1042 )   Save
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      Maize endosperm is the main place for synthesizing starch and its development is very important for building grain. Isolation and purification of endosperm cell protoplasts can offer the homogeneous experimental materials for endosperm cultivation, transcriptome analysis and cell typing. On the basis of previous studies, this paper optimized a set of isolation and purification methods of maize endosperm protoplast through adjusting the combination and concentration of enzymes as well as using membrane stabilizer and osmotic stabilizer. A lot of crude protoplasts were obtained when endosperm tissue was digested in MS medium containing 0.5% macerozyme, 0.5% hemicellulase, 1.0% cellulose, 0.7–0.8 mol L-1 of osmotic stabilizer and 0.8 mol L-1 of membrane stabilizer for 4 h at 30ºC. Staining of Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) showed that purified protoplasts maintained more than 90% of viability. The viable protoplasts were accumulated and purified from the crude protoplast suspension by flow sorting technology. Some technical parameters and influencing factors about protoplast isolation and flow sorting were also discussed.
      Over-expressing GsCBRLK/SCMRP from Glycine soja Enhances Alkaline Tolerance and Methionine Content in Transgenic Medicago sativa
      ZHAO Yang,ZHU Yan-Ming,BAI Xi,JI Wei,WU Jing,TANG Li-Li,CAI Hua
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(03):  431-438.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.00431
      Abstract ( 773 )   RICH HTML    PDF (4045KB) ( 772 )   Save
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      Drought and saline-alkaline stresses, significantly affect growth and productivity of plants. Plants adapt to these environmental stresses by inducing numerous genes at the transcriptional level and protein phosphorylation. In this study, an expression vector BEOCBRLK-SCMRP was constructed. A stress-responsive kinase gene of Glycine soja (GsCBRLK) was selected by our laboratory previously according to gene expression profiles under salinity, drought and cold stresses. Over expression of GsCBRLK in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced tolerance to high salinity and ABA.SCMRP is a kind of storage protein gene coding high-sulfur-containing amino acid, which was designed and synthesized according to the soybean coden usage. We transformed GsCBRLK and SCMRP genes into alfalfa using a developed method, under the treatments of 100, 150 mmol L–1 NaHCO3 for 14 days, the transgenic alfalfa grew well while wild type plants exhibited discoloration and stunted growth, or even death. There were significant changes in MDA content and relative membrane permeability caused by alkaline stress in non-transgenic lines as compared with transgenic lines (P<0.05). Moreover, compared with non-transgenic plant, transgenic alfalfa had higher level of SOD activity under alkali stress condition. Analysis of amino acid content showed that transgenic plants were rich in methionine content compared with non-transformed plants. These results indicated that the transformants carrying GsCBRLK and SCMRP could enhance both alkaline tolerance and methionine amino acid content in alfalfa.
      Vernalization Effects of Dominant Alleles Vrn-B1a and Vrn-B1b and Their Distributions in Cultivars from Yellow and Huai River Valleys Facultative Winter Wheat Zone
      WANG Xuan,JU Li-Ping,LIU Fang-Jun,ZHANG Yu-Yu,ZHANG Fan,FU Xiao-Jie,FENG Yi,ZHANG Xiao-Ke
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(03):  439-446.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.00439
      Abstract ( 978 )   RICH HTML    PDF (447KB) ( 863 )   Save
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      Vrn-B1 is a key gene controlling vernalization of wheat in the Yellow and Huai River Valleys Facultative Winter Wheat Zone of China. This study aimed to understand the allelic distribution at Vrn-B1 locus and their effects on heading date of wheat cultivars. To compare the vernalization responses of dominant alleles Vrn-B1a with Vrn-B1b on heading date, we planted F2 plants derived from the cross between Yumai 34 (Vrn-B1b genotype) and Wanmai 33 (Vrn-B1a genotype) in greenhouse (22±3°C and 16 h day/8 h night) with 4°C treatment for different periods (5–35 d). Besides, the Vrn-B1 allelic variation and distribution of 228 historic and current wheat cultivars were evaluated using molecular markers. The results showed that heading date of Vrn-B1a genotype was about two days later than that of Vrn-B1b genotype. Vernalization treatment at 4°C for 5–25 d obviously shortened the period from sowing to heading in genotype Vrn-B1a or Vrn-B1b; however, continuous vernalization had no effect to further accelerate heading. Therefore, 20–25 d is enough for vernalization in both genotypes. In the 228 cultivars, 214 carried the recessive vrn-B1 allele with the frequency of 93.9%, and the remaining 14 cultivars had dominantalleles on Vrn-B1 locus, including6 (2.6%) of Vrn-B1a genotype and 8 (3.5%) of Vrn-B1b genotype. The two dominant alleles on Vrn-B1 locus had different effects to accelerate heading in winter wheat, and can be used in wheat breeding programs to improve adaptability and cold tolerance in wheat.
      Construction of Microsatellite-Enriched Library and Isolation of Icrosatellite Markers in Stevia rebaudiana
      QIN Hai-Feng,LONG Ning,WU Jian-Guo,SHI Chun-Hai
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(03):  447-456.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.00447
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      Stevia is one of important special crops in China, but its genetic background about molcular markers is known a little so far.Based on the principle of the strong affinity between biotin and streptavidin, we used streptavidin paramagnetic particles to catch a synthetic oligonucletide probe (AG)15 during an indirect selection from the genomic microsatellite sequence of restriction fragments of DNA in Stevia rebaudiana. The enriched DNA fragments were ligated to the pUC-T vector to construct a S. rebaudiana microsatellite sequence enriched library. From a library of 354 cloned colonies, 158 were screened by PCR examination and the positive clones were sequenced, resulting in 134 (84.81%) clones containing microsatellite sequences. Among these microsatellites, 85 (64.34%) belonged to the perfect type, 15 (11.19%) to the imperfect type and 34 (25.38%) to the compound type. From the primers designed for the 71 microsatellite loci, 62 could amplify stable PCR products. An analysis of individual genetic diversity of the 62 pairs primers using 24 S. rebaudiana varietiesshowed 16 loci had polymorphism and the number of alleles at each locus ranged from two to eight. The average site amplified 4.5 alleles and the polymorphic information content ranged from 0.3163 to 0.7595. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) varied from 0.2174 to 0.9167 and the expected heterozygosity (He) varied from 0.3555 to 0.8076. By clustering analysis, S. rebaudiana were divided into two categories. The microsatellite markers developed at this study could provide useful genetic markers for molecular breeding of S. rebaudiana.
      QTL Mapping for Plant Height Using Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines in Upland Cotton
      HE Rui,SHI Yu-Zhen,ZHANG Jin-Feng,LIANG Yan,ZHANG Bao-Cai,LI Jun-Wen,WANG Tao,GONG Ju-Wu,LIU Ai-Ying,SHANG Hai-Hong,GONG Wan-Kui,BAI Zhi-Chuan,YUAN You-Lu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(03):  457-465.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.00457
      Abstract ( 703 )   RICH HTML    PDF (1830KB) ( 1084 )   Save
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      Chromosome segment substitution lines (BC5F3, BC5F3:4, and BC5F3:5) were developed with G. hirsutum CCRI36 as the recipient parent and G. barbadense Hai1 as the donor parent. In this study, plant height of BC5F3 individuals (2009 in Anyang Henan), and BC5F3:4 lines (2010 in Anyang Henan) and BC5F3:5 lines (2011 in Anyang Henan, Shihezi Xinjiang and Liaoyang Liaoning, respectively) were evaluated. SSR markers were wed to screen 408 BC5F3 individuals. QTLs for plant height were identified by QTL IciMapping V3.2 software. The  results indicated that the transgressive rate of plant height was from 53.43% to 88.97% and totally 16 QTLs for plant height were detected in three generations and five environments, which were mapped on 10 chromosomes, and explained the phenotypic variance from 7.35% to 13.17%. Seven QTLs were detected in at least two environments. qPH-15-19 was also reported in other researches. These stablly expressed QTLs could be applied in the marker assisted selection, fine QTL mapping and gene cloning.
      Genetic Effects and Heterosis Prediction Model of Sorghum  bicolor × S.sudanense Grass
      LU Xiao-Ping,LIU Dan-Dan,WANG Shu-Yan,MI Fu-Gui,HAN Ping-An,Lü Er-Suo
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(03):  466-475.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.00466
      Abstract ( 1247 )   RICH HTML    PDF (915KB) ( 777 )   Save
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      Molecular markers-based heterosis prediction can provide some advices for Sorghum ×Sudan grass breeding. The 90 cross combinations were made according to the North Carolina design II (NCII) with five sorghum sterile lines as maternal parents and 18 Sudan grass lines as paternal parents. The field trials were carried out on the farms in Hohhot and Baotou to evaluate environmental effects. The parental genetic differences were compared by yield related QTL markers. The phenotypic values of eight traits for all F1 hybrids were investigated. The values were used for selecting significant marker loci on parental lines for setting up the evaluation system of marker effect and marker value. The specific loci were used for evaluating the trait effects and hybrid marker value, and for analyzing the correlation between the marker value and heterosis. The prediction models of the eight traits for the hybrid were constructed with the stepwise regression analysis. The Jackknife sampling method was used to test the accuracy and stability of the model. The result indicated that, considering dominance and additive effect separately, eight traits showed the average correlation coefficient of 0.65 between vigor value and phenotypic value. The coefficient of determination was from 0.51 to 0.88 in the eight traits. The results in two places were similar. The model could be instructive for heterosis prediction and parents selection.
      An Efficient Approach to Identify Salt Tolerance of Upland Cotton at Seedling Stage
      PENG Zhen,HE Shou-Pu,SUN Jun-Ling,XU Fei-Fei,JIA Yin-Hua,PAN Zhao-E,WANG Li-RuDU Xiong-Ming
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(03):  476-486.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.00476
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      Three-leaf cotton seedlings of two salt-tolerant varieties and two salt-sensitive varieties were treated by water and 4% (40 g L–1) NaCl solution, respectively. A total of 13 parameters related to salt tolerance including salt injury index (SII), shoot fresh weight (SRW), root fresh weight (RFW), leaf relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fo, Fm, Fv/Fm), relative conductivity (RC), manlondialdehyde (MDA) content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were monitored after 72h of treatment. Comprehensive assessment of salinity tolerance based on grey relation clustering method, principal component analysis and stepwise regression analysis indicated that themaximum quantum yield of PSII was the most significant correlated indices with salt tolerance in upland cotton, which could be used as a single parameter to assess salt tolerance based on the equation: y = 1.943x – 0.882 (where y is the salt tolerance index, x is the related value of maximum efficiency of photosystem II). The other two salt-tolerant varieties and two salt-sensitive varieties were used to rate the classification of salt tolerance. Salt tolerance index (y) of 23 varieties with known salt tolerance were calculated to validate the accuracy of the equation, the result was consistent with field investigation. In this study, the maximum efficiency of photosystem II was used as the main index to validate the salt tolerance in cotton, together with the construction of salt tolerance index equation and salt tolerance rating, which could greatly improve the efficiency of salinity tolerance evaluation for massive germplasm in future.
      Effects of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene on Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Rice at Top Tillering Stage
      DING Xiu-Wen,ZHANG Guo-Liang,DAI Qi-Gen,ZHU Qing
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(03):  487-496.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.00487
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      A soil culture experiment was conducted to study the effects of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) on morphological and physiological indexes of rice at top tillering stage, using rice cultivars of Ningjing 1 (TCB sensitive genotype) and Yangfujing 8 (TCB tolerant genotype), with four treatments of TCB concentrations including 0 (CK), 20, 40 and 60 mg kg-1. The results indicated that the maximum root length, plant height, tillers per hill, shoot and root dry weight of Ningjing 1 were all decreased significantly (P<0.05) under different concentrations of TCB. Low TCB stress (20 mg kg-1) significantly increased Yangfujing 8’s maximum root length, shoot and root dry weight , root activity (P<0.01), while medium and high TCB stresses (40 and 60 mg kg-1) decreased maximum root length, plant height, tillers per hill, shoot and root dry weight significantly(P<0.05). Ningjing 1’s root activity, chlorophyll content, soluble protein content in leaves and roots were relatively low under different concentrations of TCB, at the same time, its activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) in leaves and roots decreased, while O2? producing velocity and malnodialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly (P<0.05). Low TCB stress (20 mg kg-1) significantly increased Yangfujing 8’s soluble protein content and activities of SOD, POD, CAT in leaves and roots, and significantly (P<0.05) decreased its O2? producing velocity and MDA content. Under medium TCB stress (40 mg kg-1), the activities of SOD, POD, CAT in leaves and roots were enhanced, however, its O2? producing velocity and MDA content increased significantly. High TCB stress (60 mg kg-1) decreased its root activity, chlorophyll content, the activities of SOD, POD, CAT in leaves and roots, and increased O2? producing velocity and MDA content significantly (P<0.05). In a word, compared with sensitive genotype, well growth vigor, high protein content in leaves and roots, better ability of antioxidant system in scavenging reactive oxygen speciesand lower membrane lipid peroxidation under low concentration TCB stress (20 mg kg-1) are regarded as the main features of TCB tolerant genotype in rice.

      Difference of Characteristics of Photosynthesis, Matter Production and Translocation between Indica and Japonica Super Rice
      GONG Jin-Long,XING Zhi-Peng,HU Ya-Jie,ZHANG Hong-Cheng*,Dai Qi-Gen,HUO Zhong-Yang,XU Ke,WEI Hai-Yan,GAO Hui
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(03):  497-510.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.00497
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      This study was to reveal the difference of characteristics of dry matter accumulation and photosynthetic production between indica and japonica super rice. Field experiments were conducted by using five representative super hybrid indica combinations and five conventional japonica super rice varieties planted on a large scale in Jiangsu region with rice-wheat double cropping rotation. Dry matter accumulation, distribution and translocation, leaf area, leaf area duration (LAD), crop growth rate (CGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), seedling quality and leaf type were analyzed systematically. Results showed that, dry matter accumulation, LAD, CGR and NAR at the early growth stage (from transplanting to jointing), leaf length, leaf base angle, angle between stem and leaf and drooping angle in top three leaves, leaf area decreasing per day after heading and harvest index of japonica rice were less than those of indica rice significantly, while dry matter accumulation, LAD, CGR and NAR at the middle and later growth stages (from jointing to maturity), ratio of leaf area of productive tillers, ratio of leaf area of top three leaves, grain-leaf ratio (spikelets per cm2 leaf area, filled grains per cm2 leaf area and grain weight per cm2 leaf area), maximum leaf area index, total filling, grain yield, biological yield, maximum output and apparent output and their ratio were larger than those of indica rice significantly. Although dry matter weight per stem of japonica rice at the main growth stages was lower than that of indica rice, the superiority of population quantity suggested that japonica rice would possess higher dry matter accumulation and leaf area. With the advancement of growth and development, the superiority of photosynthesis and matter production of japonica rice was increasing, with a higher dry matter accumulation more than that of indica rice 25 d after heading approximately. The growth potential of japonica rice remained strong at the late period of grain-filling (from milky stage to maturity), while stored matter kept in the stem and sheath exported appropriately at the early period of grain-filling (from heading to milky stage), ensuring the security of efficient photosynthetic layer and the enrichment of high accumulation yield sink. Therefore, balanced formation of high biological yield, stable-increasing-slow-decreasing tendency of leaf area, and the large amounts of high efficient photosynthate production from jointing to maturity are the important characteristics and causes for the efficient and sustainable output of photosynthetic systems, more grain-filling and high yield formation in japonica rice.
      Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Nitrogen Accumulation, Translocation and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)
      ZUO Qing-Song,YANG Hai-Yan,LENG Suo-Hu,CAO Shi,ZENG Jiang-Xue,WU Jiang-Sheng,ZHOU Guang-Sheng
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(03):  511-518.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.00511
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      In this study, five conventional oilseed rape varieties with different oil contents, including Yangyou 6 (YY6), Suyou 211(SY211), Ningyou 20 (NY20), Zhongshuang 11 (ZS11), and Zheyou 50 (ZY50) were grown under three N (nitrogen) fertilizer levels: 120 (N1), 240 (N2), and 360 kg N ha-1 (N3) from 2010 to 2012. The effects of N application on N accumulation, N translocation rate and N use efficiency were studied through plant sampling, picking deciduous leaf and measuring dry matter weight, N content and oil content. The results showed that with increasing N application rates yield and total N amount in whole plant increased, and N harvest index (NHI) and N use efficiency for grain production (NUEg) decreased. The N translocation rate in leaf ranged from 76.6% to 80.2%, and there were no significant differences among different N fertilizer levels. The nitrogen translocation rate in stem ranged from 36.0% to 57.6%, and decreased with increasing N application rates. The N proportion of deciduous leaf to whole plant ranged from 14.9% to 20.3%, and increased with increasing N application rates. The N proportion of the beginning of flowering stage to ripening stage was from 75.5% to 90.5%, and increased with increasing N application rates. The effect of N amount at the beginning of flowering stage on yield is significant. N application at earlier stage promotes flower bud differentiation and increases effective pods, resulting in higher yield.

      Differences of Nitrogen Uptake and Utilization and Nitrogen Regulation Effects in Maize between Maize/Soybean and Maize/Sweet Potato Relay Intercropping Systems
      WANG Xiao-Chun,YANG Wen-Yu,DENG Xiao-Yan,ZHANG Qun,YONG Tai-Wen,LIU Wei-Guo,YANG Feng,MAO Shu-Ming
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(03):  519-530.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.00519
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      The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of maize nitrogen uptake and utilization and nitrogen regulation effects between two main intercropping systems including maize intercropped with soybean and sweet potato respectively in a four year field experiment at two major maize producing areas of Sichuan in southwest China. Results showed that maize nitrogen accumulation (A), nitrogen harvest index (HI), nitrogen absorption efficiency (AE) and nitrogen distribution proportion to grain in maize/soybean relay strip intercropping were increased by 7.11%, 2.00%, 7.83%, and 1.76% respectively at maturity, on an average of two experimental sites, but the distribution proportion to leaves and stem/sheath decreased by 5.85% and 2.75% respectively. After strip rotation, maize intercropped with soybean showed obvious advantages even at early growing stage due to the effects of preceding crops on soil nutrients and relay intercropping advantage, with an increase of 11.85% in A and 11.84% in AE on average at maturity. During the key period of nitrogen accumulation, maize nitrogen accumulation was significantly higher when intercropped with soybean under low-nitrogen treatment than that when intercropped with sweet potato. However the results were insignificant or even opposite under high-nitrogen treatment. So did the results of nitrogen partial factor productivity (NPFP), nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE), and NRE. NAE, NRE and nitrogen distribution proportion to grain of maize were significantly higher in the treatment with nitrogen application of 180 kg ha-1 when intercropped with soybean, and in the treatment of 180-270 kg ha-1 when intercropped with sweet potato.After flowering stage, nitrogen assimilation amount after anthesis (AANAA) in maize/soybean was higher than that in maize/sweet potato significantly; consequently, nitrogen transfer (NT) and AANAA were higher in both intercropping systems with nitrogen application of 180-270 kg ha-1.

      Morphological and Physiological Traits of Root in Different Drought Resistant Peanut Cultivars
      LI Guang-Hui, WAN Yong-Shan*, LIU Feng-Zhen,ZHANG Kun
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(03):  531-541.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.00531
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      Drought stress is a serious constraint for peanut production worldwide. It is necessary to identify the drought resistance mechanisms of different peanut cultivars in drought-resistance breeding. Under the artificial water control condition, the peanut root morphological and physiological characteristics under drought stress at seedling stage and pod-setting stage were studied using 12 different drought-resistance peanut cultivars as material. The results showed that drought resistance at seedling stage was basically identical with that at pod-setting stage. According to yield-drought resistance coefficient, 12 peanut cultivars were divided into three grades: high-resistance, including A596, Shanhua 11, and Rugaoxiyangsheng; mid-resistance, including Huayu 20, Nongda 818, Haihua 1, Shanhua 9, and 79266; and weak-resistance, including ICG6848, Baisha 1016, Hua 17, and Penglaiyiwohou. In those peanut cultivars, Shanhua11 can be used as the standard cultivar for high drought resistance identification, and 79266 as the standard cultivar for weak one. The root drought resistance mechanism of 12 peanut cultivars were different, Shanhua 9, Shanhua11 and Huayu 20 presented a larger biomass and strong absorption capacity, while A596, Nongda 818, Shanhua 11 and Rugaoxiyangsheng had strong antioxidant capacity and membrane stability under drought stress. Correlations between drought resistance and root weight, volume, total absorption area per plant, root superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content under serious drought stress were significant, also under control condition. Therefore, under drought stress of 40% RWC for 10 to 24 d after germination, the root weight, volume, total absorption area per plant, SOD activity and MDA content could be used for identifies the drought resistance ability of peanut roots, the resistances degree also can be reflected by the indices above under normal water condition. Shanhua 11 can be used as a suitable standard cultivar for root morphological and physiological drought resistance characteristics identification in peanut

      Screening and Evaluation Indicators for Low Potassium-Tolerant and Potassium Efficient Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) Varieties (Lines)
      TANG Zhong-Hou,ZHANG Yun-Gang,WEI Meng,CHEN Xiao-Guang,SHI Xin-Min,ZHANG Ai-Jun,LI Hong-Min,DING Yan-Feng
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(03):  542-549.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.00542
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      Potassium (K) uptake and utilization are closely related to plant growth and storage root formation of sweetpotato. In this paper, 31 good quality sweetpotato varieties (lines), NP plot (treatment of nitrogen and phosphorus) and NPK plot (treatment of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) were used to screen low K-tolerant and K efficient sweetpotato varieties (lines) in a long-term fertilization plots. The results showed that there was a significant difference (P<0.05) among storage root yield of sweetpotato varieties (lines). The variation of K sensitivity index (relative root weigh, RRW) was from 0.40 to 0.98, with a significant difference (P<0.05). Varieties (lines) were divided into four types (low sensitive, moderately sensitive, sensitive and highly sensitive) by cluster analysis. There were significant differences of total K accumulation amount (TKAA) and K concentration under two treatments of varieties (lines). Under NPK treatment, K utilization efficiencies (KUE) of root and whole plant were from 58.92 to 384.9 g g–1 and from 42.03 to 165.52 g g–1 with significant difference between these materials (P<0.05), respectively. Correlation analysis showed that there were some correlations of TKAA, K concentration, root yield, KUE, and RRW among varieties (lines). It is a feasible method for screening different fertilization efficiency sweetpotato varieties (lines) through long-term fertilization experiment. KUE and RRW as two major indicators can be used for screening low potassium (K)-tolerant and K efficient sweetpotato materials.
      HC-Pro Gene Segment Mediated Hyper-Resistance to Turnip mosaic virus
      YE Yan-Ying,ZENG Gang,CAO Ming-Qing,MA Rong-Cai,WU Cai-Jun,YAO Lei
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(03):  550-555.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.00550
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       TuMV (turnip mosaic virus) is one of the most major viruses in important economic crops, with broadest known hosts, especially for cruciferous plants. In order to get durable and stable high resistance to TuMV, in this study a 453 bp segment of TuMV HC-Pro gene was chosen as the target to construct pBBBTu-HC-Pro, and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana, the TuMV nature host. Transgenic plants were inoculated with TuMV strain BJ-C4, which has high pathogenicity and is mainly epidemic in Beijing area. In 13 investigated transgenic lines, four lines showed hyper-resistance to TuMV. The resistance was enhanced 80%, and inherited to progenies. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and quantitative PCR results revealed that the accumulation of virus was hardly to detect in highly resistant transgenic plants, indicating the resistance is prominent. The plasmid pBBBTu-HC-Pro should have broad applicability in crop breeding of TuMV resistance engineering.

      Effects of Sugarcane-Soybean Intercropping and Reduced Nitrogen Application on Yield and Major Agronomic Traits of Sugarcane
      YANG Wen-Ting,LI Zhi-Xian,LAI Jian-Ning,WU Peng,ZHANG Ying,WANG Jian-Wu
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(03):  556-562.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.00556
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      Sugarcane-soybean intercropping pattern is gradually popularized and applied in China. Three years continuous (2009–2011) field experiments were conducted in South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou to investigate the effect of sugarcane-soybean intercropping systems on yield and major agronomic traits of sugarcane. Experiments with randomized block design included six treatments with two rates of N fertilizer (reduced nitrogen application, 300 kg ha–1; normal nitrogen application, 525 kg ha–1) and three cropping patterns [sugarcane monocropping, sugarcane-soybean (1:1) intercropping, sugarcane/soybean (1:2) intercropping]. The results showed that nitrogen rates had no effect on sugarcane yield and agronomic traits in 2009–2011. Compared with sugarcane monocropping, sugarcane-soybean intercropping obviously reduced sugarcane yield only in 2010, and no significant influence in sugercane yield in 2009, 2011 as well as average of the three years. Cropping patterns had no significant influence on plant height in 2009–2011. Compared with sugarcane monoculture, sugarcane-soybean intercropping obviously reduced the sugarcane millable stalks in 2009, significantly increased sugarcane stem diameter and yield per plant in 2011. Sugarcane yield had positive correlation with yield per plant, millable stalks and plant height. Sugarcane yield had highly significant positive correlation with yield per plant in sugarcane/soybean (1:2) intercropping (P<0.01). Sugarcane yield had notable correlation with millable stalks in sugarcane/soybean (1:2) intercropping under reduced nitrogen application (P<0.05). In conclusion, reduced nitrogen application and intercropping patterns had no negative influence on sugarcane agronomic traits in 2009–2011, and significant effect on sugarcane yield based on average values of the three years. Sugarcane-soybean intercropping with reduced nitrogen application is feasible in practice in consideration of saving cost and sustaining sugarcane yield.

      Effects of Nutrient Expert Recommend Fertilization on Yield and Fertilizer Efficiency of Summer Maize in Fluvo-Aquic Soil
      WANG Yi-Lun,SU Rui-Guang,LIU Ju,HAN Yan-Lai,LU Yan-Li,BAI You-Lu,TAN Jin-Fang
      Acta Agron Sin. 2014, 40(03):  563-569.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.00563
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      Maize (Zea mays L.) is the largest grain crop, and plays an important role in ensuring the food security in China. However, there exist some problems in summer maize production such as excessive or unreasonable N, P2O5 and K2O ratios, which hinders the realization of high-yield. In order to realize the scientific fertilization of summer maize in the fluvo-aquic soil region, field experiments were conducted to study the effects of nutrient expert recommend fertilization on yield, economic benefit, nutrient accumulation and fertilizer use efficiency of summer maize. The results showed that yield was increased by 6.55%–39.32% and 5.53%–21.19% in 2010 and 2011 respectively in the treatment of applying fertilizer. Compared with conventional fertilizer application, the nutrient expert and Agro Services International Inc recommend fertilization increased grain yield by 4.06% and 5.04%, and economic benefit by 21.90% and 27.44%. The agronomic efficiency of N, P2O5, and K2O was 11.46, 25.89, and 9.93 kg kg-1, and fertilizer use efficiency was 41.13%, 31.48%, and 50.35%, respectively, the partial factor productivity from applied fertilizer was 36.62 kg kg-1, based on the nutrient expert recommend fertilization. Fertilizer application recommended by the nutrient expert increased the content of leaf chlorophyll, the accumulation of N, P, K, and dry matter in summer maize. In conclusion, the nutrient expert can be used to recommend fertilizer application in this area and increase production and fertilizer use efficiency.

the Crop Science Society of China
the Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
China Science Publishing & Media Ltd.
Published: Science Press
Editor-in-chief: Wan Jian-min
Associate Editors-in-Chief:
Chen Xiao-ya Yang Jian-chang Zhang Xian-long Wang Jian-kang Xu Ming-liang Liu Chun-ming Wang Dao-wen Sun Chuan-qing Ding Yan-feng Jin Wei-wei Chu Cheng-cai Cheng Wei-hong
Director of the editorial department:
Cheng Wei-hong
CN 11-1809/S
ISSN 0496-3490
Post subscription code: 82-336

  • Started in 2013
  • Covered by SCIE
  • Open access in ScienceDirect

Editor in chief: Wan Jian-min
CN 10-1112/S
ISSN 2095-5421, 2214-5141(online)
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E-mail: cropjournal@caas.cn
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